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辨别强调句、定语从句、主语从句、状语从句

辨别强调句、定语从句、主语从句、状语从

(要点精讲)

一、强调句与各从句的比较

1.强调句与主语从句的比较

强调句将句子中的It is/was … that同时省去,句子仍然成立;而主语从句不能。如:

(1)It was Tom that saw Jane at the movie theater yesterday. 是汤姆昨天在电影院见到简。

本句若将It was及that同时省去为:Tom saw Jane at the movie theater yesterday. 句子同样成立,因此该句是强调句。

(2)It is true that he is a man of few words.

本句若将It is及that同时省去为:true he is a man of few words.,显然句子错误,因此,该句不是强调句,而是主语从句。

2.强调句与定语从句的比较

(1)强调句中的It没有实际意义,It be与that同时去掉后句子仍然成立;而定语从句中的It be与that不可同时省略。

(2)在强调句中连接词只有that、who,并且不可以省略;而在定语从句中一般使用关系代词that,which,who,whom或关系副词when,where,why等,而that在从句中作宾语的时候可以省略。

(3)强调句中可以用副词、介词短语或从句来作被强调的内容;而定语从句的先行词(中心词)一般是名词或名词短语。

比较下列句子

①It is on the island that they spent 10 years.

②It is the island where (on which) they spent 10 years.

解析:①表示地点的名词the island前有介词与其连用,说明它是一个完整的地点状语。如果将it is及that去掉:They spent 10 years on the island.它的意义仍然完整。故此句是强调句。

②表示地点的名词the island前没有介词与其连用,说明它不是一个完整的地点状语。如果将it is去掉:They spent 10 years the island.它的意义不完整。故应选用关系副词where 或on which构成定语从句结构。

比较下列两句

③It is on the date that she went abroad.

④It is the date when (on which) she went abroad.

解析:③分析句子结构可知,在表示时间的名词the date前有介词与其连用,说明它是一个完整的时间状语。如果将it is去掉:She went abroad on the date.它的意义仍然完整。故此句是强调句。

④分析句子结构可知,在表示时间的名词the date前没有介词与其连用,说明它不是一个完整的时间状语。如果将it is去掉:She went abroad the date.它的意义不完整。故应选用关系副词when或on which构成定语从句结构。

3.强调句与状语从句的比较

(1)强调句将句子中的it is/was … that同时省去,句子仍然成立;而状语从句句首的It

本身就是句子的主语,it be及后面的连接词that都不可以去掉。

比较下列三个句子

①It is such an interesting book that we all like it very much.

这是一本如此有趣的书,我们都非常喜欢。

②It is such an interesting book that we all like very much.

一本如此有趣的书,我们都非常喜欢。

③It is such an interesting book as we all like very much.

这就是我们大家都非常喜欢的如此有趣的一本书。

解析:①句若将It is及that同时省去为:such an interesting book we all like it very much.,显然句子错误,因此该句是结果状语从句。

②句将It is及that去掉,句子为:we all like such an interesting book very much.,句子仍然成立,故本句是强调句。

③本句是定语从句,先行词是book,as引导的从句修饰book。

比较下列两句

④It was already morning when he woke up. 当他醒来时,已经是早晨了。

⑤It was the next morning that he woke up. 他在第二天早晨他醒来了。

解析:④句是时间主从复合句,when后面引导的是时间状语从句。

⑤本句是强调句,强调the next morning。

二、错误判断强调句的两种情况

1.将非强调句判为强调句

(1)易混句型:It be+段时间+since…“自从……以来”

该句型中的be动词通常为一般现在时态或现在完成时态,since引导的从句通常是一般过去时态。如果主句是一般过去时,从句则用过去完成时。

例:That was really a splendid(灿烂的,辉煌的) evening. It’s years ______ I enjoyed myself so much.

A.when B.that C.before D.since

答案:D

解析:考查固定句型。本句使用的句型是:It is+一段时间+since引导时间状语从句,表示“自从……有多久了”。由since引导的时间状语从句,如从句中的谓语动词是持续性动词,动作从结束时算起,如从句中的谓语动词是瞬间动词,动作从开始时算起,如:It’s three years since he joined the army.(他参军已经三年了。)本题中的enjoy是持续性动词,所以翻译成:那真是美妙的夜晚,我已有多年没有玩得如此愉快了。选D。

(2)易混句型:It be+点时间+when…“当……的时候,是……”

该句型中的when引导的是一个时间状语从句。be动词的时态没有明确限制,点时间前不加介词。

例:—Did Jack come back early last night?

—Yes. It was not yet eight o’clock ______ he arrived home.

A.before B.when C.that D.until

答案:B

解析:句意:——昨天晚上杰克回来得早吗?——是的。他到家的时候还不到八点。A 项代入句子中句意不对;B项代入句子中句意通顺;C项将It was及that去掉,句子为:He arrived home not yet eight o’clock.,句子不对;D项代入句中句子不对。

(3)易混句型:It be+段时间+before…“多久之后才……”、“……就……”,该句型

主句中be动词的时态常是一般将来时或过去时两种时态,主句中的表语多是long,not long,days,weeks等表示时间段的词或短语。

例:—How long do you think it will be ______ China sends a manmade spaceship to the moon?

—Perhaps two or three years.

A.when B.until C.that D.before

答案:D

解析:句意:——你认为多久之后中国会将人造宇宙飞船送到月球?——可能两到三年。It be+段时间+before…表示“多久之后才……”,其它项代入句中意思不对。

2.将强调句判为非强调句

有些强调句型由于句子本身有一定的特殊性,比如是强调句的特殊疑问句形式,强调句中有情态动词或复杂时态等,强调句中的被强调成分过于复杂,强调句与其他从句混杂在一起,等等,这都可能掩盖强调句型的本来面目,从而导致误判。如:

(1)When was ______ that the general manager left for Japan?

A.he B.it C.that D.since

答案:B

解析:强调句的特殊疑问句形式,可视为It was +时间状语+ that the general left for Japan 的特殊疑问句形式。

(2)It might have been John ______ bought a present for Mary yesterday.

A.that B.when C.what D.which

答案:A

解析:本句为强调句型,只是句中有情态动词might,将It、have been去掉,句子为:John bought a present for Mary yesterday.,句子仍然完整。

(3)It was what he meant rather than what he said ______ annoyed(使恼怒) me.

A.which B.as C.what D.that

答案:D

解析:强调句型,被强调部分为what he meant rather than what he said,句意:让我生气的不是他说的话,而是他话中的意思。

(4)It was just in this room ______ he was born ______ he did.

A.where, which B.that, that C.where, that D.which, that

答案:C

解析:强调句型,被强调成分是in this room,where he was born是修饰room的定语从句。

(5)It was lack of money, not of effort, ______ defeated their plan.

A.which B.as C.that D.what

答案:C

解析:强调句型,被强调成分为lack of money, not of effort。

(典例剖析)

【例题1】—Where did you get to know her?

—It was on the farm ______ we worked.

A.that B.there C.which D.where

【答案】D

【解析】考查定语从句和强调句型。本题较难,考生容易错选A项,认为是一个强调句型。实际上where we worked是一个定语从句修饰先行词the farm,在句子最后还省略了强调句型的后半句that I got to know her。句意:——你是在哪里认识她的?——就是在我们工作的农场里我认识了她。故D正确。

【难度】困难

【例题2】It was for this reason ______ her uncle moved out of New York and settled down in a small village.

A.which B.why C.that D.how

【答案】C

【解析】该题为强调句型,而非定语从句,故选C。辨析的关键:强调句型可以通过还原法将其还原,本句还原后为:Her uncle moved out of New York and settled down in a small village for this reason.,故选C项。

【难度】一般

(精题精练)

1.对下面划线部分用强调句进行强调

(1)Did she go swimming in the river?

(2)Who said all the students could answer the question?

(3)I did not realize the blessing of health until I fell ill.

(4)That tower was burnt down in the fire.

【答案】

(1)Was it in the river that she went swimming?

(2)Who was it that said all the students could answer the question?

(3)It was not until I fell ill that I realized the blessing of health.

(4)It was that tower that was burnt down in the fire.

【解析】

(1)划线部分是地点状语,用It be...that...句型强调,根据句子是一般疑问句,所以对地点状语强调仍然是疑问句,时态用一般过去时态,将被强调成分放在it之后,句子的其余成分放在that之后,故是Was it in the river that she went swimming?

(2)划线部分是主语,用It be...that...句型强调,根据句子是特殊疑问句,所以强调句也是特殊疑问句,因为被强调成分是特殊疑问词,所以将特殊疑问词放在句首,将其它成分放在that 之后,故是Who was it that said all the students could answer the question?

(3)句子运用了not...until...句型,而且划线部分是until引导的从句,not...until...的强调句型是It be not until + 被强调成分+that+句子的其余成分,故是It was not until I fell ill that I realized the blessing of health.

(4)划线部分是主语,用It be...that...句型强调,这道题比较容易将主语中的that丢掉,that 是修饰tower的,是被强调成分,强调句型中的that是连接词,也不能去掉。

【难度】一般

2.It was when we were returning home ________I realized what a good feeling it was to have helped someone in trouble.

A.which B.that C.where D.how

【解析】考查强调句型。句意:正是在我们要回到家的时候,我才意识到帮助有困难的人的感觉是多么美妙!强调句型的基本结构为It is/was+被强调部分+that+其他部分。如果强调人,that还可以改为who,但是强调时间或者地点时只能使用that。

【难度】一般

3.—What shall we do to make the movie star’s visit more successful?

—Not much. It is just the hotel to put her up in ______ she is really particular about.

A.where B.what C.which D.that

【答案】D

【解析】强调句,可还原为She is really particular about just the hotel to put her up in.句意:——我们做什么能让这位电影明星的访问更成功?——不需要太多,只需要提供给她特别偏爱的旅馆就行。

【难度】困难

4.It was more than two years ______ the man whose brain had been seriously injured recovered with some consciousness.

A.since B.before C.that D.when

【答案】B

【解析】句意:两年多之后那个大脑严重受伤的人才恢复了一些意识。无法判断句子的类型,可以先将It was去掉,句子变为:the man whose brain had been seriously injured recovered with some consciousness more than two years.,很明显,句子错误;句型It was + 一段时间+ before 表示“一段时间后才……”,故选B。

【难度】一般

5.It was April 29, 2011 _______ Prince William and Kate Middleton walked into the palace hall of the wedding ceremony.

A.that B.when C.since D.before

【答案】B

【解析】句意:2011年4月29日,威廉王子和凯特·米德尔顿走进了婚姻的殿堂。无法判断句子的类型,可以先将It was去掉,句子变为:Prince William and Kate Middleton walked into the palace hall of the wedding ceremony April 29, 2011,很明显,句子不对;It be+点时间

+when…“当……的时候,是……”,符合句意,故选B项。

【难度】困难

6.It won’t be quite a long time ______ your son is back, so don’t be worried.

A.that B.since C.before D.until

【答案】C

【解析】句意:不会很长时间你儿子就回来了,因此不必着急。去掉it be,句子为:your son is back won’t quite a long time.,很明显句子错误,故不是强调句;根据句意,选before。【难度】一般

7.It was two days before my mother flew to New York ________ I arrived home.

A.when B.that C.after D.since

【解析】句意:正是在母亲飞到纽约的前两天我回到了家。根据语境被强调部分是two days before my mother flew to New York,将本句还原为普通句式为I arrived home two days before my mother flew to New York,故选B项。

【难度】较难

8._____is not everybody ____can do it so well.

A.It , all B.It , that C.There, who D.There, that

【答案】B

【解析】句意:不是每个人都能做的这么好。去掉is,句子为:Not everybody can do it so well.,所以句子为强调句型,故选B项。

【难度】一般

9.It worried her a bit _____ her hair was turning grey.

A.while B.if C.that D.whether

【答案】C

【解析】句意:她的头发变得灰白,这让她有点焦急。这里句首的it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的her hair was turning grey,that只起连接作用,没实际意义。

【难度】一般

10.It’s no longer a question now ____ man can land on the moon.

A.that B.which C.whether D.what

【答案】A

【解析】句意:现在人类登陆月球不再是一个问题了。本句是主语从句,句首的it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的man can land on the moon,that只起连接作用,没实际意义。【难度】一般

11.When I try to understand _____that prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes.

A.Why it does B.what it does C.what it is D.why it is

【答案】C

【解析】句意:当我试图去理解是什么让如此多的美国人不是一般人想象中的那么幸福,我发现了两个原因。这是强调句型,其结构是:It was+被强调部分+that/who(人)+其他。判断强调句型的方法是把It was及that这三个词去掉,整个句子不缺成分,意思完整。这里被强调的是疑问词what,因为是宾语从句,所以强调句型应该用陈述语序,what在从句中作主语,why不能作主语,故选C。

【难度】困难

12.It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do ______ benefits our work most.

A.what B.how C.that D.which

【答案】C

【解析】考查强调句型。强调句结构:It is+被强调的部分+that+句子剩下的部分,强调的是主语not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do,只是主语由not...but...来

连接,具有了一定的干扰性。故选C。

【难度】较难

13.It is the picture hanging by my bed ______ often calls up the sweet memories of my school life.

A.where B.when C.which D.that

【答案】D

【解析】句意:是挂在我床边的画让我时常回想起我的学校生活的甜蜜记忆。It is...that...构成强调句结构。判断原则是:把it is及that(或who)三者去掉后,句子的结构仍然完整,此时就是强调句。

【难度】一般

14.—Who is making so much noise?

—______ the children.

A.There are B.They are C.That is D.It is

【答案】D

【解析】句意:——谁在制造那么大的噪音?——是那些孩子们。这里答语是省略句,完整的句子是It is the children that is making so much noise,这是强调句型,其结构是It be+被强调部分+that+其他。判断强调句型的方法是把It be及that去掉,整个句子不缺成分,仍是完整的句子。故选D。

【难度】一般

15.It was only after he had read the papers ______ Mr. Gross realized the task before him was extremely difficult to complete.

A.when B.that C.which D.what

【答案】B

【解析】本题考查强调句型。句意:Gross先生读了这些文件之后才意识到,他面前的这个任务非常难完成。“It is/was+被强调部分+that从句”是一个固定的句式,当被强调的部分是物时,连词只能用that,因此锁定正确答案。

【难度】一般

16.It was with the help of the local guide ______ the mountain climber was rescued.

A.who B.that C.when D.how

【答案】B

【解析】考查强调句型。句意:在当地导游的帮助下,登山者才得以获救。It is/was+被强调部分+that/who(m)是固定的强调句型,被强调的部分无论是人是物,都可以用that;被强调部分如果是人,可以用who或者whom。本句中被强调的部分并不是the local guide,而是介词短语“with the help of the local guide”,所以不能用who,而必须用that。强调句型的关键是要弄清被强调部分是谁,尤其是本题中的local guide离连词太近,很容易被误认为是被强调部分,这样就可能导致选择错误的连词。

【难度】一般

17.It was the culture, rather than the language, ______ made it hard for him to adapt to the new environment abroad.

A.where B.why C.that D.what

【答案】C

【解析】考查强调句型。强调的是句子的主语the culture, rather than the language。句意:是文化而不是语言让他很难适应国外新的环境。强调句型的基本结构是:It is/was+被强调成分+that/who+其他成分,最大的特点是把It is/was...that/who...去掉,句子仍然是成立的。本题即是如此。故C正确。

【难度】一般

18.It’s not doing the things we like, but liking the things we have to do ______ makes life happy. A.that B.which C.what D.who

【答案】A

【解析】考查强调句型。当被强调部分是人的时候,可以使用who或者that,当被强调部分不是人的时候,只能使用that。本句强调的是not...but...组成的一个特殊结构,在句中作主语。句意:不是做我们喜欢的事情,而是喜欢我们不得不做的事情让我们的生活快乐。本句被强调的不是人,所以使用that。故选A。

【难度】一般

19.Was it because Jack came late for school ______ Mr. Smith got angry?

A.why B.who C.where D.that

【答案】D

【解析】本题考查的是特殊句式中强调句的一般疑问句。本题强调的成分较为特殊,强调的是原因状语从句because Jack came late for school。句意:斯密斯先生生气是因为Jack上学迟到吗?故选D。

【难度】较难