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SAT? Practice Test #4

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Test begins on the next page.

11 ReadingTest

65 MINUTES, 52 QUESTIONS

Turn to Section 1 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.

DIRECTIONS

Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading

each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is

stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying

graphics (such as a table or

graph).

Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

This passage is adapted from MacDonald Harris, The

Balloonist. ?2011 by The Estate of Donald Heiney. During

the summer of 1897, the narrator of this story, a fictional

Swedish scientist, has set out for the North Pole in a

hydrogen-powered balloon.

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11

My emotions are complicated and not readily verifiable. I feel a vast yearning that is

simultaneously a pleasure and a pain. I am certain Line of the consummation of this yearning, bu t I don’t

5 know yet what form it will take, since I do not

understand quite what it is that the yearning desires.

For the first time there is borne in upon me the full

truth of what I myself said to the doctor only an hour ago: that my motives in this undertaking are not

10 entirely clear. For years, for a lifetime, the machinery

of my destiny has worked in secret to prepare for this moment; its clockwork has moved exactly toward this time and place and no other. Rising slowly from the

earth that bore me and gave me sustenance, I am

15 carried helplessly toward an uninhabited and hostile,

or at best indifferent, part of the earth, littered with

the bones of explorers and the wrecks of ships, frozen supply caches, messages scrawled with chilled fingers and hidden in cairns that no eye will ever see.

20 Nobody has succeeded in this thing, and many have

died. Yet in freely willing this enterprise, in choosing this moment and no other when the south wind will

carry me exactly northward at a velocity of eight

knots, I have converted the machinery of my

25 fate into the servant of my will. All this I understand,

as I understand each detail of the technique by

which this is carried out. What I don’t understand is

why I am so intent on going to this particular place.

Who wants the North Pole! What good is it! Can

you eat

30 it? Will it carry you from Gothenburg to Malm?

like a railway? The Danish ministers have declared

from their pulpits that participation in polar

expeditions is beneficial to the soul’s eternal w ell-

being, or so I read in a newspaper. It isn’t clear

how this doctrine is to

35 be interpreted, except that the Pole is something

difficult or impossible to attain which must

nevertheless be sought for, because man is

condemned to seek out and know everything

whether or not the knowledge gives him pleasure.

In

40 short, it is the same unthinking lust for knowledge

that drove our First Parents out of the garden.

And suppose you were to find it in spite of all, this wonderful place that everybody is so anxious to stand

on! What would you find? Exactly nothing.

45 A point precisely identical to all the others in a

completely featureless wasteland stretching around it

for hundreds of miles. It is an abstraction, a

mathematical fiction. No one but a Swedish madman

could take the slightest interest in it. Here I am. The

50 wind is still from the south, bearing us steadily

northward at the speed of a trotting dog. Behind us,

perhaps forever, lie the Cities of Men with their teacups

and their brass bedsteads. I am going forth of my own

volition to join the ghosts of Bering and 55 poor

Franklin, of frozen De Long and his men. What I am

on the brink of knowing, I now see, is not an ephemeral

mathematical spot but myself. The doctor was right,

even though I dislike him. Fundamentally I am a

dangerous madman, and what

60 I do is both a challenge to my egotism and a

surrender to it.

Over the course of the passage, the narrator’s

attitude shifts from

A)fear about the expedition to excitement about

it.

B)doubt about his abilities to confidence in

them.

C)uncertainty of his motives to recognition of

them.

D)disdain for the North Pole to appreciation of

it.

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11

Which choice provides the best evidence for

the answer to the previous question? A)

Lines 10-12 (―For . . . moment‖)

B)Lines 21-25 (―Yet . . .will‖)

C)Lines 42-44 (―And . . . stand on‖)

D)Lines 56-57 (―What . . . myself‖)

As used in lines 1-2, ―not readily verifiable‖

most nearly means A) unable to be

authenticated.

B)likely to be contradicted.

C)without empirical support.

D)not completely understood.

4

The sentence in lines 10-13 (―For years . . . other‖) mainly serves to

A)expose a side of the narrator that he prefers to keep

hidden.

B)demonstrate that the narrator thinks in a methodical

and scientific manner.

C)show that the narrator feels himself to be influenced

by powerful and independent forces.

D)emphasize the length of time during which

thenarrator has prepared for his expedition.

5

The narrator indicates that many previous explorers

seeking the North Pole have A) perished in the

attempt.

B)made surprising discoveries.

C)failed to determine its exact location.

D)had different motivations than his own.

6

Which choice provides the best evidence for the

answer to the previous question? A) Lines 20-21

(―Nobody . . . died‖)

B)Lines 25-27 (―All . . . out‖)

C)Lines 31-34 (―The . . . newspaper‖)

D)Lines 51-53 (―Behind . . . bedsteads‖)

7

Which choice best describes the narrator’s view of his

expedition to the North Pole? A) Immoral but

inevitable

B)Absurd but necessary

C)Socially beneficial but misunderstood

D)Scientifically important but hazardous

The question the narrator asks in lines 30-31

(―Will it . . . railway‖) most nearly implies that

A)balloons will never replace other modes of

transportation.

B)the North Pole is farther away than the cities

usually reached by train.

C)people often travel from one city to another

without considering the implications.

D)reaching the North Pole has no foreseeablebenefit

to humanity.

As used in line 49, ―take the slightest interest in‖ most

nearly means A) accept responsibility for.

B)possess little regard for.

C)pay no attention to.

D)have curiosity about.

10

As used in line 50, ―bearing‖ most nearly means

A)carrying.

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11

B)affecting.

C)yielding.

D)enduring.

Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

This passage is adapted from Alan Ehrenhalt, The Great

Inversion and the Future of the American City. ?2013

by Vintage. Ehrenhalt is an urbanologist—a scholar of

cities and their development. Demographic inversion

is a phenomenon that describes the rearrangement of

living patterns throughout a metropolitan area.

We are not witnessing the abandonment of the

suburbs, or a movement of millions of people back to the city all at once. The 2010 census certainly did

not

Line turn up evidence of a middle-class stampede to the 5 nation’s cities. The news was mixed: Some of the

larger cities on the East Coast tended to gain

population, albeit in small increments. Those in

the Midwest, including Chicago, tended to lose

substantial numbers. The cities that showed gains

in

10 overall population during the entire decade tended to

be in the South and Southwest. But when it comes

to measuring demographic inversion, raw census

numbers are an ineffective blunt instrument. A

closer look at the results shows that the most

powerful

15 demographic events of the past decade were the

movement of African Americans out of central

cities (180,000 of them in Chicago alone) and the

settlement of immigrant groups in suburbs, often

ones many miles distant from downtown.

20 Central-city areas that gained affluent residents in

the first part of the decade maintained that

population in the recession years from 2007 to

2009. They also, according to a 2011 study by

Brookings, suffered considerably less from

increased

25 unemployment than the suburbs did. Not many

young professionals moved to new downtown

condos in the recession years because few such

residences were being built. But there is no

reason to believe that the demographic trends

prevailing prior 30 to the construction bust will not resume once that

bust is over. It is important to remember that

demographic inversion is not a proxy for population

growth; it can occur in cities that are growing, those

whose numbers are flat, and even in those 35

undergoing a modest decline in size.

America’s major cities face enormous fiscal

problems, many of them the result of public pension obligations they incurred in the more prosperous

years of the past two decades. Some, Chicago

40 prominent among them, simply are not producing

enough revenue to support the level of public

services to which most of the citizens have grown

to feel entitled. How the cities are going to solve

this

problem, I do not know. What I do know is that if

45 fiscal crisis were going to drive affluent

professionals out of central cities, it would have

done so by now.

There is no evidence that it has.

The truth is that we are living at a moment in

which the massive outward migration of the

affluent

50 that characterized the second half of the twentieth

century is coming to an end. And we need to

adjust our perceptions of cities, suburbs, and

urban mobility as a result.

Much of our perspective on the process of

55 metropolitan settlement dates, whether we realize

it or not, from a paper written in 1925 by the

University of Chicago sociologist Ernest W.

Burgess. It was Burgess who defined four

urban/suburban zones of settlement: a central

business district; an

60 area of manufacturing just beyond it; then a

residential area inhabited by the industrial and

immigrant working class; and finally an outer

enclave of single-family dwellings.

Burgess was right about the urban America of

65 1925; he was right about the urban America of

1974.

Virtually every city in the country had a downtown,

where the commercial life of the metropolis was conducted; it had a factory district just beyond; it had

districts of working-class residences just beyond that;

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1 1

70 and it had residential suburbs for the wealthy and the upper middle class at the far end of the continuum. As a family moved up the economic ladder, it also moved outward from crowded working-class districts to more spacious apartments and, 75 eventually, to a suburban home. The suburbs of Burgess’s time bore little resemb lance to those at the end of the twentieth century, but the theory still

essentially worked. People moved ahead in life by

moving farther out. 80 But in the past decade, in quite a few places, this model has ceased to describe reality. There are still downtown commercial districts, but there are no factory districts lying next to them. There are scarcely any factories at all. These close-in parts of

85 the city, whose few residents Burgess described as dwelling in ―submerged regions of poverty, degradation and disease,‖ are increasingly the preserve of the affluent who work in the commercial core. And just as crucially newcomers to America are 90 not settling on the inside and accumulating the resources to move out; they are living in the suburbs from day one.

11

Which choice best summarizes the first paragraph of the passage (lines 1-35)? A) The 2010 census demonstrated a sizeable growth

in the number of middle-class families moving into inner cities. B) The 2010 census is not a reliable instrument for measuring population trends in American cities. C) Population growth and demographic inversion are distinct phenomena, and demographic inversion is evident in many American cities. D) Population growth in American cities has beenincreasing since roughly 2000, while

sat-practice-test-4

suburban populations have decreased. 12 According to the passage, members of which group moved away from central-city areas in large numbers in the early 2000s? A) The unemployed B) Immigrants C) Young professionals D) African Americans 13 I n l i n e 34, ―

f l at‖ is closest in meanin

g to

United States Population by Metropolitan Size/Status, 1980–2010

Chart 1 Chart 2 2010 Population Shares Growth Rates by Metro Size

Adapted from William H. Frey, “Population Growth in Metro America since 1980: Putting the Volatile 2000s in Perspective.” Pub lished 2012 by Metropolita

Policy Program, Brookings Institution. byMetroSize(%) largemetro (>500k) smallmetro (<500k) non-metro

largemetro % 65.6 small metro 18.0 % non- metro 16.4 % 12 10 16 14 8 6 4 2 0 ........................

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11

A)static.

B)deflated.

C)featureless.

D)obscure.

14

According to the passage, which choice best

describes the current financial situation in many

major American cities?

A)Expected tax increases due to demand for

public works

B)Economic hardship due to promises made in

past years

C)Greater overall prosperity due to an increased

inner-city tax base

D)Insufficient revenues due to a decrease in

manufacturing

15

Which choice provides the best evidence for

the answer to the previous question? A)

Lines 36-39 (―America’s . . . decades‖)

B)Lines 43-44 (―How . . . not know‖)

C)Lines 44-46 (―What . . . now‖)

D)Lines 48-51 (―The truth . . . end‖)

16

The passage implies that American cities in 1974

A)were witnessing the flight of minority

populations to the suburbs.

B)had begun to lose their manufacturing sectors.

C)had a traditional four-zone structure.

D)were already experiencing

demographicinversion.

17Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A)

Lines 54-57 (―Much . . . Ernest W. Burgess‖)

B)Lines 58-59 (―It was . . . settlement‖)

C)Lines 66-71 (―Virtually . . . continuum‖)

D)Lines 72-75 (―As . . . home‖)

11

18

As used in line 68, ―conducted‖ is closest

in meaning to A) carried out.

B)supervised.

C)regulated.

D)inhibited.

19

The author of the passage would most likely

consider the information in chart 1 to be

A)excellent evidence for the arguments made in the

passage.

B)possibly accurate but too crude to be truly

informative.

C)compelling but lacking in historical information.

D)representative of a perspective with which

theauthor disagrees.

20

According to chart 2, the years 2000–2010 were

characterized by

A)less growth in metropolitan areas of all sizes

than had taken place in the 1990s.

B)more growth in small metropolitan areas than in

large metropolitan areas.

C) a significant decline in the population of small

metropolitan areas compared to the 1980s.

D)roughly equal growth in large metropolitan

areasand nonmetropolitan areas.

21

Chart 2 suggests which of the following about

population change in the 1990s?

A)Large numbers of people moved from suburban

areas to urban areas in the 1990s.

B)Growth rates fell in smaller metropolitan areas

in the 1990s.

C)Large numbers of people moved from

metropolitan areas to nonmetropolitan areas in

the 1990s.

D)The US population as a whole grew more in

the1990s than in the 1980s.

Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage.

This passage is adapted from Emily Anthes, Frankenstein's

Cat. ?2013 by Emily Anthes.

When scientists first learned how to edit the

genomes of animals, they began to imagine all the

ways they could use this new power. Creating

Line brightly colored novelty pets was not a high priority.

5 Instead, most researchers envisioned far more

consequential applications, hoping to create

genetically engineered animals that saved human

lives. One enterprise is now delivering on this

dream. Welcome to the world of ―pharming,‖ in

which

10 simple genetic tweaks turn animals into living

pharmaceutical factories.

Many of the proteins that our cells crank out

naturally make for good medicine. Our bodies’ own

enzymes, hormones, clotting factors, and antibodies

15 are commonly used to treat cancer, diabetes,

autoimmune diseases, and more. The trouble is that

it’s difficult and expensive to make these

compounds on an industrial scale, and as a result,

patients can face shortages of the medicines they

need. Dairy

20 animals, on the other hand, are expert protein

producers, their udders swollen with milk. So the

creation of the first transgenic animals—first mice,

then other species—in the 1980s gave scientists an

idea: What if they put the gene for a human

antibody

25 or enzyme into a cow, goat, or sheep? If they put the

gene in just the right place, under the control of the

right molecular switch, maybe they could engineer

animals that produced healing human proteins in

their milk. Then doctors could collect medicine by

30 the bucketful.

Throughout the 1980s and ’90s, studies provided proof of principle, as scientists created transgenic

mice, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, and rabbits that did

in fact make therapeutic compounds in their milk.

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11

35 At first, this work was merely gee-whiz, scientific

geekery, lab-bound thought experiments come true.

That all changed with A Tryn, a drug produced by

the Massachusetts firm GTC Biotherapeutics. ATryn is antithrombin, an anticoagulant that can be used to 40 prevent life-threatening blood clots. The compound,

made by our liver cells, plays a key role in keeping our bodies clot-free. It acts as a molecular bouncer, sidling up to clot-forming compounds and escorting them out of the bloodstream. But as many as 1 in 45 2,000 Americans are born with a genetic mutation

that prevents them from making antithrombin. These patients are prone to clots, especially in their legs

and lungs, and they are at elevated risk of suffering from fatal complications during surgery

50and childbirth. Supplemental antithrombin can reduce this risk, and GTC decided to try to manufacture the compound using genetically engineered goats.

To create its special herd of goats, GTC used

55 microinjection, the same technique that produced

GloFish and AquAdvantage salmon. The company’s scientists took the gene for human antithrombin and injected it directly into fertilized goat eggs. Then

they implanted the eggs in the wombs of female

goats.

60 When the kids were born, some of them proved to be transgenic, the human gene nestled safely in their cells. The researchers paired the antithrombin gene with a promoter (which is a sequence of DNA that controls gene activity) that is normally active in the 65 goat’s mammary glands during milk production. When the transgenic females lactated, the promoter turned the transgene on and the goats’ udders filled with milk containing antithrombin. All that was left to do was to collect the milk, and extract and purify 70 the protein. Et voilà—human medicine! And, for GTC, liquid gold. ATryn hit the market in 2006, becoming the world’s first transgenic animal drug. Over the course of a year, the ―milking parlors‖ on

GTC’s 300-acre farm in Massachusetts can collect 75 more than a kilogram of medicine from a single

animal.

22

The primary purpose of the passage is to

A)present the background of a medical

breakthrough.

B)evaluate the research that led to a scientific

discovery.

C)summarize the findings of a long-term research

project.

D)explain the development of a branch of

scientificstudy.

23

The author’s attitude toward pharming is best

described as one of A) apprehension.

B) ambivalence. C)

appreciation.

D) astonishment.

24

As used in line 20, ―expert‖ most nearly means

A) knowledgeable.

B)professional.

C)capable.

D)trained.

25

What does the author suggest about the transgenic

studies done in the 1980s and 1990s?

A)They were limited by the expensive nature of

animal research.

B)They were not expected to yield products ready

for human use.

C)They were completed when an anticoagulant

compound was identified.

D)They focused only on the molecular properties

ofcows, goats, and sheep.

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11

26

Which choice provides the best evidence for

the answer to the previous question? A) Lines

16-19 (―The trouble. . . need‖)

B)Lines 25-29 (―If they . . . milk‖)

C)Lines 35-36 (―At first . . . true‖)

D)Lines 37-40 (―That all . . . clots‖)

27

According to the passage, which of the following is true of antithrombin?

A)It reduces compounds that lead to blood clots.

B)It stems from a genetic mutation that is rare in

humans.

C)It is a sequence of DNA known as a promoter.

D)It occurs naturally in goats’ mammary glands.

28

Which choice provides the best evidence for

the answer to the previous question? A) Lines

12-16 (―Many . . . more‖)

B)Lines 42-44 (―It acts . . . bloodstream‖)

C)Lines 44-46 (―But as . . . antithrombin‖)

D)Lines 62-65 (―The researchers . . . production‖)

29

Which of the following does the author suggest

about the ―female goats‖ mentioned in line 59?

A)They secreted antithrombin in their milk after

giving birth.

B)Some of their kids were not born with the

antithrombin gene.

C)They were the first animals to receive

microinjections.

D)Their cells already contained genes usually

foundin humans. 30

The most likely purpose of the parenthetical

information in lines 63-64 is to A)

illustrate an abstract concept.

B)describe a new hypothesis.

C)clarify a claim.

D)define a term.

31

The phrase ―liquid gold‖ (line 71) most directly

suggests that

A)GTC has invested a great deal of money in the

microinjection technique.

B)GTC’s milking parlors have significantly

increased milk production.

C)transgenic goats will soon be a valuable asset for

dairy farmers.

D)ATryn has proved to be a financially

beneficialproduct for GTC.

Questions 32-41 are based on the following passages.

Passage 1 is adapted from Edmund Burke, Reflections on the

Revolution in France. Originally published in 1790. Passage

2 is adapted from Thomas Paine, Rights of Man. Originally

published in 1791.

Passage 1

To avoid . . . the evils of inconstancy and

versatility, ten thousand times worse than those of

obstinacy and the blindest prejudice, we have

Line consecrated the state, that no man should approach

5 to look into its defects or corruptions but with due

caution; that he should never dream of beginning its

reformation by its subversion; that he should

approach to the faults of the state as to the wounds

of a father, with pious awe and trembling solicitude.

By

10 this wise prejudice we are taught to look with horror

on those children of their country who are prompt

rashly to hack that aged parent in pieces, and put

him into the kettle of magicians, in hopes that by

their poisonous weeds, and wild incantations, they

may

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11 15 regenerate the paternal constitution, and renovate

their father’s life.

Society is indeed a contract. Subordinate contracts for objects of mere occasional interest may be dissolved at pleasure—but the state ought not to

be

20 considered as nothing better than a partnership

agreement in a trade of pepper and coffee, calico or tobacco, or some other such low concern, to be

taken up for a little temporary interest, and to be

dissolved by the fancy of the parties. It is to be

looked on with

25 other reverence; because it is not a partnership in

things subservient only to the gross animal

existence of a temporary and perishable nature. It is

a partnership in all science; a partnership in all art; a

partnership in every virtue, and in all perfection.

30 As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained

in many generations, it becomes a partnership not

only between those who are living, but between

those who are living, those who are dead, and those who are to be born. . . . The municipal corporations

of

35 that universal kingdom are not morally at liberty at

their pleasure, and on their speculations of a

contingent improvement, wholly to separate and

tear asunder the bands of their subordinate

community, and to dissolve it into an unsocial,

uncivil,

40 unconnected chaos of elementary principles.

Passage 2

Every age and generation must be as free to act

for itself, in all cases, as the ages and generations which preceded it. The vanity and presumption of governing beyond the grave, is the most ridiculous 45 and insolent of all tyrannies.

Man has no property in man; neither has any generation a property in the generations which are to follow. The Parliament or the people of 1688, or of

any other period, had no more right to dispose of the 50 people of the present day, or to bind or to control

them in any shape whatever, than the parliament or

the people of the present day have to dispose of, bind, or control those who are to live a hundred or a

thousand years hence.

55 Every generation is, and must be, competent to all

the purposes which its occasions require. It is the

living, and not the dead, that are to be

accommodated. When man ceases to be, his power

and his wants cease with him; and having no longer

60 any participation in the concerns of this world, he has

no longer any authority in directing who shall be its

governors, or how its government shall be organized,

or how administered. . . .

Those who have quitted the world, and those who

65 are not yet arrived at it, are as remote from each other,

as the utmost stretch of mortal imagination can

conceive. What possible obligation, then, can exist

between them; what rule or principle can be laid

down, that two nonentities, the one out of existence,

70 and the other not in, and who never can meet in this

world, that the one should control the other to the end

of time? . . .

The circumstances of the world are continually changing, and the opinions of men change also; and

75 as government is for the living, and not for the dead,

it is the living only that has any right in it. That which

may be thought right and found convenient in one age,

may be thought wrong and found inconvenient in

another. In such cases, who is to 80 decide, the living, or

the dead?

32

In Passage 1, Burke indicates that a contract between

a person and society differs from other contracts

mainly in its A) brevity and prominence.

B)complexity and rigidity.

C)precision and usefulness.

D)seriousness and permanence.

33

As used in line 4, ―state‖ most nearly refers to a A)

style of living.

B)position in life.

C)temporary condition.

D)political entity.

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34

As used in line 22, ―low‖ most nearly

means A) petty. B) weak.

C)inadequate.

D)depleted.

35

It can most reasonably be inferred from Passage 2 that Paine views historical precedents as

A)generally helpful to those who want to change

society.

B)surprisingly difficult for many people to

comprehend.

C)frequently responsible for human progress.

D)largely irrelevant to current political decisions. 36

How would Paine most likely respond to Burke’s

statement in lines 30-34, Passage 1 (―As the . . .

born‖)?

A)He would assert that the notion of a partnership

across generations is less plausible to people of

his era than it was to people in the past.

B)He would argue that there are no politically

meaningful links between the dead, the living,

and the unborn.

C)He would question the possibility that

significant changes to a political system could

be accomplished within a single generation.

D)He would point out that we cannot know

whatjudgments the dead would make about

contemporary issues.

37

Which choice provides the best evidence for

the answer to the previous question? A) Lines

41-43 (―Every . . . it‖)

B)Lines 43-45 (―The vanity . . . tyrannies‖)

C)Lines 56-58 (―It is . . . accommodated‖)

D)Lines 67-72 (―What . . . time‖)

38

Which choice best describes how Burke would most

likely have reacted to Paine’s remarks in the final

paragraph of Passage 2?

A)With approval, because adapting to new events

may enhance existing partnerships.

B)With resignation, because changing

circumstances are an inevitable aspect of life.

C)With skepticism, because Paine does not

substantiate his claim with examples of

governments changed for the better.

D)With disapproval, because changing

conditionsare insufficient justification for

changing the form of government.

39

Which choice provides the best evidence for

the answer to the previous question? A) Lines

1-4 (―To avoid . . . state‖)

B)Lines 7-9 (―he should . . . solicitude‖)

C)Lines 27-29 (―It is . . . perfection‖)

D)Lines 34-38 (―The municipal . . . community‖)

40

Which choice best states the relationship between

the two passages?

A)Passage 2 challenges the primary argument of

Passage 1.

B)Passage 2 advocates an alternative approach to a

problem discussed in Passage 1.

C)Passage 2 provides further evidence to support

an idea introduced in Passage 1.

D)Passage 2 exemplifies an attitude promoted

inPassage 1.

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41

The main purpose of both passages is to

A)suggest a way to resolve a particular political

struggle.

B)discuss the relationship between people and their

government.

C)evaluate the consequences of rapid political

change.

D)describe the duties that governments have totheir

citizens.

11

Questions 42-52 are based on the following passage

and supplementary material.

This passage is adapted from Carolyn Gramling, “Source of

Mysterious Medieval Eruption Identified.” ?2013 by

American Association for the Advancement of Science.

About 750 years ago, a powerful volcano erupted somewhere on Earth, kicking off a centuries-long cold snap known as the Little Ice Age. Identifying the Line volcano responsible has been tricky.

5 That a powerful volcano erupted somewhere in the

world, sometime in the Middle Ages, is written in

polar ice cores in the form of layers of sulfate

deposits and tiny shards of volcanic glass. These

cores suggest that the amount of sulfur the mystery 10 volcano sent into the stratosphere put it firmly

among the ranks of the strongest climate-perturbing eruptions of the current geological epoch, the

Holocene, a period that stretches from 10,000 years ago to the present. A haze of stratospheric sulfur

15 cools the climate by reflecting solar energy back

into space.

In 2012, a team of scientists led by geochemist Gifford Miller strengthened the link between the

mystery eruption and the onset of the Little Ice Age 20 by using radiocarbon dating of dead plant material from beneath the ice caps on Baffin Island and Iceland, as well as ice and sediment core data, to determine that the cold summers and ice growth began abruptly between 1275 and 1300 C.E. (and 25 became intensified between 1430 and 1455 C.E.). Such a sudden onset pointed to a huge volcanic eruption injecting sulfur into the stratosphere and starting the cooling. Subsequent, unusually large and frequent eruptions of other volcanoes, as well as

30 sea-ice/ocean feedbacks persisting long after the

aerosols have been removed from the atmosphere,

may have prolonged the cooling through the 1700s.

V olcanologist Franck Lavigne and colleagues now think they’ve identified the volcano in question: 35 Indonesia’s Samalas. One line of evidence, they note, is historical records. According to Babad Lombok, records of the island written on palm leaves in Old Javanese, Samalas erupted catastrophically before the end of the 13th century, devastating surrounding 40 villages—including Lombok’s capital at the time, Pamatan—with ash and fast-moving sweeps of hot rock and gas called pyroclastic flows.

The researchers then began to reconstruct the formation of the large, 800-meter-deep caldera [a

45 basin-shaped volcanic crater] that now sits atop the

volcano. They examined 130 outcrops on the flanks of

the volcano, exposing sequences of pumice—ash

hardened into rock—and other pyroclastic material.

The volume of ash deposited, and the estimated

50 height of the eruption plume (43 kilometers above sea

level) put the eruption’s magnitude at a minimum of

7 on the volcanic explosivity index (which has a

scale of 1 to 8)—making it one of the largest known

in the Holocene.

55 The team also performed radiocarbon analyses on

carbonized tree trunks and branches buried within the

pyroclastic deposits to confirm the date of the eruption;

it could not, they concluded, have happened before

1257 C.E., and certainly happened 60 in the 13th century.

It’s not a total surprise that an Indonesian volcano might be the source of the eruption, Miller says. ―An

equatorial eruption is more consistent with the apparent

climate impacts.‖ And, he adds, with sulfate 65

appearing in both polar ice caps—Arctic and

Antarctic—there is ―a strong consensus‖ that this also

supports an equatorial source.

Another possible candidate—both in terms of timing and geographical location—is Ecuador’s

70 Quilotoa, estimated to have last erupted between

1147 and 1320 C.E. But when Lavigne’s team

examined shards of volcanic glass from this volcano,

they found that they didn’t match the chemi cal

composition of the glass found in polar ice cores,

75 whereas the Samalas glass is a much closer match.

That, they suggest, further strengthens the case that

Samalas was responsible for the medieval ―year

without summer‖ in 1258 C.E.

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sat-practice-test-4

answer to the previous question? A) Lines 17-25 (―In 2012 . . . 1455 C.E.‖)

B) Lines 43-46 (―The researchers . . . atop the

volcano‖) C) Lines 46-48 (―They examined . . . material‖) D) Lines 55-60 (―The team . . . 13th century‖) 45

The author uses the phrase ―is written in‖ (line 6) most likely to

A) demonstrate the concept of the hands-on nature

of the work done by scientists. B) highlight the fact that scientists often write about

their discoveries. C) underscore the sense of importance that

scientists have regarding their work.

D) reinforce the idea that the evidence is there

andcan be interpreted by scientists. 46

Where does the author indicate the medieval volcanic eruption most probably was located? A) Near the equator, in Indonesia B) In the Arctic region C) In the Antarctic region D) Near the equator, in Ecuador 47

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A) Lines 1-3 (―About 750 . . . Ice Age‖)

B) Lines 26-28 (―Such a . . . the cooling‖) C) Lines 49-54 (―The volume . . . the Holocene‖) D) Lines 61-64 (―It’s not . . . climate impacts‖) 48

Te m pe rat

ur ev ari ati on

* 1400 1600 1200 Year

EstimatedTemperatureinCentralEngland –1800 2000

1000 CE –*Variationfromthe1961-1990averagetemperature,in°C, representedat0.

AdaptedfromJohnP .Rafferty,“LittleIceAge.”Originallypublished in2011.?2014byEncyclopediaBritannica,Inc.

42

Themainpurposeofthepassageisto describeperiodsinEarth’s recentgeologic

A) history. B) explainthemethodsscientistsusein

radiocarbonanalysis.

C) describeevidencelinkingthevolcanoSamalasto

theLittleIceAge. D)explainhowvolcanicglassformsduringvolcanic

eruptions. 43

Overthecourseofthepassage,thefocusshiftsfrom A) acriticismofascientificmodeltoanewtheory. adescriptionofarecordedeventtoitslikely

B) cause. C) theuseoficecoresamplestoanewmethodof

measuringsulfates. D)theuseofradiocarbondatingtoanexamination

ofvolcanicglass.

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

11

As use d in line 68, the phrase ―Another possible

candidate‖ implies that

A)powerful volcanic eruptions occur frequently.

B)the effects of volcanic eruptions can last for

centuries.

C)scientists know of other volcanoes that erupted

during the Middle Ages.

D)other volcanoes have calderas that are very large.

49

Which choice best supports the claim that Quilotoa

was not responsible for the Little Ice Age? A)

Lines 3-4 (―Identifying . . . tricky‖)

B)Lines 26-28 (―Such a . . . cooling‖)

C)Lines 43-46 (―The researchers . . . atop the

volcano‖)

D)Lines 71-75 (―But . . . closer match‖)

50

According to the data in the figure, the greatest

below-average temperature variation occurred

around what year?

A)1200 CE

B)1375 CE

C)1675 CE

D)1750 CE

51

The passage and the figure are in agreement that

the onset of the Little Ice Age began A) around

1150 CE.

B)just before 1300 CE.

C)just before 1500 CE.

D)around 1650 CE.

52

What statement is best supported by the data

presented in the figure?

A)The greatest cooling during the Little Ice Age

occurred hundreds of years after the temperature

peaks of the Medieval Warm Period.

B)The sharp decline in temperature supports the

hypothesis of an equatorial volcanic eruption in

the Middle Ages.

C)Pyroclastic flows from volcanic eruptions

continued for hundreds of years after the

eruptions had ended.

D)Radiocarbon analysis is the best tool

scientistshave to determine the temperature

variations after volcanic eruptions.

STOP

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only.

Do not turn to any other section.

2

2

Writing and LanguageTest

35 MINUTES, 44 QUESTIONS

Turn to Section 2 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.

DIRECTIONS

Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.

Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole. After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a“NO CHANGE”option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the

passage as it is.

Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.

Ghost Mural

In 1932 the well-known Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros was commissioned to paint a mural on the second-story exterior wall of a historic building in downtown Los Angeles. Siqueiros was asked to celebrate

―América Tropical.‖ He painted the

mural’s first two sections, featuring images of a tropical rainforest and a Maya pyramid, during the day.

Also, to avoid A) NO CHANGE

B) which he accordingly titled C) accordingly he titled it

1

sat-practice-test-4

sat-practice-test-4

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