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全国自考《英语阅读(一)》历年真题及详解【圣才出品】

2015年10月全国自考《英语阅读(一)》真题及详解

课程代码:00595

I.CAREFUL READING

Read the following passages carefully.Decide on the best answer and blacken the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET.(40points,2points each)

Passage1

Questions1to5are based on the following passage.

A major aspect of psychology called behaviorism developed from research on learning.It was introduced in1913by the American psychologist John B.Watson,who felt psychologists should study observable behavior rather than states of consciousness or thought processes.He believed changes in behavior result from conditioning,a learning process in which a new response becomes associated with a certain stimulus.

Watson's approach to behaviorism was strongly influenced by the research of the Russian physiologist Ivan P.Pavlov during the early1900s.Pavlov’s experiments with animals proved that certain reflex actions can become conditioned responses to entirely new stimuli.For example,a dog's mouth begins to water as a reflex when the animal smells meat.Pavlov rang a bell each time he was about to give meat to a dog.Eventually,the dog’s mouth began to water when Pavlov merely rang the bell.The flow of saliva had become a conditioned response to the ringing of the bell.

Watson demonstrated that responses of human beings could be conditioned in a similar manner. In an experiment,he struck a metal bar loudly each time an infant touched a furry animal.The sound scared the child,who in time became frightened by the mere sight of the animal.Watson felt he could produce almost any response in a child if he were able to control the child’s environment.

During the mid-1900s,the American behavioral psychologist B.F.Skinner became known for his

studies of how rewards and punishments can influence behavior.He believed that rewards,or positive reinforcements,cause behavior to be repeated.Positive reinforcement might include praise,food,or simply a person's satisfaction with his or her own skill.Punishments discourage certain behavior and warn people to avoid situations in which they might be punished.Skinner concluded that positive reinforcement is more effective in teaching new and better behaviors.His work led to the development of teaching machines,which are based on positive reinforcement.

1.In Watson's view,changes in behavior are caused by_____.

A.thought processes

B.mental factors

C.learning processes

D.states of consciousness

2.In the2nd paragraph,the example is used to show that_____.

A.studies of reflex actions began in Russia

B.responses of human beings and animals may both be conditioned

C.responses of human beings to stimuli differ from those of animals

D.reflex actions may become conditioned responses to totally new stimuli

3.It can be inferred from the passage that_____.

A.Watson’s research focus was the control of environment

B.Watson’s approach to behaviorism was close to that of Pavlov

C.Watson’s approach to behaviorism was close to that of Skinner

D.Watson's research is a combination of that of Pavlov and Skinner

4.According to B.F.Skinner,positive reinforcement_____.

A.has the same effect as punishment on children’s behaviors

B.is more likely to bring about better behaviors than punishment

C.is as effective as punishment in teaching children to learn new skills

D.is more effective in avoiding situations leading to repeated behaviors

5.The passage focuses on_____.

A.reflex actions of animals

B.various learning processes

C.different approaches to behaviorism

D.the importance of controlling children

【文章导读】本文主要介绍了20世纪初三个著名的行为主义学家巴甫洛夫、华生和斯金纳以及他们的理论。

【答案及解析】

1.C细节理解题。由第一段最后一句话“He believed changes in behavior result from conditioning,a learning process in which a new response becomes associated with a certain stimulus.”可知,华生认为行为是一个不断的刺激——反应的学习过程。C项符合题意,故选C。

2.D细节理解题。由第二段中间部分“Pavlov’s experiments with animals proved that certain reflex actions can become conditioned responses to entirely new stimuli”可知,巴甫洛夫以狗为实验对象,证明了行为是对新刺激做出的反应,D项符合题意,故选D。

3.B推理判断题。题目问的是我们能从本文中推断出什么,故不能选择文中直接提及的选项,A项在第三段最后一句话有提及,排除A项。由第二段和第三段可知,华生和巴甫洛夫的研究方法相似,只是后者用狗做实验对象,前者用人做实验对象,B项符合题意,故选B。C、D两项的表述错误。

4.B细节理解题。由最后一段结尾“Skinner concluded that positive reinforcement is more effective in teaching new and better behaviors”可知,正强化在激励新行为时更有效。B项符合题意,故选B。

5.C概括大意题。通读全文可知,本文介绍了三个著名的行为主义学家和他们各自的理论及研究方法,本文的主题是行为主义,C项符合题意,故选C。

Passage2

Questions6to10are based on the following passage.

The world perceives people with rich vocabularies to be more creative,more intelligent.People with larger vocabularies get hired quicker and promoted faster.So big winners use rich,full words,but they never sound inappropriate.The phrases slide gracefully off their tongues to enrich their conversation.The words fit.Big players choose words to match their personalities and their points with the same care as they choose their ties or their blouses.

The startling good news is that the difference between a respected vocabulary and a mundane one lies in only about fifty words!You don’t need much to sound like a big winner.A mere few dozen wonderful words will give everyone the impression that you have an original and creative mind.

Acquiring this super vocabulary is easy.All you need to do is to think of a few tired,overworked words you use everyday—words like smart,nice,pretty,or good.Then grab a thesaurus or book of synonyms off the shelf.Look up that common word you are bored hearing yourself utter every day. Examine your long list of alternatives.

For example,you’ve been at a party and it was wonderful.Don’t tell the hosts it was wonderful. Everybody says that.Tell them it was a splendid party,a superb party,an extraordinary party.Hug the hosts and tell them you had a magnificent time,a remarkable time,a glorious time.

Look up some common words you use every day in the thesaurus.Then,like slipping your feet into a new pair of shoes,slip your tongue into a few new words to see how they fit.If you like them, start making permanent replacements.

Remember,only fifty words make the difference between a rich,creative vocabulary and an average,middle-of-the-road one.Substitute a word a day for two months and you’ll be in the verbally elite.

6.“Big winners”at work or“big players”in life are characterized by all the following EXCEPT_____.

A.their being extremely wealthy

B.their appropriate use of words

C.their likelihood to be promoted

D.their appropriate choice of clothes

7.The word“mundane”in the2nd paragraph is closest in meaning to_____.

A.ingenious

B.redundant

C.colorful

D.ordinary

8.Which of the following is regarded by the author as a middle-of-the-roadword?

A.Wonderful.

B.Splendid.

C.Superb.

D.Extraordinary.

9.According to the author,super vocabulary can be acquired through_____.

A.the frequent use of a book of synonyms

B.the frequent use of commonplace words

C.the substitution of short words for long ones

D.the substitution of ordinary words for rich ones

10.The author’s attitude towards people who use rich,full words is_____.

A.favorable

B.critical

C.impartial

D.indifferent

【文章导读】文章主要讲述了说话的技巧,那些在工作、生活中表现出色的人通常都很善于言辞,作者认为这种说话技巧是可以培养的,要学会用丰富多变的同义词替换普通词汇。

【答案及解析】

6.A细节理解题。由第一段中间部分“People with larger vocabularies get hired quicker and promoted faster”和“Big players choose words to match their personalities and their points with the same care as they choose their ties or their blouses”可知,工作中表现出色的人更容易得到升职的机会,他们用词讲究,就和穿衣打扮一样。B、C、D三项均有提及,A项未提及,故选A。

7.D词义猜测题。由下文“All you need to do is to think of a few tired,overworked words you use everyday—words like smart,nice,pretty,or good.”可知,作者建议将生活中常见的、毫无新意的词用别的词替换,由此推断mundane与overworked和tired意思相近,且与respected意思相反,表示“平淡的;平凡的”,与ordinary(平常的)意思相近,故选D。

8.A细节理解题。由第四段中间部分“Don’t tell the hosts it was wonderful.Everybody says that.Tell them it was a splendid party,a superb party,an extraordinary party”可知,作者认为使用wonderful显得平淡无奇,不妨使用它的同义词splendid、superb、extraordinary,所以前者是middle-of-the-road(大众的;中间路线的),故选A。

9.D细节理解题。由倒数第二段末尾“Look up some common words you use every day in the thesaurus.Then,like slipping your feet into a new pair of shoes,slip your tongue into a few new words to see how they fit”可知,作者提供的方法就是说话时多用华丽的词汇去代替普通的词汇,D项符合题意,故选D。

10.A推理判断题。通读全文可知,本文主要是在告诉读者怎样像那些表现出色的人一样,在语言上提升自己,由此推断作者对那些善于言辞的人持赞赏的态度,A项favorable表示“赞成的;赞许的”,符合题意,故选A。

Passage3

Questions11to15are based on the following passage.

Whether it is out of necessity or by choices,for most of us there are periods when much of what we do does not afford us satisfaction.Many students never enjoy exam period;and even in the most engaging workplace,some projects are less interesting than others.

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