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Temperature Measurement Technique for Stabilizing the Light Output of RGB LED Lamps

Xiaohui Qu,Siu-Chung Wong,Senior Member,IEEE,and Chi K.Tse,Fellow,IEEE

Abstract—The ef?ciency of light-emitting-diode(LED)lights approaches that of?uorescent lamps.LED light sources?nd more applications than conventional light bulbs due to their compact-ness,lower heat dissipation,and real-time color-changing capa-bility.Stabilizing the colors of red–green–blue(RGB)LED lights is a challenging task,which includes color light intensity control using switching-mode power converters,color point maintenance against LED junction temperature change,and limiting LED device temperature to prolong the LED lifetime.In this paper,we present a LED junction temperature measurement technique for a pulsewidth modulation diode forward current controlled RGB LED lighting system.The technique has been automated and can effectively stabilize the color without the need for using expen-sive feedback systems that involve light sensors.Performance in terms of chromaticity and luminance stability for a temperature-compensated RGB LED system will be presented.

Index Terms—Color maintenance,light-emitting-diode(LED) junction temperature measurement,light-emitting-diode(LED) lighting,red–green–blue(RGB)LED,temperature compensation.

I.I NTRODUCTION

C URRENTLY,?uorescent lamps represent the most pop-

ular lighting solution due to their high luminous ef?cacy and low running cost.However,because of their limited pro-grammability,?uorescent lamps cannot meet the requirements of many modern applications.Unlike?uorescent lamps,red–green–blue(RGB)light-emitting diodes(LEDs),with their ca-pability to generate instantly different colors and intensities,are expected to?nd many applications in areas such as biomedical apparatus[1],detector systems[2],liquid-crystal-display back-lighting[3],[4],and general decorative illuminations.Thus, LEDs are expected to become a major kind of light sources in the coming decades[5].

LEDs are direct band-gap semiconductor p-n junction diodes.The band gap of the semiconductor,which was con-trolled by mixing different proportions of the III–V elements from the periodic table,de?nes the light-color frequency of the diode[7].The band gap of the LED may therefore change from time to time during operation,where the junction temperature changes with power dissipation and the ambient temperature. LED junction temperature estimation has been done using a

Manuscript received September2,2008;revised December5,2008.First published September22,2009;current version published February10,2010. This work was supported in part by Hong Kong RGC General Research Fund under Grant PolyU5306/06E.The Associate Editor coordinating the review process for this paper was Dr.Juha Kostamovaara.

The authors are with the Department of Electronic and Information Engi-neering,Hong Kong Polytechnic University,Kowloon,Hong Kong(e-mail: enscwong@http://www.wendangku.net/doc/690fffa5856a561252d36f71.html.hk).

Color versions of one or more of the?gures in this paper are available online at http://www.wendangku.net/doc/690fffa5856a561252d36f71.html.

Digital Object Identi?er10.1109/TIM.2009.2025983linear current driver[8].However,in practice,LEDs are often driven by switching power converters for better ef?ciency, causing dif?culty in measuring signals that were buried in a noisy switching environment.This setup also poses engineering challenges in correcting color drift due to device and tempera-ture variations.

In this paper,we will focus on color drift due to temperature variations.The nonlinearity of the forward driving current to LED light and color output can dramatically be reduced using the pulsewidth modulation(PWM)control of the?xed forward current drive,resulting in a one-step calibration of the device variation compensation at some chosen light intensity outputs. Lacking a proper method of measuring the junction temperature of the LED,a feedback system that uses RGB sensors has been proposed to keep track of the output light intensity to correct temperature variation,which is impossible to measure [9].However,the feedback control uses a light intensity sensor whose value varies as the LED dims down;thus,measuring errors can be quite large when the intensity gets small.Fur-thermore,current technology that uses A/D converters,which have a higher fractional change for a fewer number of voltage representations,makes the system less accurate for a higher dimming factor.LED brightness compensation for temperature and device aging variation has been proposed in[12].However, the work in[12]employs a temperature sensor,which may not give the correct junction temperature of the LEDs,particularly when several LEDs share a common package and heat sink.In this paper,we propose a simple practical technique for color control by measuring the optical and electrical characteristics of the LED during the turn-on duration of the PWM forward driving current.The forward-voltage-to-junction-temperature variation is roughly linear under a?xed driving current.This property has widely been exploited to sense the ambient tem-perature.Thus,temperature compensation can be achieved by instantly detecting the diode forward voltage with some proper noise reduction techniques.

This paper is organized as follows.Section II gives an overview of the RGB LED color-lighting system.A LED diode junction temperature compensation technique is given in Section III.Implementation details of the system are given in Section IV.The performance of the proposed compensation technique is evaluated in Section V.Section VI concludes this paper.

II.O VERVIEW OF RGB LED C OLOR C ONTROL

The data points on the International Commission on Illumi-nation(CIE)1976chromaticity diagram in Fig.1gives the

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Fig.1.Color coordinates of a typical LED with center wavelengths that range from 700nm to 380nm.Adjacent dots are separated by 5nm in center wavelength.LEDs with center wavelengths of 624nm (red),525nm (green),and 465nm (blue)can generate color points such as white,light red,light green,and light blue within the triangle.

color coordinates (u ,v )of typical RGB LEDs with wave-lengths of 380–700nm for a step size of 5nm.The diagram was made in such a way to give an even color perceptible difference for the distance of two color points,independent of the absolute positions of the color points.A color distance of δu v

= (δu )2+(δv )2<0.002is indistinguishable to humans.Errors within this small distance are considered very acceptable for most applications.Mixing the light intensity of the three LEDs with wavelengths of 624,525,and 465nm can produce all colors within the triangle whose corners are at the color coordinates of the RGB LEDs.The color accuracy of light that was mixed by the RGB LEDs is therefore dependent on the following two factors:1)the stability of the color points of the RGB LEDs and 2)the accuracy of the LED-light-dimming method.

The color accuracy at color points of white,light red,light green,and light blue within the triangle in Fig.1will be used for the evaluation of the proposed compensation technique in Section V.

We assume that the light stability of color points of LEDs is largely dependent on the junction temperatures T R ,T G ,and T B of the RGB diodes.Similar to other previous studies [3]–[7],[9],[10],the effects of component aging are ignored here.Such effects can be compensated using a similar technique and by taking into consideration the thermal history in relation to device aging.Alternatively,the aging speed can effectively be controlled by limiting the LED temperatures below a maximum threshold.The aging process,thus,is very slow and does not affect the result of our proposed temperature compensation technique.If desired,it can also be compensated by regular calibrations using additional LED light measurement ?xtures for speci?c applications.

An intended light output is usually expressed in terms of the so-called tristimulus ,which is denoted by X =(X Y Z )t ,and

the dimming factor ,which is denoted by d =(d r d g d b )t and is given by

d =f T (X )

(1)

where f T is a column vector function whose parameters change with T ,which is a column vector of the LED junction temperatures,i.e.,T =(T R T G T B )t .Note that T depends on both d and the ambient temperature.

Without precise information of temperature change inside the LED diode junction,the control of the light output from (1)can only be achieved by a feedback loop that senses the light outputs from the RGB LEDs and adjusts the control parameter d to compensate for the light output drifts as de?ned from f T [9].Indirect temperature compensation techniques,e.g.,sensing the temperature of the heat sink on which the LEDs are mounted [10],[12],may suffer from poor response to the change in temperature [6].Although the method in [6]directly measures the LED forward voltage,it does not use PWM control for simplicity.The method of two-diode driving voltages [2]may cause excessive error in estimating the diode junction temperature and increase the system complexity.Thus,light sensing is still important to ensure high performance.III.T ECHNIQUE OF J UNCTION T EMPERATURE

C OMPENSATION AN

D

E XPERIMENTAL M EASUREMENTS Equation (1)can be highly nonlinear if an inappropriate control method or a working color range or both are used [6].It is widely known that dimming using PWM is preferred over the use of amplitude modulation because of the linear relationship between the duty cycle d and the LED color light output.We have con?rmed this approach by experimental measurement,as shown in Fig.2(a)–(c).The tristimulus X =(X Y Z )t linearly changes with the junction temperature and,hence,with the A/D converted values of RGB diode voltages when drivers operate at a stable duty cycle,as shown in Fig.2(d).In addition,the tristimulus X linearly changes with the duty cycle at a stable junction temperature.Measurement errors due to switching noise and digitization can be reduced by boxcar averaging.Therefore,we can simply measure the aforementioned linear correspondence at several duty cycle values,e.g.,as shown in Fig.2(a)–(c),and accordingly derive the corresponding tristimulus at the other duty cycle values.The linearity of the dependence of RGB lights on the RGB diode voltages makes programming very simple.Moreover,the color points of the LEDs with center wavelengths of 624nm (red),525nm (green),and 465nm (blue)in Fig.1drifts with the increase in junction temperature caused by heat sink temperature are very signi?-cant,as illustrated in Fig.3,where the color variation δu v can be as high as 0.026for a change in heat sink temperature from 30?C to 82?C for the blue LED.

We use the Lamina BL-4000RGB LED light engine [13]to illustrate how essential parameters that were contained in f T of (1)can be found.Each color channel of the RGB LED consists of a series connection of two corresponding color LEDs.The LEDs essentially behave as diodes with a higher cut-in voltage.At a typical driving current of 350mA to each color channel,

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Fig.2.Experimental light tristimulus X versus diode voltage (digital)of (a)red LED light,(b)green LED light,and (c)blue LED light at different duty cycles.Diamonds,circles,and triangles are data points for X ,Y ,and Z ,respectively,and lines are ?tted with the data points.Duty cycles descend from top to bottom with d =1.0to d =0.4,respectively,for each component in X .Note that Z in X of the red light is almost zero and is not shown.(d)Relationships between the actual (two diodes in series connection)diode forward voltage and digital temperature V di for i =r,g,b .The data points are measured using heat sink temperature as a varying parameter,which ranges from 20?C to 75?C,in obtaining the corresponding diode forward voltages (junction temperatures).

the LED produces forward diode voltages of 4.5,6.7,and 7.6V for the RGB channel LEDs,respectively.At this driving cur-rent,they consume a total electrical power of 6.7W and provide a total luminous ?ux of 120lm.At any forward diode voltage below 3V ,the LEDs consume virtually no electrical power.In our experimental setup,a constant current of 330mA during the turn-on duration of the PWM cycle is applied to all the RGB LEDs at ambient temperature.We have measured the data in Fig.2(a)–(c)to obtain X or ,X og ,and X ob versus the diode forward voltages of the LEDs,i.e.,V dr ,V dg and V db ,at (d r d g d b )=(1,1,1),(0.8,0.8,0.8),(0.6,0.6,0.6),and (0.4,0.4,0.4).We use the LED heat sink temperature as the variation parameter.Suf?cient time is allowed for the forward diode voltages to settle down before taking measurements.Thus,the diode forward voltages (junction temperatures)are measured with one-to-one correspondence to the heat sink temperatures.

We will show later in Section IV that the heat sink tempera-ture and junction temperatures indicated by the diode forward voltages can broadly vary,depending on the diode working conditions.

As explained in Section II,the mixed color is therefore given as

??X o

Y o Z o ??=d r ??X or Y or Z or ??+d g ??X og Y og Z og ??+d b ??X ob Y ob Z ob ?

?(2)

where

?

?X oi Y oi Z oi ??=??αi 1V di +αi 2αi 3V di +αi 4αi 5V di +αi 6

?

?(3)

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Fig.3.Evaluation of color points of the LEDs with center wavelengths of 624nm (red),525nm (green),and 465nm (blue),which were marked with small diamonds and change with different heat sink temperatures for a constant-current-driven (a)red,(b)blue,and (c)green LEDs.Lines are least square ?ts of data points using second-degree polynomials.(d)Corresponding drifts of color points relative to the color point at a heat sink temperature of 30?C.Note that the color space of the CIE1976uniform chromaticity scale is used here to give an even perceptual color difference.

with i =r,g,b and αij being the coef?cients of least square ?ts in Fig.2(a)–(c).

X or ,X og ,and X ob are linearly independent;thus,it is always possible to determine a unique d such that (2)is satis?ed.If X or ,X og ,and X ob are temperature invariant and d is well controlled,the light-color output will be very stable,as given in (2).However,the three color bases X or ,X og ,and X ob are temperature dependent,as given in (3).Using (2)and (3),the desired color can be achieved.This technique will be implemented in Section IV and evaluated in Section V.

The transformation of (X,Y,Z )to other CIE color space systems is monotonic.For instance,the relation between XY Z (tristimulus)and u v (chromaticity)is simply

u =

4X

X +15Y +3Z

(4)

v =

9X

X +15Y +3Z

.

(5)

The whole process can automatically be done with the help of a well-calibrated visible-light spectrometer.

IV .I MPLEMENTATION OF RGB LED J UNCTION T EMPERATURE M EASUREMENT T ECHNIQUE

IN L IGHT -C OLOR S TABILIZATION

The Lamina BL-4000RGB LED light engine is selected for detailed study and illustration.We use switching converters as LED drivers to improve the power ef?ciency.Each RGB light channel is separately driven by a current-controlled switch-ing converter,as shown in Fig.4.The switching converter essentially behaves as a current source whose magnitude is

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Fig.4.Switching converter with PWM control as the constant current

driver.

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Fig.5.Schematic of the RGB LED color control system.

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controlled by a PWM signal.Our converter is modi?ed from a control IC LT1510designed for battery chargers that operate at a switching frequency of http://www.wendangku.net/doc/690fffa5856a561252d36f71.htmlponent values have been optimized for fast transient of the output current under a PWM gate pulse V PWM ,which is applied at a frequency of 200Hz to the metal–oxide–semiconductor transistor,as shown in Fig.4.

Three identical circuits,each resembling Fig.4,are used for driving the RGB LED channels,the schematic of which is shown in Fig.5.The LED drivers are controlled by the microcontroller PIC18F1320.Fig.6shows a photo of the LED with the microcontroller and power converters.Fig.7shows typical waveforms of the forward voltage across the RGB diodes under a constant current at 330mA,which is pulsewidth modulated for brightness control.The power ?ow of the buck switching power converter in Fig.4is unidirectional.When the current source is turned on,the diode voltage abruptly increases.When the current source is turned off,the small ripple ?ltering capacitor of 0.1μF discharges its energy to the diode.The diode voltage rapidly drops when it is above the diode cut-in voltage,where the diode current is at its high

level.

Fig.6.LED lamp with the LED microcontroller system,which is composed of three PWM current drivers and PIC18F1320control

circuitries.

Fig.7.LED diode forward voltage waveforms.Upper trace:red LED.Middle trace:green LED.Lower trace:blue LED.

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Fig.8.Functional block “level and gain adjustment”of Fig.

5.

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http://www.wendangku.net/doc/690fffa5856a561252d36f71.htmlparison of digital diode forward voltage V di and heat sink temperature.The LEDs are driven by a PWM current of 330mA and a duty cycle of d =0.8.The heat sink temperature is externally controlled for a step change from 25?C to 35?C at t =9s.

When the diode voltage falls below the diode cut-in voltage,the diode current becomes very small.Thus,we observe a slow decay of the diode voltage after the current source is turned off.However,a charge of 0.1μF is small;thus,it negligibly contributes to the brightness of the LEDs.After the current source is turned on,suf?cient time is allowed for the forward diode voltages to settle down.Then,the voltage during the turn-on duration is detected and converted to a digital format suitable for PIC18F1320programming.

During the calibration phase,the digital format of the scaled diode turn-on voltages,as shown in Fig.2(d),is sent from the PIC18F1320to a personal computer through the RS232connection at a rate of 200samples per second.A voltage scaling circuit in Fig.8is used for the functional block “level and gain adjustment.”The scaling relationships are given as

V dr =6328.2V r ?22533(6)V dg =3286.9V g ?17968(7)V db =4577.6V b ?28059

(8)

where V i (i =r,g,b )is the actual diode turn-on voltage

(in volts).

The digital temperature V di (i =r,g,b )that was boxcar averaged for noise reduction is further smoothened using

a

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/690fffa5856a561252d36f71.htmlparison of digital diode forward voltage V di and heat sink temperature.The sampled digital diode forward voltages are shown as dots,and the lines that were superimposed with the dots are calculated using (9).The LEDs are driven by a PWM current of 330mA and a duty cycle of d =0.5.The heat sink temperature is kept at 25?C,whereas a step change from d =0.5to d =0.8is applied to the blue

channel.

Fig.11.Automatic measurement and calibration suite.

simple integrator formula,i.e.,

V di,current =βV di,measured +(1?β)V di,previous

(9)

where the current value of the digital temperature V di,current is taken as the weighted value of the measured one V di,measured and the previously updated one V di,previous ,and βis essen-tially an integration constant that is adjusted to smoothen the averaged waveform.In continuous time,(9)can be written [14]as

dV di (t )dt =ln(1?β)δ

(V di (t )?V di,measured )(10)

where δis the time between measurements.Taking expecta-tion of the aforementioned linear equation gives a noisefree

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Fig.12.Evaluation of output color points,which were marked as small diamonds and change with different heat sink temperatures for set-point colors at (a)light red,(b)light blue,(c)light green,and (d)D65white,marked as small triangles.Lines are least square ?ts of data points using second-degree polynomials.

equation,i.e.,

d ˉV di (t )dt =ln(1?β)δ

ˉV di (t )?ˉV di,measured (11)

which gives ˉV

di (t )?ˉV di,measured =V o exp(?(t/τ)),where τ=?(δ/ln(1?β)),and V o is the disturbance amplitude.Here,we use β=0.05to give a response time constant of τ≈0.1s,as shown in Fig.10.

Then,V di is graphically compared with the measured diode voltages.As illustrated in Fig.9,the waveforms of the heat sink temperature and diode forward voltages indicate that the temperatures of the heat sink and RGB LED junctions broadly vary during transient and converging to different values at a steady state,depending on the values of duty cycles and the heat sink temperature.Fig.10shows that the digital temperatures

of the RGB LEDs broadly vary,although the heat sink is maintained at a temperature of 25?C.The digital temperatures,which are shown as points in Fig.10,are sample points that were taken from the A/D circuitry of the microcontroller.The digital noises are effectively ?ltered out by (9),giving solid lines in Fig.10that essentially follow the trends of the noisy points at the expense of a small time delay.

The computer is also connected to a spectroradiometric sys-tem from Oceanoptics Inc.to measure the absolute or relative irradiance of LED lights [11]through a universal-serial-bus local bus connection,as shown in Fig.11.Then,the Spectra-Suite software calculates tristimulus XY Z ,hue u v w ,and other correlated color parameters from the spectrum distrib-ution.Note that the spectroradiometric system can easily be programmed to automate the measurements.The 18unknown coef?cients in (3)can be calculated from the data that were

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Fig.13.Evaluation of output brightness difference in the Y value,which corresponds to Fig.12.Data points that were shown as triangles,squares,and circles correspond to D65white,light blue,and light red,respectively,with the set point at Y=2600.Data points that were shown as diamonds correspond to light green,with the set point at Y=2000and y-axis at the right.Lines are least square?ts of data points using second-degree polynomials. obtained from this computer-controlled system.The algorithm is given as follows.For each duty cycle value equal to1,0.8, 0.6,and0.4,we measure the tristimulus XY Z that corresponds to the digital diode forward voltage as the LED heat sink is heated up from room temperature to about100?C.The measurement is done for each of the RGB LEDs.The results are shown earlier in Fig.2(a)–(c).

By curve?tting in Fig.2(a)–(c),the coef?cients can be ob-tained as

???X or

Y or

Z or

?

??=

?

??

2.2421?V dr?6832.1

1.0281?V dr?3183.5

0.0?V dr?0.0

?

??(12)

??X og

Y og

Z og

?

?=

?

??

0.020625?V dg+818.925

0.232025?V dg+1695.625

0.039175?V dg+96.865

?

??(13)

??X ob

Y ob

Z ob

?

?=

?

??

0.07005?V db+618.8

?0.01385?V db+590.725

0.406475?V db+3429.75

?

??.(14)

These coef?cients are then used for a test run of color accuracy in the computer.If the color accuracy is within tolerance,they will be programmed into the PIC18F1320for stand-alone real-time control of light colors.

V.E VALUATION

Four color points are chosen to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.We examine the color and bright-ness change with temperature at four different points on the color coordinates—D65white,light red,light green,and light blue—with corresponding CIE1976chromaticity

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coordinates Fig.14.Evaluation of output color difference usingδu v ,which corresponds to Fig.12.Data points that were shown as triangles,squares,circles,and diamonds correspond to D65white,light blue,light red,and light green, respectively.Lines are least square?ts of data points using second-degree polynomials.

at(u ,v )=(0.196,0.469),(0.32,0.51),(0.12,0.53),and (0.17,0.42),respectively,as shown in Fig.1.For about a 50?C change in temperature of the heat sink,the position of color point on the CIE1976u v plane and the brightness in Y value are plotted in Figs.12and13,respectively.The maximum color difference is0.0041,which has been recorded for D65white,as shown in Fig.14.To show the effectiveness of the proposed method in dimming operation,the brightness (Y value)and chromaticity coordinates for three brightness values of D65white have been evaluated and reported in Fig.15 for different heat sink temperatures.The measurement also employs the aforementioned spectroradiometric setup under the same condition so that the experimental results are consistent and reliable.The error is mainly due to switching noise,and the precision of the duty cycle can be made very small by using boxcar averaging,digital?ltering,and a high-bit-resolution timer of the http://www.wendangku.net/doc/690fffa5856a561252d36f71.htmlers can simply input the desired color tristimulus values,and then,the microcontroller system can automatically adjust the duty cycles of RGB LED drivers for stable color light intensity output without the use of any other devices,e.g.,sensors.

VI.C ONCLUSION

Color control is an important issue in the design and man-ufacture of LED lighting systems.Due to device variation, aging,and sensing nonlinearity,achieving color precision and standardization for a large number of LEDs is often a dif?cult task.The use of the measured LED diode turn-on voltage during the ON state of PWM periods has been proposed to stabilize the LED light color.The implementation technique has been outlined and veri?ed by some experimental data.The technique can effectively control the color,dramatically reduce the complexity,and eliminate the need for using expensive feedback systems that involve light sensors.

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Fig.15.Evaluation of (a)output brightness,(b)color coordinate,and (c)δu v at three set points of D65white,which change with different heat sink temperatures.Data points that were shown as triangles,circles,and diamonds correspond to set points at Y =1600,Y =2600,and Y =4200,respectively.

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Xiaohui Qu received the B.Sc.and M.Sc.degrees

in electrical engineering from the Nanjing University

of Aeronautics and Astronautics,Nanjing,China,in

2003and2006,respectively.She is currently work-

ing toward the Ph.D.degree in power electronics

in the Department of Electronic and Information

Engineering,Hong Kong Polytechnic University,

Kowloon,Hong Kong.

From April to August2006,she was an electrical

engineer with the Power System Center,Tyco Elec-

tronics Corporation,Shanghai,China.Her research interests include light-color control for LED lighting applications,power-

factor-corrected switching regulators,and resonant ballast

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converters.

Siu-Chung Wong(M’02–SM’09)received the B.Sc.

degree in physics from the University of Hong Kong,

Hong Kong,in1986,the M.Phil.degree in elec-

tronics from the Chinese University of Hong Kong,

Shatin,Hong Kong,in1989,and the Ph.D.degree

from the University of Southampton,Southampton,

U.K.,in1997.

He is currently an Assistant Professor with the

Department of Electronic and Information Engineer-

ing,Hong Kong Polytechnic University,Kowloon,

Hong Kong.His research interests include power electronics and Internet technologies.

Dr.Wong is a member of the Electrical College,Institution of Engineers,

翻译

Australia.

Chi K.Tse(M’90–SM’97–F’06)received the

B.Eng.(with?rst-class honors)degree in electrical

engineering and the Ph.D.degree from the University

of Melbourne,Melbourne,Vic.,Australia,in1987

and1991,respectively.

He is currently the Chair,a Professor,and the

Head of the Department of Electronic and Informa-

tion Engineering,Hong Kong Polytechnic Univer-

sity,Kowloon,Hong Kong.His research interests

include power electronics,complex networks,and

nonlinear systems.He is the author of Linear Circuit

Analysis(Addison-Wesley1998)and Complex Behavior of Switching Power Converters(CRC Press,2003)and a coauthor of Chaos-Based Digital Commu-nication Systems(Springer-Verlag,2003)and Chaotic Signal Reconstruction with Applications to Chaos-Based Communications(World Scienti?c,2007). He is a coholder of a U.S.patent and two pending patents.He is currently

the Associate Editor for the International Journal of Systems Science and the

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications and a Guest Editor of a few other journals.

Dr.Tse is the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE C IRCUITS AND S YSTEMS

S OCIETY N EWSLETTER and the Associate Editor for the IEEE

T RANSACTIONS ON C IRCUITS AND S YSTEMS—P ART I:R EGULAR P APERS

and the IEEE C IRCUITS AND S YSTEMS M AGAZINE.Since1999,he has been

the Associate Editor for the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON P OWER E LECTRONICS.

From1999to2001,he was the Associate Editor for the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON C IRCUITS AND S YSTEMS—P ART I:F UNDAMENTAL T HEORY AND A PPLICATIONS.In2005,he was an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer.He is the

recipient of the L.R.East Prize from the Institution of Engineers,Australia,in

1987,the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON P OWER E LECTRONICS Prize Paper Award

in2001,and the International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications Best

Paper Award in2003.In2007,he received the distinguished International

Research Fellowship from the University of Calgary,Calgary,AB,Canada.

While with Hong Kong Polytechnic University,he received two President’s

Awards for Achievement in Research,the Faculty’s Best Researcher Award,

the Research Grant Achievement Award,and a few other teaching awards.