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A traveler visiting the hut in the middle of the dark time and perhaps in bad weather, his feet, hands and face bitten by the frost, will have his difficulties doubled if the wood he left has been used up by others and he had nothing with which to

19 a fire.

Ten or more years ago there were enough hunters to look after most of the huts, but now many buildings have become useless because there is no one to repair them and because of 20

A. worse

B. peculiar

C. laid

D. light

E. generally

F. order

G. particular

H. conventions

I. carelessness J.difference K. built L. fashions

M. searching N. ordinarily O. result

Unit Seven

Passage 2

Most of us trade money for entertainment. Movies, concerts and shows are enjoyable but 11 .If you think that you can't have a good time without spending a lot of money, read on. A little resourcefulness and a few minutes of

newspaper-scanning should give you some pleasant surprises.

People may be the most interesting show in a large city. 12 through busy streets and see what everybody else is doing. You will probably see people from all over the world; you will 13 see people of every age, size, and shape, and you'll get a free fashion show, too. Window-shopping is also a 14 sport if the stores are closed.

Check the listings in your neighborhood paper. Local colleges or schools often 15 the public to hear an interesting speaker or a good 16 . The film or concert series at the local public library probably won't cost you a penny. Be sure to check commercial advertisements too. A flea market can provide hours of pleasant looking round. Perhaps you can find a free cooking or crafts 17 in a department store.

Plan ahead for some activities. It is always more pleasant not to have people in front of you in a museum or at a zoo. You may save some money, too, since these places often 18 aside one or two free 19 days at slow times during the week. Make sure that you are including the indispensable 20 that people travel miles to see. If you feel like taking an interesting walk, find a free walking tour, or plan one yourself.

A. expensive

B. Wonder


D. admission

E. set

F. Wander


H. addition

I. valuable J. dispute K.welcome L. confidently

M. sights N. demonstration O.certainly

Unit Eight

Passage 2

When a person feels low, blue, or down in the clumps, it usually means he has been hurt, disappointed, or saddened by something that causes a confused and listless feeling. There is 11 a type of music called "the blue", a low, mournful, sad sound to 12 these universal human feelings.

Depression is another name for this mood. Feeling depressed is a normal and natural 13 to experiences of loss, failure, and undeserved bad luck. Indeed, it has been pointed out that without depression, we would 14 much of the world's great tragic literature, music, and art.

In some cases, however, depression becomes something more than just 15 feelings of blues or letdown. A large number of people suffer from what psychiatrists call "depressive illness. " Depressive illness is more 16 and lasts longer than common listless feelings. Sometimes a serious 17 of depression can begin with the loss of a loved one or a change of job. Many times, in very

18 cases, there doesn't seem to be any circumstance serious enough to have caused the depression.

Some psychiatrists suggest that the key feature in depression is change. The person becomes different from the way before the onset of his depression. He may even become the opposite of his usual self. There are many examples: the businessman who becomes a wanderer, the mother who wants to 19 her children and herself. Instead of seeking satisfaction and pleasure, the depressed person 20 it.


A growing world population and the discoveries of science may 11 this pattern of distribution in the future. As men slowly learn to master diseases, control floods, prevent famines, and stop wars, fewer people die every year; and in 12 the population of the world is 13 increasing. In 1925 there were about 2,000 million people in the world; by the end of the century there may well be over 4,000 million.

When numbers rise the 14 mouths must be fed. New lands must be I bought under cultivation, or land already farmed made to 15 larger crops. In some areas the accessible land is largely so intensively 16 that it will be difficult to make it provide more food. In some areas the population is so dense that the land is parceled out in units too 17 to allow for much improvement in farming methods. Were a larger part of this farming population drawn off into industrial occupations, the land might be farmed much more productively by modern methods.

There is now a race for science, technology, and industry to keep the 18 of food rising faster than the number of people to be fed. New strains of crops are being developed which will thrive in 19 climates; irrigation and dry-farming methods bring poor lands under the plough, dams hold back the waters of great rivers to 20 water for the fields in all seasons and to provide electric power for new industries; industrial chemistry

provides fertilizers to suit particular soils; aero planes spray crops to destroy insects and many plant diseases.

A. ensure

B. violently

C. alter

D. harmful

E. cultivated

F. unique

G. transplanted

H. yield

I. consequence

J. output

K. extra

L. steadily

M. tiny

N. unfavorable

O. produce

Unit Ten

Passage 2

In the United States, it is not 11 to telephone someone very early in the morning. If you telephone him early in the day, while he is shaving or having breakfast, the time of the call shows that the matter is very important and requires immediate attention. The same meaning is attached to telephone calls made after 11: 00 p. m. . If someone receives a call during sleeping hours, he 12 it's a matter of life and death. The time chosen for the call 13 its importance.

In 14 life, time plays a very important part. In the U. S. A. , guests tend to feel they are not highly regarded if the 15 to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date. But it is not true in all countries. In other areas of the world, it may be considered foolish to make an appointment too far in 16 because plans which are made for a date more than a week away tend to be forgotten. The meaning of time differs in different parts of the world. Thus, misunderstandings 17 between people from cultures that treat time differently.

Promptness is valued 18 in American life, for example. If people are not prompt, they may be regarded as impolite or not fully responsible. In the U. S. no one would think of keeping a business 19 waiting for an hour, it would be too impolite. A person who is 5 minutes late is 20 to make a short

apology. If he is less than 5 minutes late, he will say a few words of explanation, though perhaps he will not complete the sentence.

A. highly

B. engagement

C. customary

D. social

E. inform

F. invitation

G. advance

H. absence

I. heavily J. associate K. expected L. assumes

M. habitual N. arise O. communicates

Unit Eleven

Passage 2

Personality is, to a large extent, inherent—A-type parents, usually bring about A-type children. But the environment must also have a 11 effect, wince if competition is important to the parents it is likely to become a major 12 in the lives of their children.

One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools 13 the " win at all costs" moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current 14 for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being 15 keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying; "cheers, we conquer!"

By far the worst form of competition in schools is the extreme 16 on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to 17 on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat 18 , but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.

Obviously, it is neither 19 nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B's. The world needs types, and

schools have an important duty to try to 20 a child's personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.

A. enough

B. fit

C. emphasis

D. practical

E. innumerable

F. concentrate

G. adopt

H. questionable

I. profound J. factor K. too L. substance

M. passion N. emotion O. fix


Passage 2

As the 11 of life continues to increase, we are fast losing the art of relaxation. Once you are in habit of rushing through life, being on the go from morning till night, it is hard to slow down. But relaxation is essential for a healthy mind and body. Stress is a natural part of everyday life and there is no way to avoid it. In fact, it is not the bad thing it is often 12 to be. A certain amount of stress is 13 to provide motivation and give purpose to life. It is only when the stress gets out of control that it can lead to poor 14 and ill health.

The amount of stress a person can 15 depends very much on the individual. Some people are not afraid of stress, and such characters are 16 prime material for managerial responsibilities. Others lose heart at the first signs of 17 difficulties. When exposed to stress, in whatever form, we react both chemically and physically. In fact we make choice between "fight" or "flight" and in more primitive days the choices made the difference between life or death. The crises we meet today are unlikely to be so 18 , but however little the stress, it involves the same response. It is when such a reaction lasts long, through continued 19 to stress, that health becomes endangered. Such serious conditions as high blood pressure and heart disease have established links with stress. Since we cannot 20 stress from our lives(it would be unwise to do so even if we could) , we need to find ways to deal with it.

A. cancel

B. pace

C. extreme

D. automatically

E. remove

F. vital

G. performance

H. supposed

I. rate J. exposure K. achievement L. unusual

M obviously N withstand O harsh

Unit Thirteen

Passage 2

What is your favorite color? Do you like yellow, orange, red? If you do, you must be an optimist, a leader, an active person who 11 life, people and excitement. Do you prefer greys and blues? Then you are probably quiet, shy, and you would rather follow than lead. You 12 to be a pessimist. At least, this is what psychologists tell us, and they should know, because they have been seriously studying the meaning of color preference, as well as the effect that colors have on human beings. They tell us, among other 13 , that we do not choose our favorite color as we grow up—we are born with our preference. If you happen to love brown, you did so, as soon as you opened your eyes, or at least as soon as you could see clearly.

Colors do 14 our moods—there is no doubt about it. A yellow room makes most people feel more cheerful and more relaxed than a dark green one; and a red dress brings warmth and cheer to the saddest winter day. On the other hand, black is 15 .A black bridge over the Thames River, near London, used to be the 16 of more suicides than any other bridge in the area—until it was repainted green. The number of suicide attempts immediately fell 17 ; perhaps it would have fallen even more if the bridge had been done in pink or baby blue.

Light and 18 colors make people not only happier but more active. It is

an 19 fact that factory workers work better, harder, and have fewer 20 when their machines are painted orange rather than black or grey.

A. bright

B. scene

C. wholly

D. favor

E. facts

F. depressing

G. accidents

H. interfere

I. established J. incidents K. disgusting L. sharply

M. enjoys N. tend O. influence

Unit Fourteen

Passage 2

Women are also underrepresented in the administration and this is because there are so few women 11 professors. In 1985, Regent Beryl Milburn produced a report blasting the University of Texas System administration for not 12 women. The University was rated among the lowest for the system. In a 1587 update, Milburn 13 and praised the progress that was made and called for even more 14

One of the positive results from her study was a system-wide program to inform women of available administrative jobs. College of Communication Associate Dean, Patricia Witherspoon, said it is important that woman be 15 when it comes to relocating if they want to 16 in the ranks.

Although a woman may face a chilly 17 on campus, many times in order for her to succeed, she must rise above the problems around her and concentrate on her work.

Until women make up a greater 18 of the senior positions in the University and all academia, inequalities will exist. "Women need to spend their energies and time doing scholarly activities that are important here at the University. " Spirduso said. "If they do that they will be 19 in this system. If they spend their time in little groups mourning the sexual discrimination that they think exists here, they are 20 wasting valuable study time. "

A. full

B. recalled

C. improvement

D. rise

E. encouraging

F. flexible

G. recognized

H. idly

I. ratio J. persuading K. movable L. possibly

M. successful N. climate O. percentage

Unit Fifteen

Passage 2

In October 1987, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards began its work to set new standards

of accomplishment for the teaching profession and to improve the 11 of education available to all children in the United States.

Teachers are 12 to students and their learning. They must act on the belief that all students can learn. They must recognize 13 differences in their students and adjust their practice 14 . They must know that their mission extends beyond developing the cognitive capacity of their students. They must be 15 with their students' self-concept, with their motivation, and with the development of character.

Teachers must know the subjects they teach and how to teach them. They must 16 specialized knowledge of how to convey a subject to students. Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning. They must call on 17 methods to meet their goals, knowing and being able to 18 a variety of instructional skills. Teachers must think systematically about their practice and learn from experience, seeking the 19 of others and drawing on education research and scholarship to improve their practice.

As members of learning communities, teachers contribute to school effectiveness by collaborating with other professionals. They take ___20 of

community resources, cultivating knowledge of their school's community as a powerful resource for learning.

A. employ

B. advice

C. quantity

D. committed

E. command

F. consulted

G. manual

H. approximately

I. concerned J. advantage K. multiple L. accordingly

M. individual N. embrace O. quality

Unit Sixteen

Passage 2

If you are looking for information, library shelves are a good place to start. But if you need up-to-the-minute data or have specialized needs, you may find a computerized database more useful, less expensive, and less time 11 .A database, a file of information on one subject or family of subjects, can be stored and 12 in a computer's memory. The speed of the computer then 13 you to recall any item in this file almost 14

The three main types of databases are statistical, bibliographic, and full text. Statistical databases store 15 amounts of numerical data, such as wage and price indexes, census information, foreign 16 rates and bond prices. Bibliographic databases store references to and summaries of articles in periodicals and newspapers. Full-text databases offer the complex texts of such 17 as newspaper, magazine, and journal articles.

Thousands of databases exist today, and their numbers are growing. Many companies have their in-house database, which is 18 to employees through computer terminals or microcomputers. In addition, several hundred commercial databases are now available to the 19 , with literally millions of items of information readily obtainable. These databases 20 specific fields, such as law and financial forecasting, or general information, such as sports and weather data.

A. exchange

B. public

C. instantly

D. cover

E. enables

F. consuming

G. remained

H. materials

I. hide J. intensively K. vast L. communication


M. exhausting N. accessible 0. maintained

Unit Seventeen

Passage 2

No one knows exactly how many disabled people there are in the world, but 11 suggest the figure is over 450 million.

The number of disabled people in

India 12 is probably more than double the total population of Canada.

In the United Kingdom, about one in ten people have some disability. Disability is not just something that happens to other people: as we get older, many of us will become less 13 , hard of hearing or have failing eyesight. Disablement can take many forms and occur at any time of life. Some people are born with disabilities. Many others become disabled as they get older. There are many 14 disabling diseases. The longer time goes on, the worse they become. Some people are disabled in accidents. Many others may have a period of disability in the form of a mental illness. All are affected by people's attitude towards them.

Disabled people face many 15 barriers. Next time you go shopping or to work or to visit friends, imagine how you would 16 if you could not get up steps, or on to buses and trains. How would you cope if you could not see where you were going or could not hear the traffic? But there are other barriers; 17 can be even harder to break down and ignorance 18 represents by far the greatest barrier of all. It is almost impossible for the able-bodied to fully appreciate what the severely disabled go through, so it is important to 19 attention to these barriers and show that it is the individual person and their ability, not their disability, which 20

A. inevitably

B. evaluations

C. estimates

D. manage

E. alone

F. counts

G. prejudice

H. physical

I. mobile J. indifferently K. withdraw L. progressive

M. regular N. accounts O. draw

Unit Eighteen

Passage 2

Social customs and ways of behaving change. Things which were considered impolite many years ago are now

11 . Just a few years ago, it was 12 impolite behavior for a man to smoke on the street. No man who thought of himself as being a gentleman would make a 13 of himself by smoking when a lady was in a room. Customs also differ from country to country. Does a man walk on the left or the right of a woman in your country? Or doesn't it 14 ? What about table manners? Should you use both hands when you are eating? Should you leave one in your lap, or on the table?

The Americans and the British not only speak the same language but also 15 a large number of social customs. For example, in both America and England people shake hands when they meet each other for the first time. Also, most Englishmen will open a door for a woman or offer their seat to a woman, and so will most Americans. 16 is important both in England and in America. That is, if a dinner invitation is for 7 o'clock, the dinner guest either arrives 17 to that time or calls up to explain his 18

The important thing to remember about social customs is not to do anything that might make other people feel uncomfortable— 19 if they are your guests. There is an old story about a man who gave a formal dinner party. When the food was served, one of the guests started to eat his peas with a knife. The other guests were amused or shocked, but the

20 calmly picked up his knife

and began eating in the same way.

A. especially

B. attainable

C. close

D. delay

E. considered

F. host

G. delivery

H. Preparation

I. share J. fool K. specifically L. acceptable

M. matter N. Promptness 0. care

Unit Nineteen

Passage 2

The economy of the United States after 1952 was the economy of a well-fed, almost fully employed people. Despite 11 alarms, the country escaped any postwar depression and lived in a 12 of boom. An economic survey of the year 1955, a typical year of the 1950's, may be typical as 13 the rapid economic growth of the decade. The national output was 14 at 10 percent above that of 1954(1955 output was estimated at 392 billion dollars). The production of manufactures was about 40 percent more than it had 15 in the years immediately following World War I . The country's business spent about 30 billion dollars for new factories and machinery. National income 16 for spending was almost a third greater than it had been in 1950. Consumers spent about 256 billion dollars; that is about 700 million dollars a day, or about twenty-five million dollars every hour, all round the 17 . Sixty-five million people held jobs and only a little more than two million wanted jobs but could not find them. Only agriculture 18 that it was not sharing in the boom. To some observers this was a sad reflection of the mid-1920's. As farmers' share of their products 19 , marketing costs rose. But there were, among the observers of the national economy, a few who were not as confident as the majority. Those few seemed to fear that the boom could not last long and would




will certainly be developed more than in the past.

There are many reasons why we should 18 the production of sugar. Most important is that it is one of the most highly concentrated of energy foods.

Thus sugar cane and beet produce an average of 7,000,000 calories per acre. In this way they have the advantage over potatoes which give only 4, 000, 000, while the 19 for wheat and beans is 2 ,000,000 each. So three acres of land growing wheat, beans and potatoes give only 20 more energy than one acre

of sugar.

A. slightly

B. intention

C. reason

D. modern

E. strongly

F. figure

G. come

H. significant

I. exactly J. increase K. proposals L. turn

M. purposes N. varieties O. serious

Unit Twenty-Eight

Passage 2

The birth of computers has brought with it a new set of opportunities for mischief and crime. Today, computers are easy to come by and many people know how computer technology 11 . More importantly, the growing use of computer networks can multiply the violation of security, making large numbers of people more vulnerable than would be the case if they were using 12 , stand-alone computers.

What's more, computer experts agree that—despite recent widespread publicity-computer viruses are 13 one of the many computer security problems facing the nation.

The U. S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency has requested that the Research Council's Science and Technology Board 14 the security problems posed by computer technology, see what 15 may already exist, review research efforts 16 at avoiding security problems in the future, and evaluate existing policies 17 to computer security. The study committee will examine the 18 of security for a broad spectrum of users, including the business, national security, and academic communities, as well as the 19 public.

David. Clark, senior research scientist, Laboratory for Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, will chair the 20 of experts in

electronic security, net-work security, computer law, software engineering ? and operating systems. The committee will also include computer users from the defense and banking industries.

A. only

B. works

C. solutions

D. general

E. issue

F. fundamentally

G. universal

H. assess

I. aimed J. single K. committee L. generates

M. relevant N. question O. community

Unit Twenty-Nine

Passage 2

Leonardo da Vinci was the first man to suggest that growing trees add a new ring in their trunks each year. The

11 in these rings relates to the physical conditions which the tree experiences. Thus, trees grown in a 12 area and time each develop a pattern or configuration of their rings.

This 13 was of little significance until Andrew E. Douglas began to study tree rings in Arizona in 1900. Using a technique called cross dating, he was able to employ tree rings to the study of archaeological sites and date the ruins with 14 . Some were as old as 6700 B. C. ! This study of tree rings is called dendrochronology.

In time the cross dating was 15 by a carbon 14 process. This approach measured the amount of carbon 14 radiating from a piece of wood and 16 to determine the age of that wood. Further use of the carbon 14 technique has shown that the radiation process is more complex and less 17 than had been at first thought.

The most 18 aspect of tree ring research is now called dendroclimatology. This 19 of the reconstruction of climates and climatic cycles and events from the evidence found in the tree rings. From this it is hoped that a 20 of drought cycles can be determined in the American Southwest. Such information will be of great help in determining the life and ecology of that region of the United States.

A. thus




E. accuracy




I. proposition http://www.wendangku.net/doc/7369073731126edb6f1a1063.htmlposes K.further L.pattern

M. supplemented N.reliable O.excellent

Unit Thirty

Passage 2

Gary Finkle had his backbone severely 11 in a swimming-pool accident seven years ago. A heavy-set, bearded man of 27,



18 people from misleading advertising. But I also want to see Americans

keep their high 19 of living in the process. In the future, if consumers like

me really care about the quality of something as well as the quantity, 20

advertisers will begin to care more about what they are trying to sell.

A. consequent

B. protect

C. standards

D. tremendous

E. grade

F. society

G. degree

H. look

I. protest J. items K. purchase L. association

M. conscious N. maybe 0. whereas

Unit Thirty-Six

Passage 2

Resources can be said to be scarce both in an absolute and in a 11 sense: the surface of the Earth is limited,

12 absolute scarcity, but the scarcity that concerns economists is the relative scarcity of resources in 13 uses. Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.

The cost of a product in 14 of money may not measure its true cost to society. The true cost of, say, the construction of a supersonic jet is the value of the schools and refrigerators that will never be built as a result. Every act of production uses up some of society's available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else. In deciding how to use resources most effectively to 15 the wants of the community, this opportunity cost must 16 be taken into account.

In a market 17 the price of a commodity and the quantity supplied depend on the cost of making it, and that cost, ultimately, is the cost of not making other goods. The market mechanism enforces this 18 . The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them. But the price of these inputs, in turn, 19 on what they can produce elsewhere—if the leather can be used to produce handbags that are valued highly by consumers, the price of leather will be bid up


A. fulfill

B. correspondingly


D. relative

E. imposing

F. depends


H. ultimately

I. different J. relationship K.satisfy L. finance

M. considerably N. emphasizing O.economy

Unit Thirty-Seven

Passage 2

Does a bee know what is going on in its mind when it navigates its way to 11 food sources and back to the hive, using polarized sunlight and the tiny magnet it carries as a navigational aid? Or is the bee just a machine, unable to do its mathematics and dance its language in any other way? To use Donald Griffin's term, does a bee have "awareness", or to use a 12 I like better, can a bee think and imagine?

There is an experiment for this, or at least an 13 , made long ago by Karl Von Frisch and more recently 14 by James Gould at Princeton. Biologists who wish to study such things as bee navigation, language, and behavior in general have to 15 their bees to fly from the hive to one or another special place. To do this, they begin by placing a source of sugar very close to the hive so that the bees (considered by their trainers to be very dumb beasts) can learn what the game is about. Then, at regular intervals, the dish or whatever is moved 16 farther and farther from the hive, increasing about 25 percent at each move. Eventually, the 17 is being moved 100 feet or more at a jump, very far from the hive. Sooner or later, while this process is going on, the biologists 18 the dish of sugar will find the bees are out there waiting for them, 19

where the 20 position had been planned. This is

an uncomfortable observation to make.

A. confirmed

B. phrase

C. next

D. shifting

E. observation

F. remote

G. progressively

H. confronted

I. distant J. precisely K. quotation L. target

M. train N. proficiently 0. investigation

Unit Thirty-Eight

Passage 2

Americans always have different opinions in their 11 toward education. On the one hand, free and universal public education was seen as necessary in a democracy, for how else would citizens learn how to 12 themselves in a responsible way? On the other hand, America was always a country that offered financial opportunities for which education was not needed ? on the road from


E. whole

F. dropped

G. published

H. promise

I. scored J. content K. gifted L. health

M. badly N. retreated O. objected

Unit Forty-One

Passage 2

Considered as a continuous body of fluid, the atmosphere is another kind of ocean. Yet, in 11 of the total amount of rain and snow on land areas in the course of a year, one of the most 12 facts is the very small amount of water in the atmosphere at any given 13 . The volume of the lower seven miles of the atmosphere—the realm of weather events—is 14 four times the volume of the world's oceans. But the atmosphere 15 very little water. It is chiefly in the form of 16 vapor, some of which is carried over land by air currents. If all vapor 17 fell, it would form a layer only about one inch thick. A heavy rainstorm on a given area may use up only a small percentage of the water from the air mass that passes over.

How, then, can some land areas receive more than 400 inches of rain per year? How can several inches of rain fall during a single storm in a few minutes or hours? The answer is that rain-yielding air masses are in 18 , and as the driving air mass moves on, new mist air takes its place.

The basic source of most water vapor is the ocean. Evaporation, vapor transport, and rainfall make up the 19 movement of water from ocean to atmosphere to land and back to the sea. Rivers return water to the sea. In an underground area of the cycle, flowing bodies of water 20 some water

directly into rivers and some directly to the sea.

A. contains

B. view

C. discard

D. movement

E. time

F. amazing

G. continuous

H. roughly

I. amusing J. motion K. rudely L. vision

M. invisible N. suddenly O. discharge

Unit Forty-Two

Passage 2

Nowadays, the standard for measuring power has changed. These changes foretell a new standard for measuring power. No longer will a nation's political influence be based 11 on the strength of its military forces. Of course, military 12 will remain a primary measure of power. But political influence is also closely 13 to industrial competitiveness. It's often said that without its military the Soviet Union would really be a third-world 14 . The new standard of power and influence that is evolving now places more emphasis on the ability of a country to 15 effectively in the economic markets of the world.

America must recognize this new course of events. Our success in shaping world events over the past 40 years has been the direct result of our ability to adapt 16 and to take advantage of the capabilities of our people for the purpose of maintaining peace. Our industry over most of this period was 17 .It is ironic that it is just this industry that has enabled other countries to prosper and in turn to threaten our industrial leadership.

The competitiveness of America's industrial base is an issue bigger than the

Department of Defense and is going to require the efforts of the major 18

forces in our society—government, industry, and education. That is not to say

that the Defense Department will not be a 19 force in the process. But we

20 cannot be, nor should we be, looked upon by others as the savior of American industry.

A. effectiveness

B. tied

C. institutional

D. solely

E. nation

F. exclusiveness

G. surely

H. complete

I. unchanged J. strong K. compete L. simply

M. unchallenged N. technology O. synthetical

Unit Forty-Three

Passage 2

Data from the pioneer spacecraft of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 11 prove the theory that the burning 900-degree Fahrenheit surface temperature of Venus is 12 to an atmospheric greenhouse effect caused mainly by a blanket of carbon dioxide. Such a greenhouse effect is created when energy in the form of sunlight easily passes through a planet's atmosphere, warms its surface, and is 13 to heat radiation that is then held in by the atmosphere. The orbiting spacecraft 14 Venus' atmosphere from top to 15 , enabling NASA'S scientists to establish the exact amount of sunlight absorbed at various places in the planet's atmosphere and on its surface. Measurements of atmosphere composition, temperature profiles, and radiative heating predicted Venus' surface temperature very 16 . The planet is closer to the Sun than is Earth, and it has a relatively thin atmosphere, but Venus' atmosphere consists of more than ninety percent carbon dioxide, 17 to less than four percent in that of Earth. Because of its 18 percentage of carbon dioxide, Venus' atmosphere

traps much more heat radiation than does Earth's. Thus, the Venus studies are 19 to be important to the understanding of possible adverse effects on Earth's agriculture and sea 20 that could result from the long-term use of fossil fuels, which add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

A. levels

B. converted

C. accurately

D. simplified

E. owing

F. conveyed

G. bottom

H. sampled

I. due

J. higher K. vainly L. compared M. end N. believed O. apparently Unit Forty-Five

Passage 2

Women in Britain are without doubt better off today than they 11 to be. At the beginning of the nineteenth century women seem to have had almost no rights at all. They could not vote, or even sign 12 . Their marriages were arranged by their

parents, and once they were married they could not 13 property. Most of the time they were never given responsible jobs. It is 14 to think that, as far as we know, most women were happy with this situation.

Today the position is quite different. Women can now vote, and choose their own husbands. In 1970 a law was 15 to give them an equal share of property in the case of divorce, and in the same year the Equal Pay Act gave them the right to equal pay with men for work of equal value.

Yet despite these changes, there is no doubt that there are still great differences in 16 between men and women. Many

employers —maybe even the majority —seem to ignore the Equal Pay Act, and the average working woman is likely to earn only about half what a man earns for the same job. Most women who do work still do 17 jobs. Only a small proportion of the country's workers are in fact women. This small percentage is partly because of a-shortage of nurseries. If there were 18 nurseries, up to twice as many women might well go out to work. There is also great 19 in education. Only a quarter of all university students are women. And at present boys' schools are 20 much better than girls' schools.

Unit Forty-Six

Passage 2

Most people have heard of Shakespeare and probably know something of the plays that he wrote. However, not everybody knows much about the life of this remarkable man, except 11 that he was born in the market town of Stratford-upon —Avon and that he married a woman called Anne Hathaway. We know nothing of his school life. We do not know, for example, how long it lasted, but we 12 that he attended the local grammar school, where the 13 subject taught was Latin.

Nothing certain is known of what he did between the time he left school and his 14 for London. According to a local legend, he was beaten and even put in prison for stealing rabbits and deer from the estate of a neighboring landowner, Sir Thomas Lucy. It is said that because of this he was forced to run away from his 15 place. A different legend says that he was apprenticed to a Stratford butcher, but did not like the life and for this reason 16 to leave Stratford.

Whatever caused him to leave the town of his birth, the world can be 17 that he did so. What is certain is that he set his foot on the roadjto 18 when he arrived in London. It is said that at first he was without money or friends there, but that he earned a little by taking care of the horses of the gentlemen who attended the plays at the theatre. In time, as he became a 19 figure to the actors in the theatre, they stopped and spoke to him. They found his conversation so brilliant that finally he was invited to 20 their company.

A. fame

B. graceful

C. join

D. perhaps

E. forecast

F. departure

G. somehow

H. presume

I. native J. familiar K. decided L. meaningful

M. principal N. grateful O. rejection

Unit Forty-Seven

Passage 2

Sylvester and I are watching television advertisements because we need information for a class 11 project. We have to discuss realism and distortion in television advertising, and so we are looking for examples of distortions and falsehoods in television commercials. The question we are asking is, "Is the commercial 12 to life, or does it 13 an unreal picture of the product?"

Sylvester is keeping track of the distortions, and he already has quite a long list. He says that all housewives seem to live in

A. unselected

B. desired

C. undoubtedly

D. used

E. contracts

F. passed

G. statue

H. strange

I. sufficient J. inequality K. own L. status

M. unsuspiciously N. concluded O. unskilled


to the health and safety of the people who worked for them. Often new products were 12 for the people who used them; often conditions in the work place had very bad 13 on the health of the workers.

Of course 14 there were real disasters which attracted the attention of governments and which showed the need for changes. Also scientists who were doing research into the health of workers sometimes produced information which governments could not 15 . At such times, there were inquiries into the 16 of the disasters or the problems. New safety rules were often

17 as a result of these inquiries; however, the new rules came too late to protect the people who died or who became

18 ill.

Today many governments have special departments which protect 19 and workers. In the U. S. , for example, there is a department which tests new airplanes and gives warnings about possible problems. It also makes the rules that aircraft producers must 20 . Another department controls the foods and

drugs that companies sell. A third department looks at the places where people work, and then reports any companies that are breaking the laws which protect the health and safety of workers.

A. effects

B. follow

C. necessarily

D. regulate

E. dangerous

F. developed

G. efforts

H. seriously

I. introduced J. causes K. sometimes L. customers

M. invented N. technicians O. ignore


Unit one

11. L 12. M 13. A 14. C 15. G 16. F17. E 18. N 19. H 20. I 21. B 22. A 23. D 24. B 25. D 26. C27. A 28. C 29. D 30. B

Unit Two

II. K 12. L 13. J 14. F 15. E 16. C17. A 18. N 19. D 20. H 21. B 22. C 23. B 24. C 25. C 26. A27. D 28. A 29. A 30. A

Unit Three

II. E 12. I 13. F 14. K 15. G 16. D17. L 18. J 21. D 22. A 23. B 24. D 25. D 26. A27. A 28. D

Unit Four

II. I 12. A 13. G 14. J 15. M 16. E17. L 18. K 19. B 20. H 21. C 22. D 23. C 24. D 25. C 26. A27. C 28. A 29. B 30. C

Unit Five

II. M 12. D 13. B 14. J ' 15. K 16. E17. H 18. G 19. L 20. A 21. D 22. C 23. D 24. B 25. D 26. B 27. D 28. C 29. B 30. A

Unit Six

11. H 12. E 13. C 14. F 15. J 16. G 17. A 18. M 19. D 20. I

21. D 22. B 23. B 24. A 25. D 26. A 27. B 28. D 29. B 30. C

Unit Seven

II. A 12. F 13. O 14. G 15. K 16. C 17. N 18. E 19. D 20. M 21. C 22. A 23. B 24. C 25. A 26. B 27. D 28. A 29. B 30. D

Unit Eight

II. F 12. G 13. D 14. N 15. O 16. C 17. L 18. I 19. M 20. E 21. B 22. B 23. B 24. C 25. A 26. C 27. D 28. C 29. A 30. B

Unit Nine

II. C 12. I 13. L 14. K 15. H 16. E 17. M 18. J 19. N 20. A 21. C 22. B 23. B 24. B 25. B 26. C 27. C 28. C 29. B 30. D

Unit Ten

II. C 12. L 13. O 14. D 15. F 16. G 17. N 18. A 19. J 20. K 21. A 22. C 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. B 27. C 28. C 29. D 30. A

Unit Eleven

II. I 12. J 13. G 14. M 15. K 16. C 17. F 18. H 19. D 20. B 21. D 22. B 23. C 24. A 25. D 26. D 27. B 28. C 29. A 30. C

Unit Twelve

11. B 12. H 13. F 14. G 15. N 16. M 17. L 18. C 19. J 20. E

21. C 22. D 23. B 24. A 25. D 26. C 27. A 28. D 29. B 30. C

Unit Thirteen

II. M 12. N 13. E 14. O 15. F 16. B 17. L 18. A 19. I 20. G 21. C 22. A 23. B 24. D 25.

D 26. D 27. C 28. C 29. A 30. D

Unit Fourteen

II. A 12. E 13. G 14. C 15. F 16. D 17. N 18. O 19. M 20. H 21. C 22. A 23. B 24. C 25. C 26. C 27. D 28. B 29. D 30. B