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A. purposes

B. secure

C. however

D. convince

E. project

F. failure

G. unfamiliar

H. furthermore

I. community

J. appreciate

K. expert L. appropriate M. conveyed N. engaged O. assure

To be a successful speaker, it is essential for you to know why you are speaking and what you wish to accomplish by your speech. The four most common 1____A___ of speech are to inform, to convince, to move to action, and to entertain. Do you, like a teacher or a/an 2____K___ in a field, wish to make your ideas clear to people

3____G___ with your subject? Or, like a debater, wish to convince the judges or the audience? Or, like a fund raiser for a naturalist foundation, wish to 4____B___ donations or collect cash? Or like a comedian or an after-dinner speaker, wish to entertain? The language and tone that you use must be 5____L___ for you purpose, for your audience, and for the occasion. A speech to the graduating class will have quite different language, tone, and manner of presentation, for example, from information 6___M____ to a group of your friends.7____H___, no matter how talented the speaker is, a talk without adequate preparation is usually a 8____F___. To speak without preparing is to shoot without taking aim. Decide what your aim or objective is; then state it in a complete topic sentence such as “My purpose is to

9___D___ the class that cats as well as dogs should require licenses in our

10___I____.” Make sure that your subject is definite and not too broad. Then you

should write an outline before adding details to it.

1. They are busy, often stressed out, and don’t like to wait and they eat, talk, walk, and

drive fast.

2. If you recognize yourself, you should remember to slow down and take more time for everything.

3. They might seem unfriendly and difficult to get along with.

4. Someone who is a sweetheart, a team player, or a people person may have a Type B personality.

5. People with Type A personality work hard to succeed and to get what they want.

6. As the opposite of Type A personality, the Type B personality is easygoing, patient, and friendly.

7. We should learn to live in the present and stop worrying about the future.

8. People with Type B personality are able to relax and have fun and they live a more balanced life.


1. 许多人认为国际旅游对经济发展有积极作用。(produce … effect on)

Many people believe that international tourism produce positive effects on economic growth

2. 高年级学生可以与新生一起分享他们的经历:如何克服遇到的困难,如何适应新的环境。(adjust …to)

The senior and junior students could share their own experience about how to overcome the difficulty they have ever met, how to adjust to the new environment with the new students.

3. 该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了(It is time …, concerned, take steps)

It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems.

4. 现在,越来越多的人认识到法制教育的重要性。(be aware that …, be of … ) Today an increasing number of people have been aware that law education is of great importance.

5. 应该鼓励年轻人和他们的同龄人交往,发展他们的交际能力。 (communicate with… )

Young people should be encouraged to communicate with their peers and develop their interpersonal skills.


A. raising

B. risk

C. physiologically

D. effect

E. mentally

F. distinct

G. average

H. constant

I. adds

J. pregnant

K. educating L. suppress M. nerves N. relative O. adapts

Mothers who have complained through the centuries that their sons will be the death of them may be right — a study published in the journal Science shows having boys shortens a woman’s life span. Each son takes a(n) 1___G__ of 34 weeks off a woman’s life span, evolutionary biologist Samuli Helle and colleagues at the University of

Turku found. On the other hand, having daughters 2___I__, but only very slightly, to a woman’s life span.

Helle and colleagues looked at birth and marriage records of Sami People(居住在北欧拉普兰地区的人) from 1640 to 1870. “Our results suggest that giving birth to sons had a higher 3____N___ long-term survival cost for mothers than giving birth to and 4__A___ daughters,” they wrote. There could be biological reasons for this. Studies show boys are 5__C___ more demanding to produce — they grow bigger and faster in the womb(子宫), and some studies show it takes a woman longer to get 6___J__ again after having a son than after having a daughter. Testosterone(睾丸激素) produced by the fetus(胎儿) could 7__L___ the mother’s immune(免疫的) system and perhaps make her more reliable(易受影响的)to disease. There could be genetic or social differences among the Sami, who are 8___F__ from their Finnish and Swedish neighbors, Helle said. But he does not think so. “There is no reason to believe that this 9___D__ would be only visible in Sami people,” he said. “Generally, boys get on their mother’s 10___M__ more than girls because they are running around. On the other hand girls are more willing to help their mothers.”

1. So agony advisor Kristy says: “Do not suffer in silence.”

2. The good news is that depression can be successfully treated.

3. It can make it hard to cope with day-to-day living.

4. Nearly everyone moans about being depressed, after a bad day at school.

5. Depression is on the increase in teenagers, and suicide in teen boys is soaring.

6. At its most severe, it can even lead to suicide.

7. If you notice a friend suffering in silence, encourage them to talk.

8. But real depression is a serious condition that can last for ages


1. 据报道,有人设计出新型电脑游戏,不会对儿童行为有任何负面影响。(be reported that …, have … influence on …)

It is reported that new video games have been designed not to have negative influence on kids’ behavior in any way.

2. 当意识到所有现有的机器已被新的设计所取代时,校领导发起脾气来。(lose one’s temper, be replaced with …)

The head of the school lost his temper when he realized that all the existing machine had been replaced with new designs.

3. 史蒂文听说他对新项目的提议被当成荒谬之词而遭到断然否决,十分恼火。(be upset to do …, be rejected as …)

Steve was very upset to hear that his proposal for the new project had been rejected as ridiculous.

4. 现代社会的孩子很难想像一个没有电视和电脑的时代。(find it difficult to

do …, conceive of)

The modern child finds it difficult to conceive of a time when there was no TV or Computer.

5. 面试官忘了问我现在老板的名字,他好像对细节不大感兴趣。(neglect to

do …, be concerned with)

The interviewer neglected to ask about the name of my present boss; he seemed not to be concerned with the details.


A. gender

B. investment

C. less

D. cautious

E. benefits

F. generous

G. revealed

H. produce

I. responsibility

J. principal

K. financial L. significantly M. take N. more O. occupied

90% of all women become totally responsible for their own financial welfare at some point in their lives, yet women have lagged far behind men when it comes to

1__K___ planning and investing. Women who do invest tend to be more 2__D___ than men. A "Financial Gender Gap" study conducted by Prudential Securities

3___G__ significant differences in how men and women invest. The study places investors in one of the following three zones:

Action: Active and accomplished investors.

Comfort: Complacent individuals who realize the importance of taking 4___I__ for their financial futures, but do not change their strategies as life situations change. Caution: Those too 5___O__ with the ups and downs of everyday life to develop financial plans.

More men than women were in the Action zone, while more women were in the Comfort and Caution zones, indicating 6___A__ differences in risk tolerance, perspective on change and on the future, control issues, attitudes about money, and

7___B__ knowledge.

The “Investor Zone Update” study, and studies conducted by other organizations, have found that in recent years women have become more inclined to take risk and are 8___C__ likely to let lack of investing knowledge keep them from investing.

While these studies indicate that women are becoming more empowered financially , there are still fewer women than men in the Action zone, and women are still 9___L__ less likely than men to 10___M__ investment risks. It is important for women to educate themselves about investing and to become more risk tolerant in order to adequately secure their financial futures.

1. With her suggestion, I bought two; both were Minnesota firms.

2. Yet as I listened to her talk, I was hesitant!

3. The club has taught me almost everything I know about investing.

4. But stocks give me a chance to grow something for the future.

5. To my amazement, the stock soared over the next couple of years.

6. I retire from politics now, but I still invest in stocks.

7. One of my friends Mary, a very enthusiastic woman, said she was from Merrill Lynch and offered to sell me some stock.

8. The year was 1973, and I was standing in the kitchen when the phone rang.


1. 由于这份工作提供良好的提升机会,我琢磨不透汤姆为什么要辞掉它。(offer, promotion prospects, figure out )

As the job offers excellent promotion prospects, I can’t figure out why Tom quit it. 2. 我们已经向一个慈善组织提出申请,要求它为这个项目提供资助。(apply to …

for …, grant )

We have applied to a charitable organization for a grant for the project.

3. 他的论文非常有助于我们对这个困难问题的了解。(enormously, contribute to ) His thesis has contributed enormously to our understanding of this difficult subject.

4. 毫无疑问许多国家将要参加2008年奥林匹克运动会。(there is no doubt, participate in )

There is no doubt that many countries will be participating in the Olympic Games in 2008.

5. 这家公司已经投资几百万美元编写新的程序满足发展需求。(invest, writing new programs, meet the requirements of…)

The company has invested millions of dollars in writing new programs to meet the requirements of the development.


A. requests

B. symbolize

C. sought

D. delighted

E. swiftly

F. chances

G. favored

H. seriously

I. emigrated

J. enriched

K. danger L. fashion M. difference N. invention O. distinctions

This is the story of a sturdy (毫不含糊的) American symbol which has now spread throughout most of the world. It is a simple pair of pants called blue jeans, and what the pants 1___B__ is what Alexis de Tocqueville called “a manly and legitimate passion for equality …”. Blue jeans are 2___G__ equally by bureaucrats (官僚主义者) and cowboys; bankers and deadbeats; 3__L_ designers and beer drinkers. They draw no 4___O__ and recognize no classes; they are merely American. Yet they are

5__C__ after almost everywhere in the world. They have been around for a long time, and it seems likely that they will outlive even the necktie.

This ubiquitous (普遍存在的) American symbol was the 6___N__ of a Bavarian-born Jew. His name was Levi Strauss.

He was born in Bad Ocheim, Germany, in 1892, and during the European political disorder of 1848 decided to take 7__F___ in New York, to which his two brothers had already 8__I__ . For two years he was a lowly peddler, hauling sundries door-to-door to eke out a hand-to-mouth living. When a married sister in San Francisco offered to pay his way West in 1850, he jumped at the opportunity, taking with him bolts of canvas he hoped to sell for making tents.

It was the wrong kind of canvas for that purpose, but while talking with a miner, he learned that pants — sturdy pants that would stand up to the rigors of the diggings —were almost impossible to find. Opportunity beckoned. On the spot, Strauss measured the man’s waist and inseam with a piece of string and, for six dollars in gold dust, had the canvas tailored into a pair of stiff but rugged pants. The miner was 9__D__ with the result, word got around about “those pants of Levi’s,” and Strauss was in business. The company has been in business ever since.

When Strauss ran out of canvas, he wrote his two brothers to send more. He received instead a rough, brown cotton cloth made in Nimes, France-called serge de Nimes and 10__E__ shortened to “denim” (the word “jeans” derives from Genes, the French word for Genoa, where a similar cloth was produced). Almost from the first, Strauss cloth dyed the distinctive indigo that gave blue jeans their name, but it was not until the 1870s that he added the copper rivets which have long since become a company trademark.

1. It is very important to have mutual understanding among people in order to keep and develop good relationships.

2. Science does with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships.

3. We are living in a big human family where good relationships are indispensable.

4. If it is difficult to explain to the person who has misunderstood me, I wait until a suitable time comes.

5. The chief reason for the rapid increase is the practice of reform and open-door policy to the outside world.

6. Quarrels and conflicts among people sometimes worsen their relationships due to misunderstanding.

7. I believe with sincerity and patience that all misunderstandings can be resolved.

8. However, misunderstanding sometimes occurs in our daily life


1. 在这种情况下约翰尼急切地抓住了难得的机会。 (jump at the chance)

In this case Johnny jumped at the rare chance to apply for the post.

2. 现在说是由于天气关系才耽搁了航班还为时过早。(It is too early to say…)

It is too early to say that the weather is responsible for the delay of the flight.

3. 现代英语中许多词汇来源于拉丁文。 (be derived from)

In modern English many words are derived from Latin

4. 我们也许不能理解75%的女性下班后要继续照顾孩子。 (It might not …)

It might not be understood that 75 percent of women have to take

care of their kids after work.

5. 平均来说,我们每天要在电脑前工作十小时。(on average)

On average, we spend almost ten hours a day working with computer.


A. convey

B. imagine

C. comprehend

D. confident

E. mentally

F. estimate

G. assistance

H. react

I. collect

J. delicate

K. valuable L. achievement M. disorderly N. reactions O. form

Art is fun; it casters to the basic creative instinct which is present in everyone. It can impart (告知, 透露) a great feeling of 1___L__ especially to children who as yet have not been able to gain much of a sense of success from their other efforts in life. It also helps backward children to develop 2__E___ and physically. Their confidence grows as they experience success in art, and a 3__D___ child learns more easily than a tense one. Physically handicapped (残废的) children benefit because their motor control improves as they attempt to make more 4___J__ movements with their hands and as they gradually impose more control upon themselves.

Art is particularly 5___K__ to mentally handicapped children who find it difficult to communicate their ideas and emotions and who perhaps even finds it difficult to

6___C__ them themselves. Subnormal (低于正常的) children with very limited vocabularies may find that painting is easier than talking, and through paint they are able to express ideas, emotions, and 7___N__ to situations and experiences. Children need to communicate in two ways. First, they have to 8___A__ information to other people. Secondly, they have to communicate with themselves. If children do not have words to use, their minds are, inevitably, a 9___M__ mixture of responses to which they can 10___H__ only emotionally, often with frustrations. Through their paintings such children are not consciously trying to tell other people that they have certain feelings. With the paint they are able to create a concrete, permanent statement of feeling and so the emotion becomes intense and under more control.

1. One day, an ape named Kala was lagging behind as her family moved through the jungle.

2. Soon the family reached the shore of a nearby island.

3. Kala was very sad because she had lost her baby to the apes’ great enemy, Sabor the leopard.

4. One look around told her that the evil Sabor had visited this place, too.

5. Just then Kala heard the cry of another baby and followed the sound to the tree house.

6. Kala knew that the tiny creature she had found needed care.

7. Tarzen gently took Jane’s chin in his hand and said “Jane.”

8. She gently scooped him up in her hard and strong arms.


1. 除了伦敦的公寓,杰克还在意大利有一座别墅,在苏格兰有一座城堡。(in addition to)

In addition to his flat in London, he has a villa in Italy and a castle in Scotland.

2. 他试图和妻子开个玩笑,但得到的反应只是沉默。(attempt to, be received)He attempted to make a joke with his wife, but it was received in silence.

3. 史密斯先生总是每天拨出些时间给孩子们读故事。(set aside)

Mr. Smith always sets some time aside every day to read stories to his children

4. 这实际上是一种朋友之间的交流,而不是吵架。(kind of, rather than)

It is really a kind of communication between friends, rather than a quarrel

5. 由于提前接受了训练,因此他在最新的影片中的特技效果极为出色。(as a result of, special effect)

As a result of being trained in advance, the special effects in his latest film are brilliant.


A. assumed

B. aspect

C. violate

D. demands

E. equally

F. honor

G. measured

H. however

I. implies

J. justifies

K. morality L. therefore M. further N. diversity O. respect

At its deepest level, human ethics is based on the independent value of the individual: The moral worth of any one human being is not to be 1__G__ by how useful that person is in advancing the interest of other human beings. To treat human beings in ways that do not 2__F__ their independent value is to 3__C__ the most basic of human rights: the right of each person to be treated with respect.

The philosophy of animal rights 4__D__ only that logic be respected. For any argument that plausibly explains the independent value of human beings 5__I_ that other animals have this same value, and have it 6__E__. And any argument that plausibly explains the right of humans to be treated with 7_O_, also implies that these other animals have this same right, and have it equally, too.

It is true, 8__L__, that women do not exist to serve men, blacks to serve whites, the poor to serve the rich, or the weak to serve the strong. The philosophy of animal rights not only accepts these truths, it insists upon and 9__J__ them.

But this philosophy goes 10__M__. By insisting upon and justifying the independent value and rights of other animals, it gives scientifically informed and morally impartial reasons for denying that these animals exist to serve us.

1. A single coin will increase in value as a collector’s item once it is taken out of circulation.

2. However, the larger the number of a certain species and the more maltreatment it receives, the less intrinsic value the animal deserves, so it seems.

3. This also seems to apply to animals: an animal is given extra intrinsic value once it threatens to become extinct.

4. The intrinsic value of animals implies that they have their own value, apart from their financial, instrumental and practical value, attributed by humans.

5. The total of all 450 million factory animals in the Netherlands seem to have less intrinsic value than the panda in China.

6. The purpose of animal protection law is to improve conditions to ensure that the animal is protected from human actions that threaten its well-being.

7. The question is whether man is able or willing to keep those issues separated.

8. There are many reasons for protecting endangered species, including our own survival.


1.保护也适用于文化遗产,因此也包括有历史意义的事物,比如古建筑、古战场、历史传说等。(apply to, cultural heritage)

Conservation is also applied to cultural heritage, thus including things of historical importance, such as old buildings, battlefields and oral traditions.

2. 任何人无权侵犯“他人”权利以获取自身利益,不管这个“他人”是人,还是动物。(violate one’s right, as a result of)

No one has a right to benefit as a result of violating another's rights, whether that "other" is a human being or some other animal.

3. 1998年12月11--13日,在云南昆明召开了第三届全国生物多样性保护及可持续利用研讨会。(biodiversity conservation, sustainable)

The Third National Seminar on Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Using was held in Kunming,Yunnan on December 11-13, 1998.

4. 很多电影明星对于自己的私生活受到公众监视非常反感。(resent doing sth., under scrutiny)

Many film stars resent their private life being under public scrutiny.

5. 我们每天的事情很多,只有把最重要的优先安排才能保证有时间完成。(give priority to, ensure)

We have many things to do each day and we must give priority to those most important to ensure we have time for them.