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大学英语4 Unit 1

Supplementary Reading

I. Difficult Sentences

1.and we cut enough wood to just about make it through the heating season.

Tell the meaning of the phrase “make it” and paraphrase this part of the sentence.

(=The phrase “make it” means “succeed.” The meaning of this part is “With the wood we cut, the family can succeed in getting through the cold winter.”)

2.Soon Jim, 16 and Emily, 13, the youngest of our four children, will help me make

some long-overdue improvements on the outdoor toilet that supplements our indoor plumbing when we are working outside.

Analyze the structure of the sentence.

(=The structure of this sentence is complicated.

1) “The youngest of our four children” is in apposition to “Emily, 13.”

2) “t hat supplements our indoor plumbing when we are working outside” is an

attributive clause modifying “the outdoor toilet.”)

Translate the sentence into Chinese.


3.There is, as the old saying goes, no rest for the wicked on a place like this

— and not much for the virtuous either.

Tell the class the origin of the saying “There is no rest for the wicked.”

(=The saying comes from the Bible, Isiah 57:21, “… no peace, saith my god, to the wicked.” It is used in a jocular manner, meaning “there’s no time for relaxation; someone is kept busy all the time.”)

Translate the sentence into Chinese.


4.While one storm after another blasted huge drifts up against the house and barn, ...

Translate this part of the sentence into Chinese.


5.When spring came, it brought two floods.

Read this paragr aph and tell what “two floods” refer to here.

(=The first flood refers to the overflow of the river covering their land while the other refers to agricultural produce.)

6.Then the growing season began, swamping us under wave after wave of produce.

What’s the function of the phrase “swamping us under wave after wave of produce”?

(=This v-ing form is one of the non-finite verbs (非谓语动词). It serves as an adverbial in the sentence and it indicates another action by the subject of the sentence.)

Paraphrase the sentence.

(=Then the growing season came and it brought us a lot of agricultural products.) What attitude of the author can we infer from this sentence towards his country life?

(=We can see that he was very satisfied with it and enjoyed the harvest.)

7.It was amazing.

What can we infer from the sentence?

(=The big harvest was beyond expectation. He was filled with joy because of the big harvest.)

What’s the meaning of this sentence in Chinese?


Why does the author think so?

(= 1) He had to pay the expensive tuition for his two girls.

2) He had only a few thousand dollars in the bank.)

9.The answer, decidedly, was no, and so —with my employer’s blessings and half

a year’s pay in accumu lated benefits in my pocket — off I went.

Why did the author decide to quit his job even though it was a terrible timing?

What could be the reasons for the author’s decision to leave the city?

(=Though it was a terrible timing, the author was clear that there would be no “good” timing at all. Possible reasons for his decision are as follows:

A) He didn’t think his job was good.

B) He longed for risks and changes in his life.

C) He was attracted by the good harvest his family had got the year before.

D) He was fascinated by the hectic, self-reliant and colorful life in the


10.It picks up 80% of the costs beyond that.

What does the word “that” in the sentence refer to?

(=It refers to “the first $500 the family pays.” Suppose the medical fee is $1,000, the family has to pay $500 while the insurance company will pay $400.)

11.and we are covered against catastrophe.

Translate this part into Chinese.


12.Extravagant Christmases are a memory, and we combine vacations with story

assignments …

What can we infer from this part of the sentence?

(=We can infer that the family used to spend much more money on Christmases.) II. Words & Expressions

get by: be good enough but not very good; manage to live or do things in a satisfactory way

- It is a little bit difficult for the old couple to get by on such a small pension. - 我父母靠很少的钱将就着把日子过了下去。

(=My parents managed to get by on a small amount of money.)

- She never works but somehow she gets by.

haul: vt.

1. transport, as with a truck, cart, etc.

- The farmers haul vegetables to the market on a truck every morning.

- 救援队把药品和食物运到被淹的村庄。

(=The rescue team hauled medical supplies and food to the flooded villages.)

2. pull or drag sth. with effort or force

- A crane had to be used to haul the car out of the stream.

- Rescue workers hauled passengers out of the crashed train.

CF: haul, drag & pull


haul 指缓慢而费力地拖一极重之物,有时可表示很困难地拽。例如:

- Lorries haul heavy goods from factories to ports.


drag 指施力者在地面或表面上缓慢而沉重地把东西拖过一段距离,该词通常使人想到主动或被动的阻力。例如:

- You might drag a heavy box across the ground if you couldn’t lift it.


pull 为最普通用词,可指朝各个方向拉,并不强调用力大小。该词后面可添加副词或副词词组具体描述拖拉动作的用力大小或方向等。例如:

- They pulled hard but the rock remained stock-still.



1. vt. add to sth. in order to improve it (followed by with)

- Peter supplements his ordinary income by writing books.

- 医生建议在我的饮食中补充维生素 E 和 A。

(=The doctor suggested supplementing my diet with vitamins E and A.)

2. n. an additional amount of sth.

- Do you read the color supplements of the Sunday newspapers?


- She has been ill and must have supplements to her ordinary food.

spray: vt. force out liquid in small drops upon (followed by with)

- I’ll have to spray the roses with insecticide to get rid of the greenfly (蚜虫). - They sprayed the President’s car with bullets.

- 汽车开过,溅了我一身水。

(=A car went past and sprayed me with water.)

pursue: vt.

1. be busy with; continue (steadily) with

- He is pursuing his studies at the university.

- After graduation Martin chose to pursue the same career as his father as a doctor.

2. follow esp. in order to catch, kill, or defeat

- The police are pursuing an escaped prisoner.

wicked:adj. evil or bad

- We are all born good, but can be taught to be wicked.

- 他真邪恶。

(=That was wicked of him.)

- I have such a wicked toothache.

get through: come successfully to the end

- 当地政府已采取一些措施以确保所有人顺利过冬。

(=The local government has taken some measures to ensure that all the people will get through the winter.)

- She got through the entrance examination and was accepted by the college.

at that point: at that very moment; right then

- The train was now only a couple of yards from the kids on the track. At that point, Anthony threw himself forward and pulled them clear.

- The man suddenly held up a poster. At that point, all TV cameras were pointed at him.

on balance: with all things considered

- On balance, it’s probably not advisable to change the company’s name.

- 我想,总的来说我更喜欢新的操作系统。

(=I think, on balance, I prefer the new operating system.)

NB: balance 的反义词是 imbalance。

此外,与 balance 有关的其他搭配有:

keep one’s balance保持平衡

lose one’s balance失去平衡

strike a balance 力求折中

in the balance 不确定,成败或安危未定

illustrate: vt. provide with visual features; clarify by use of examples, etc. - Let me use another example to illustrate this difficult point.

CF: illustrate, exemplify & demonstrate


illustrate 表示不仅使用具体事例而且有时使用图画,目的是使说明生动、逼真或有效,从而真实地说明某一观点。例如:

- The way that a pump works is used to illustrate how the heart sends blood around the body.


exemplify 可用于举例说明某一笼统、抽象的陈述,也可用于举出某事物的典型或范例。例如: - Knights exemplified courage and courtesy.


demonstrate 表示用充足且可靠的证据证实某一学术观点或结论,也可用于说明人或事。例如: - Galileo demonstrated that objects of different weights fall at the same speed. (=伽俐略证实了重量不同的物体以同样的速度下落。)


1. n. a short account of written materials or data

- Reader’s Digest is a popular magazine in the US.

- He was so busy that he only read a concise digest of their project.

2. v.1) change sth. into a form that the body can use - 玛丽吃肥肉不消化。

(=Mary can’t digest fat.)

2) think about sth. carefully and understand it

- I heard her speech, but I haven’t digested it yet.

- 吸收新思想往往需要很长时间。

(=It often takes long time to digest new ideas.)

generate: vt. bring into existence; produce

- 煤燃烧时,产生热量。

(=When coal burns, it generates heat.)

- The widespread use of Spanish in some American cities has generated a public debate over language use in the country.

- The teacher’s remark generated loud laughter.

insurance:n. guarantee of compensation for loss, damage, sickness, death, etc. in return for regular payment

- Does your insurance cover damage by flooding?

- Our firm carries fire insurance.


accident insurance 意外保险

medical insurance 医疗保险

private health insurance 私人健康保险

disability insurance 伤残保险

social insurance 社会保险

unemployment insurance 失业保险

whole life insurance 终身人寿保险

pick up:

1) be ready to pay 2) improve 3) gain; get 4) take hold of and lift up

5) gather together; collect 6) collect someone or something from a place

Match the following sentences with appropriate definitions above.

Where did you pick up your excellent English? (3)

Please pick up all your toys when you’ve finished playing. (5)

If he loses the case, Michael will have to pick up the bill for legal costs. (1) I’ll pick you up at your hotel. (6)

She picked up a stone and threw it at the window. (4)

Mary has been ill, but she’s picking up now. (2)

premium:n. a sum of money paid regularly to an insurance company to protect sb. against some risk of loss or damage

- The employers make the employees pay for a large portion of their health insurance premium.

- He is complaining that car insurance premiums have increased too much this year. (=他抱怨说,今年汽车保险费增加得太多。)

aside from: except for; in addition to (more usual in American English; same as apart from)

- Aside from an occasional game of tennis, he doesn’t take any exercise.

- This composition is good aside from a couple of spelling mistakes.

- 万籁俱寂,只有从远处偶尔传来汽车喇叭声。

(=Everything was quiet, aside from the occasional sound of a car horn in the distance.) cut back: reduce in size or amount

Pattern: cut back sth.; cut back on sth.

- The government has cut back on defense spending.

- 我们反对任何削减教育预算的计划。

(=We oppose any plans to cut back (on) education budget.)

dine out: eat a meal away from home (usu. in a restaurant)

- I’m going to dine out with Peter tonight.

- With the improvement of living standards, more and more people dine out at weekends. suspect:

1. v. 1) believe to be true, likely or probable

Pattern: suspect that …

- I strongly suspect that they’re trying to get rid of me.

2) believe to be guilty

Pattern: suspect sb./sth. of sth.

- The police suspect him of murder.

2. n. a person who is suspected of guilt, esp. in a crime

- The police have arrested two suspects in connection with the bank robbery.

3. adj. of uncertain truth, quality, etc.

- That is a rather suspect answer; I don’t believe it.

CF: suspect, assume & presume


suspect 意思是“猜想”、“觉得会”、“有点感觉到”,表示有(某事物)存在的想法。另外,该词有“怀疑”、“怀疑某人有…罪”之意。例如:

- We suspected that he was lost, even before we were told.


- He is suspected of murdering that old lady.


assume 意思是“假定”、“设想”,指把一件尚未证实的事作为事实或真理。例如:

- He assumed that the train would be on time.


presume 也有“假定”、“设想”的意思,但它指根据过去的经验或某些现实的感觉认为某事属实,虽然还没有确凿的证据。例如:

- The court presumed the death of the man who disappeared during the war.


budget:n. a plan of how to arrange private or public income or spending

- Adam limits himself to a daily budget of $10.

- At last, the government’s efforts to balance the budget ended in failure. Collocation:

draw up a budget 制定预算

submit a budget 提交一项预算报告

balance a budget 平衡预算

exceed a budget 超出预算

cut/reduce a budget 减少预算

a federal/household/municipal/national budget 联邦/家庭收支/市政/国家预算scale: n. a relative level or degree (usu. used in the phrase on a … scale)

- We tested our new teaching methods on a small scale. Indeed only six classes were involved in it.

- 这项工程规模浩大地展开了。

(=The project was undertaken on a grand scale.)

temptation: n. the feeling of being tempted to do sth. wrong or harmful; the thing you want to have

- The kids can’t resist the temptation of McDonald’s.

- He couldn’t resist the temptation to steal the jewel.


overcome temptation 克服诱惑

resist temptation 抵制诱惑

be exposed to temptation 受到诱惑

face temptation 面临诱惑

succumb to temptation 向诱惑屈服

place/put temptation in sb.’s way让某人受诱惑

device: n. a piece of equipment designed to serve a special purpose

- They suspected that an explosive device had been left somewhere inside the building. - 她发明了一种能在下雨时自动关闭窗户的装置。

(=She invented a device that automatically closes windows when it rains.)

CF: device, instrument & implement


device 表示“(为某种用途而制作或改装的)装置、器具”。例如:

- I have fitted a device to my car which opens the garage doors automatically. (=我车上装了一个能自动开启车库门的装置。)

instrument 表示“器械”、“仪器”、“(发动机或航海、航空等的)测量仪器”、“仪表”,表示为技术工作设计的工具,着重于工具的精密与复杂。例如:

- All surgical instruments must be sterilized before use.


implement 指“工具”、“器具”,常指用于户外如园艺或农用的工具。例如:

- Man’s earliest implements were carved from stone and bone.



1. money gained by business

- He makes a big profit from selling waste material to textile companies.

- 他以获利价出售了他的房子。

(=He sold his house at a profit.)

2. advantage gained from some action

- Finishing college will be your profit.

- I have read this book with profit.


clear/earn/make/turn a profit 获得利润

divide profits 分红利

a clear/net profit 净利

a gross profit 毛利,总利润

poor profits 薄利

small profits and quick returns 薄利多销

at a profit 获利地、有利可图地

CF: profit, interest & advantage


profit 指在物质与精神方面的好处,但以金钱方面为主。例如:

- The company has targeted a quite high profit for the year.


interest 当“利益”讲时常用复数形式。例如:

- A public servant is to work in the interests of the public.


advantage 常指有利条件或优势地位。例如:

- Don’t you think it a double advantage for us?


- He was adept at maintaining a psychological advantage.


invest:v. use money to make a profit out of something that will increase in value - She decided to invest $10,000 in the gas industry.

- My parents intend to invest in stocks and bonds.

- 许多商人正在向农业投资。

(=Many businessmen are investing in farming.)

primarily:adv. mainly; chiefly

- We are primarily concerned with improving our working conditions.

- 男子通常比女子跑得快,主要是因为他们的肌肉力量更大。

(=Men usually run faster than women, primarily because they have greater muscular strength.)

Useful Expressions

过得去get by

寻觅心灵的满足find contentment

一种自力更生的生活 a self-reliant sort of life

大地回暖的气息the smell of the earth warming

艰苦的生活 a tough life

日常的家务usual household routine

正如老话说的那样as the old saying goes

温馨快乐每一分钟love/enjoy every minute of sth.

过冬get through the winter

常春藤联合会学校Ivy League schools

带着某人的祝福with sb.’s blessings

总的来说on balance

担任全职工作be employed full time

贷款按揭mortgage payments

至于…When it comes to ...

除…以外apart from ...

外出吃饭dine out

降低生活标准lower the standard of living / living standard

弥补收入差额make up the difference in income

听歌剧、看芭蕾演出attend the opera and ballet

耐得住寂寞 a tolerance for solitude

手头紧be on a tight budget


抵制诱惑resist the temptation to do sth.

怆然离去leave with a feeling of sorrow

自豪感 a sense of pride

一旦形势好转once economic conditions improve

赚钱earn money

Sentence Translation

1. Later this month, we’ll spray the orchard, paint the barn, plant the garden and clean the hen house before the new chicks arrive.


2. I’m not making anywhere near as much money as I did when I was employed full time, but now we don’t need as much either.


3. When it comes to insurance, we have a poor man’s major-medical policy.


4. Once economic conditions improve, however, demand for farms like ours should be strong again.


5. 在作物生长季节,根本就没工夫参加社交活动。

(=During the growing season there is no time for socializing anyway.)

6. 了解这些变化所带来的影响也许有助于我们改善家庭生活。

(=Becoming aware of the effects of those changes may help us improve family life. ) 7. 而单亲家庭的数量在过去三十年中急剧增长。

(=And the number of single-parent homes has mushroomed in the last thirty years. ) 8. 这些孩子会不会失去童年时期应有的一些重要东西?

(=Are these children missing out on an important part of childhood?) All in all, Beijing and Shanghai are two great cities in China. We are proud of both.

After Reading:Proverbs and Quotations

1. Life consists in wanting something. When a man is satisfied he is as good as dead. (=人生在于有所追求。一个人满足时,无异于死亡。)

2. Work has a bitter root, but sweet fruit.


3. Life is long if it is full.


4. I do not like work — no man does — but I like what is in the work — the chance to find yourself.

— Joseph Conrad, British novelist (=我不喜欢工作——没有人会喜欢工作。但是我喜欢工作的本质——发现自我的机会。

——英国小说家约瑟夫?康拉德) 5. It is impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do.

— Jerome Klapka Jerome, British humorist (=除非有大量的工作,否则一个人不可能充分领略悠闲的乐趣。

——英国幽默家 J. K. 杰罗姆) 6. When work is a pleasure, life is joy! When work is duty, life is slavery.

— Maxim Gorky, Russian writer (=当工作是一种乐趣时,生活是一种享受!当工作是一种义务时,生活则是一种苦役。

——俄国作家 M. 高尔基) Supplementary Reading: Culture Notes

I. A Brief Introduction to The Simpsons

- Born: 1989

- Birthplace: Television

- Best Known As: Long-running yellow-skinned animated TV family The Simpsons is an American animated television sitcom (情景喜剧) created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody (模仿

的作品) of a working class American lifestyle epitomized (以…为缩影) by its eponymous (同名的) family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional city of Springfield, and satirizes American culture, society, television and many aspects of the human condition.

II. Difficult Sentences

1.What? You say that doesn’t sound like life in your house? Well, you’re not alone.

In fact, you’re probably in the majority.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.


2.Leave it to Beaver, for example, shows Mom doing housework in pearls and high

heels. Dad keeps his suit and tie on all weekend.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.


3.If there’s nothing good on network TV or cable, the video store offers the best

and worst of Hollywood: recent movies, cartoons, “adult” films, exercise programs, travel, sports, how-to tapes.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.


4.Nowadays, Dad might want to rent an action movie when Mom’s cable shopping service

is on. Or Junior is playing a let’s-blow-up-Saturn video game while Sis wants to see The Simpsons.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.


III. Words & Expressions


1. n. a piece of roasted meat

- My mother ordered a roast from the butcher.

- 我们通常在星期天午餐吃炖肉。

(=We usually have a pot roast for Sunday lunch.)

2. vt. cook with dry heat

- Just roast the chicken in the oven and baste it in oil and lemon.

- 他想学会如何在火上烤鸭。

(=He wanted to learn how to roast duck over the fire.)

3. adj. (only before noun) roasted

- Like many children, the boy likes roast chicken very much.

- 在我看来,制作一份上等的烤土豆是在烹饪中最重要的功夫之一。

(=In my eyes, a good roast potato is one of the most important things in cooking.) at one time: once; in a former time

- At one time I used to go skiing every winter.

- 超短裙曾一度非常流行。

(=At one time miniskirts were very popular.)

get along: manage to live or survive

- I wonder how Michael is getting along in his new job.

- 虽然这不容易,但我想没有他我们照样可以活。

(=It’s not going to be easy but I think we can get along without him.) workforce:n. the total number of workers in a specific undertaking, or the total number of people employed or employable

- skilled/educated/flexible workforce

- 现在,妇女几乎占劳动人口的50%。

(=Women now represent almost 50% of the workforce.)

mushroom:vi. spread, grow, or develop quickly

- After she had won several acting awards, her television career mushroomed.

- 在过去十年中,城市犯罪增长迅速。

(=Crime in the city has mushroomed during the past decade.)

miss out (on sth.): not do or have sth. that you would enjoy or sth. that other people do or have

- If you leave early for Christmas you’ll miss out on all the partying.

- 我到那里晚了,错过了所有有趣的事。

(=I got there late and missed out on all the fun.)

in addition: furthermore

- The company provides cheap Internet access. In addition, it makes shareware freely available.

- 该价格包括上好的免费自助早餐。此外,酒店提供免费互联网接入。

(=The price includes excellent free buffet breakfast. In addition, the hotel provides Internet access for free.)

in addition to: as well as; besides

- In addition to giving a general introduction to computer, the course also provides practical experience.

- 除了她的音乐造诣,珍妮还被认为是一位小说家。

(=In addition to her musical accomplishment, Jeannie is known as a novelist.) gasp: vi.catch one’s breath with an open mouth, owing to pain or astonishment - I gasped when I heard how much the watch had cost.

- 当车失控时,她吓得倒抽一口气。

(=She gasped in horror as the car spun out of control.)

commute:n. the act of making the same journey regularly between work and home (followed by to/from/ between)

- Commute from Brighton to London every day really exhausts me.

- 我早晨上班路上要花45分钟。

(=My morning commute takes 45 minutes.)


1. n.a piece of leather or rope which is fastened to a stick, used for hitting animals or people

- She lashed the horses mercilessly with her long whip.

- 用鞭子惩罚孩子是残酷的。

(=It’s cruel to use a whip to punish a child.)

2. vt. hit (a person or animal) with a whip

- I don’t like the way the drivers whip their horses.

- 他鞭打马使它跑得更快。

(=He whipped the horse to make it go faster.)

whip up: make quickly

- Mother was in the kitchen whipping up a batch of cakes.

- 我能三下五除二做出一份色拉。

(=I could whip up a salad.)

go with: suit each other or look or taste good together

- I’m not sure that this hat really goes with this dress.

- 这种酒与海鲜特别搭配。

(=This wine goes particularly well with seafood.)

thaw: vt. (of ice, snow, or other frozen substance, such as food) become liquid or soft as a result of warming

- Thaw frozen meat in its packet and then cook as soon as possible.

- 太阳出来,把冰融化了。

(=The sun came out and thawed the ice.)

as a result: consequently, therefore

- Unemployment has risen as a result of new economic policies.

- 由于飞行员罢工,所有航班都被迫取消。

(=As a result of the pilots’ strike, all flights have had to be cancelled.) relate to:

1. be able to understand

- I know he feels upset, and I can relate to that.

- 许多家长发现很难与处于青少年期的孩子沟通。

(=Many parents find it hard to relate to their children when they are teenagers.)

2. be connected with

- The cost relates directly to the amount of time spent on the job.

- 第九章涉及通货膨胀对消费者的影响。

(=Chapter Nine relates to the effects of inflation on consumers.)

take over: become dominant; take control of, esp. in place of sth./sb. else

- They’ve recently been taken over by a larger company.

- 英国航空公司已经接管了两个附属航空公司。

(=British Airways has taken over two subsidiary airlines.)

dizzying: adj. making people feel dizzy, producing a feeling as if everything is spinning around

- The economic restructuring proceeded at a dizzying pace.

- 初恋可能会侵入血液,令人头晕目眩;而持久的爱情则在灵魂深处找到归宿。

(=First love may register in the blood with dizzying effect, but the love that endures takes up residence in the soul.)

array:n. a large group, number, or quantity of people or things

- There was a splendid array of food on the table.

- 他们坐在一排麦克风和照相机前。

(=They sat before an array of microphones and cameras.)

cable: n. a wire, covered by plastic, that carries electricity, telephone signals,


- The road has been dug up in order to lay cables.

- 由于地震,海底电缆被毁。

(=The undersea cable was broken because of the earthquake.)

network: n. a group of radio or television stations, which broadcast many of the same programmes, but in different parts of the same country

- Three big TV networks are under construction in that country.

- 在那个宾馆,你可以很容易连接上国际电脑网络。

(=It’s easy for you to plug into the international computer network at that hotel.) make sense: be reasonable, logical or comprehensible

- What you say makes no sense.

- 当这些便宜的衣服与那件贵的一样好时,去买那件贵的是不明智的。

(=It doesn’t make sense to buy that expensive coat when these cheaper ones are just as good.)

Leave it to Beaver: one of the most popular series in television history in the US, first shown in 1957

hitch a ride:to try to get a ride in a passing vehicle while standing at the side of a road, generally by either sticking out one’s finger or thumb or holding a sign with one’s stated destination

Big Mac: a hamburger sold by the international fast-food chain McDonald’s. It is one of the company’s signature products. It consists of two 45.4g beef patties, special “Mac” sauce, iceberg lettuce, American cheese, pickles, and onions, all served on a three part sesame seed bun.