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1. 国际贸易一般指不同国家的当事人进行的交易,它涉及到许多因素,因而比国内贸易要复杂得多。International business refers to transaction between parties from different countries. It involves more factors and thus is more complicated than domestic countries.
2. 随着经济一体化进程的发展,很少人和公司能完全独立于国际商务之外而存在。因此,在此方 面具有一定的知识是十分必要的,这既有益于企业的发展又有益于个人的进步。 With the development of economic globalization, few people or companies can completely stay away from international business. Therefore, some knowledge in this respect is necessary both for the benefit of enterprises and personal advancement.
3. 其他参与国际贸易的形式有管理合同、承包生产和“交钥匙”工程。 Other forms for participating in international business are management contract, contract manufacturing, and turnkey project.
4. 国际贸易最初以商品贸易的形式出现,即在一国生产或制造商品而出口或进口到另一国进行消 费或转售。 International business first took the form of commodity trade, i.e. exporting and importing goods produced or manufactured in one country for consumption or resale in another.
5. 除了国际贸易和投资, 国际许可和特许经营有时也是进入国外市场的一种方式。 Besides trade and investment, international licensing and franchising are sometimes taken as a means of entering a foreign market.
6. 国际贸易和国内贸易在法制体系、货币、文化和自然条件与经济条件方面都有所不同。 International business and domestic business are quite different in legal systems, currency, culture and natural and economic conditions.
7. 随着经济全球化的发展, 无形贸易即使在发展中国家的国际贸易中所占的比例也逐渐增大。 With the development of economic globalization, invisible trade accounts for an increasing proportion of the world trade even in the developing countries.
8. 国际投资是国际商务的另一个重要形式, 可分为外国直接投资和证券投资两大领域。 International investment is another form of international business and can be classified into two categories, foreign direct investment and portfolio investment.
9. 对商务知识的了解可避免产生国际贸易活动中的一些问题。 Knowledge of business will avoid giving rise to some problems in respect of international business activities.
10. BOT 是“交钥匙”工程的一种流行的变通形式。 BOT is a popular variant of the turnkey project.
11. 国民生产总值和国内生产总值是表明一国收入的两个重要概念。区别在

于前者强调的是生产要素的所属权而后者着重于进行生产的国家。 GNP and GDP are two important concepts used to indicate a country’s income. The difference between GNP and GDP is that the former focuses on ownership of the factors of production while the latter concentrates on the place where production takes place.
12. 要评估某一市场的潜力,人们往往要分析其收入水平,因为它为那里居民的购买力高低提供了线索。In assessing the potential of a market, people often look at its income level since it provides clues about the purchasing power of its residents.
13. 世界各国被世界银行分为三大领域:高收入国家,中等收入国家和低收入国家。 Countries of the world are divided by the World Bank into three categories of high-income, middle income and low income.
14. 中国现在的年人均收入为 1100 美元以上,但几年前它还是一个低收入的国家。 China with an annual per capita income of over $1100 is a middle income country though it was a low income country just a few years ago.
15. 就中国来说,周围还有其他应特别关注的市场,如亚洲四小虎、东盟国家、俄罗斯等国,这些 国家都具有前景看好的市场潜力,能为中国提供很好的商机。 As far as China is concerned, other markets we should pay particular attention to are those around us: the Four Tigers, the ASEAN countries, Russia etc. those are countries with very promising market potential and can offer good business opportunities to China.
16. 日本和中国是重要贸易伙伴,两国经济互补,又是一衣带水的近邻。中日贸易关系对两国都有 重要的意义。 With mutually complementary economy, Japan and China are major trade partners, and the two countries are close neighbors separated by a strip of water. Sino-Japanese business relations are therefore of great importance to both countries.
17. 过去的几十年,地区经济一体化越来越重要。 The past decades witnessed increasingly growing importance of regional economic integration.
18. 最著名的自由贸易区是北美自由贸易区,它是由美国,加拿大和墨西哥于 1991 年建立的。 The most notable free trade area is the North American Free Trade Area, formed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1991.
19. 经济联盟的成员国不仅要在税收,政府开支,企业策略等方面保持一致,而且还应使用同一的 货币。The members of an economic union are required to not only to harmonize their taxation, government expenditure, industry policies, etc. but also use the same currency.
20. 欧洲委员会是欧盟的管理机构之一,此机构将提议呈交给部长理事会做决定,并监督各成员国根据所制定的条约履行自己的义务。 The

European Commission is one of the governing organs of the EU. It is the body which puts proposals to the Council of Ministers for decision and sees that the members carry out their duties under the treaty.
21. APEC 建立于在澳大利亚首都堪培拉召开的一次部长级会议上。当时有 12 位成员国出席,分别 为澳大利亚,美国,加拿大,日本,韩国,新西兰和东盟六国。 APEC was set up at the Ministerial Meeting held in the Australia capital Canberra attended by 12 members of Australia, the United States, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand and Six ASEAN countries.
22. 为了更好地分享商品,服务,劳动以及其他资源自由流动带来的好处,各国签署了各种协议,促进成员国间的贸易自由化。 To better enjoy the benefit of free flow of goods, services, capital, labor and other resources, countries have signed various agreements to liberalize trade among them.
23. 欧盟各国经济的成功一体化降低了跨境交易成本,实现了规模经济,欧洲企业也在更激烈的竞争中提高了效率 。 The successful integration of European economies eliminated the cost of cross-border transactions, realized better economies of scale and made the European companies more efficient through more intense competition.
24. 除了区域经济一体化,各国还可能建立商品卡特尔控制某种商品的产量和定价来为相关产品寻求更高或更稳定的价格。 Besides regional economic integration, countries may form a commodity cartel to control the production, pricing and sale of particular goods so as to seek higher and more stable prices for the relevant goods.
25. 经济全球化为世界经济发展提供了新的动力和机会,同时也使各经济体更加相互依赖,相互影响。Economic globalization is giving new impetus and opportunities to world economic development and meanwhile making the various economies more and more interdependent and interactive.
26. 跨国公司是在一个以上的国家拥有、控制和经营资产的商业组织。 A multinational enterprise is a business organization that owns, controls and manages assets in more than one country.
27. 许多人欢呼经济全球化带来的好处、但同时也有强烈的反对声音。 While many people are acclaiming the benefits brought about by economic globalization, there are also loud voices of opposition.
28. 跨国公司的内部交换占整个国际贸易的一个很大的比例 。 The transfer of the intra-MNE transactions constitutes a very significant proportion of total international trade.
29. 尽管公司的日常管理工作下放到跨国企业的子公司, 但重要决策,如有关公司目标和新投资等 都由母公司来决定。 Although the day-to-day running of corporate operations may be decentralized to

the affiliate MNCs, the major decisions, such as those on corporate goals and new investments are made by the parent company. 30. 无论人们是否喜欢, 经济全球化已成为世界经济发展中的一个客观趋势。 Like it or not, economic globalization has become an objective trend in world economic development.
31. 经济全球化不仅涉及经济, 而且对政治、 文化、 价值观和生活方式都有重要影响。 Economy is not the only element involved in globalization since it also has an important bearing on politics, culture, value and way of life.
32. 如果一家跨国公司是原来的投资公司,它便称为母公司,一般也是这家国际企业组织的总部。 If the MNC is the original investing corporation, it is known as the parent MNC, which is normally also the international headquarters of the MNE.
33. 除了总部以外,跨国企业组织也可能有不同的地区总部和业务总部。 An MNE may also have various regional and operational headquarters, in addition to international trade.
34. 一些跨国企业有许多年的历史,它们的收入每年以两位数的速度增长,扣除通货膨胀因素比许 多国家的 GDP 增长还快。 Some MNEs have a history of many years and their double digit growth rate of revenue adjusted for inflation is higher than that of the GDP of many countries.
35. 在当今世界里, 跨国企业是一种可以跨越边界转移资源的非常重要的途径。 our world today, the In multinational enterprises are very important vehicles for the transfer of resources across national boundaries.
36. 技术、资本和现成的市场是跨国企业带给不发达国家的利益。 Technology, capital and ready markets are sort of benefits MNEs bring to less developed host countries.
37. 在复杂的经济世界中,没有一个国家可以完全自给自足。 In the complex economic world, no country can be completely self-sufficient.
38. 随着制造业和技术的发展, 出现了另一个刺激贸易的因素, 即国际专门化。 With the development of manufacture and technology, there arose another incentive for trade, i.e. international specialization. 39. 按照比较利益学说, 两个贸易伙伴均可从贸易中得到好处。 According to the theory of comparative advantage, both trade partners can benefit from trade.
40. 比较利益并不是一个静止的概念,一个国家可以通过自己的行动发展某种特定的比较利益。 Comparative advantage is not a static concept. A country may develop a particular comparative advantage through its own action.
41. 比较利益理论已成为现代国际贸易思想的基石。 The idea of comparative advantage has become the cornerstone of modern thinking on international trade.
42. 绝对利益学说和比较利

益学说是国际专门化中的两种理论。 Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two theories of international specialization.
43. 一件商品的成本会因生产规模扩大而减少。 The cost of a product will decrease with the expansion of production scale.
44. 在实际中,即使完全的专业化在经济上有利,也可能永远不会发生。 In reality, complete specialization may never take place even though it is economically advantageous.
45. 配额或者说数量限制是最常见的关税壁垒。 Quotas or quantitative restrictions are the most common form of non-tariff barriers.
46. 有形贸易指货物的进出口贸易,而无形贸易涉及的是国家间的劳务交换。 The visible trade is the important and export of goods, and the invisible trade is the exchange of services between countries.
47. 国家从事的贸易种类是多样的、复杂的,往往是有形贸易和无形贸易的混合。 The kinds of trade nations engage in are varied and complex, often a mixture of visible and invisible trade.
48. 各国政府经常采取的贸易保护主义措施也是贸易障碍,典型的例子是关税和配额。 Protectionist measures which are often taken by governments are also barriers to trade, and typical examples are tariffs and quotas.
49. “自愿”这个说法一般意味着进口国已经威胁在自愿合作不能实现的情况下将实行更大的限 制。 “voluntary” label generally means that the importing country has threatened to impose even The worse restrictions if voluntary cooperation is not forthcoming.
50. 大保险公司为国际贸易提供保险服务,并通过为其他国家的外贸保险而收取费用。 Large insurance companies provide service for international trade and earn fees for insuring other nation’s foreign trade.
51. 许多国家可能有美丽的风景,名胜古迹或只是温和的充满阳光的气候,这些国家吸引着大批旅 游者。Many countries may have beautiful scenery, wonderful attractions, places of historical interest, or merely a mild and sunny climate. These countries attract large numbers of tourists.
52. 劳务输出输入可以是个人,或是由公司甚至国家组织。对一些国家来说,它正在成为一种重要 的无形贸易形式。 Import and export of labor service may be undertaken by individuals, or organized by companies or even by states. And this is becoming an important an important kind of invisible trade for some countries.
LESSON 7 国际贸易术语解释通则 INCOTERMS 2000
53. 包装需按运输的要求进行,在大多数情况下,卖方明确知道把货物安全地运到目的地所需要的包装。 Packing should be made according to the requirement of transportation. In most cases, the seller knows

clearly the particular type of packing required for transporting the goods safely to destination.
54. 在许多情况下,应通知买方在卖方将货物启运之时或之前安排验货。除非合同另有规定,否则 买方必须支付为其自身利益而安排的验货费用。 In many cases, the buyer shall be notified to go through the inspection of goods at or before the time of shipment. Unless otherwise specified, the buyer is supposed to undertake the charges of inspection thus incurred for his own sake.
55. 进口商可以通过可转让的运输单据将货物在运输途中卖给新的买方,这类可转让单据用起来非 常方便。The importer can sell the goods to a new buyer while they are being carried by means of negotiable shipping documents which are very convenient for use.
56. 在所有条款中,买卖双方各自的义务排列在 10 项标题下。 Under all terms, the respective obligations of the buyer and the seller are grouped under 10 headings.
57. 2000 年对国际贸易术语解释通则的修改考虑了无关税区的发展,商务活动中电子通讯使用的增 加, 以及运输方式的变化。 The 2000 revision of Incoterms took account of the spread of customs-free zones, the increased use of electronic communication, and the changes in transport practices.
58. 合同依法实施,未能履行合同义务的一方可能受到起诉,并被强制作出赔偿。 A contract is enforceable by law, and the party that fails to fulfill his contractual obligations may be sued and forced to make compensation.
59. 口头业务协商指的是面对面的直接谈判或通过国际长途电话进行的商谈 。 Oral business negotiations refer to face-to-face discussions or those conducted through international trunk calls.
60. 买方发出的询盘是为了获得拟定购商品的有关信息,它对发出询盘的人无约束力。 Enquiries made by the buyer are to get information about the goods to be ordered, and are not binding on the inquirer.
61. 有效期对于确盘是必不可少的。在规定的时间之前,或在被对方接受或拒绝之前确盘一直是有 效的。The validity period is indispensable to a firm offer, that remains valid until a stipulated time or until it is accepted or rejected.
62. 还盘是对发盘的拒绝, 一旦做出还盘,原报盘即失效而失去约束力。 A counter-offer is a refusal of A the offer which will be invalid and unbinding once a counter-offer is made.
63. 合同是在双方所达成的协议的基础上制定的, 而协议又是双方进行商务谈判的结果。 Contract The is based on agreement, which is the result of business negotiations.
64. 答复询盘时,出口商可以寄去一个报价单,其中应包括询盘中所要求的所有必要的信息。 In response

to an enquiry, a quotation may be sent by the exporter which should include all the necessary information required by the enquiry.
65. 收到发盘的人可能发现该盘的一部分不能接受,并可能提出他自己的建议供进一步讨论,这就 构成了一个还盘。 The offeree may find part of the offer unacceptable and may raise for further discussions his own proposals which constitute a counter offer.
66. 不管业务协商是以书面还是口头进行, 一旦发盘或还盘被接受, 便认为是达成了交易。 No matter whether business negotiation is conducted orally or by way of writing, transaction is considered concluded once an offer or a counter-offer is accepted.
67. 合同的构成同贸易协定或任何其他种类的正式协定类似。 The setting up of a contract is similar to that of a trade agreement or any other type of formal agreements.
68. 对销贸易一般是与有关国家的政策目标相互联系的,如应对外汇短缺和扩大出口之类的问题。 The counter trade is generally associated with policy objectives of relevant countries like dealing with foreign exchange and promotion of exports.
69. 实质上,反向贸易指的是各种货物和服务的直接交换。 In essence, counter trade refers to the direct exchange of assorted kinds of goods and services.
70. 回购贸易和互购贸易之间另一个重要的区别在于回购贸易一般比互购贸易要延续更长一段时 间。Another important difference is that a buyback deal usually stretches over a longer period of time than a counter purchase deal.
71. 在正常的市场交易中, 由于使用货币及市场手段, 货物的买与卖是分别进行的。 In normal market In transactions buying and selling of goods are unbundled, because of the use of money and the market. 72. 尽管有很多好处,反向贸易可能是风险很大的事。 Despite all its advantages, counter trade can be very risky business. 在其他贸易方式中还有加工贸易、寄售、租赁贸易、代理等。 Among other modes of trade are processing trade, consign-ment, leasing trade, agency etc.
73. 在国际贸易中进出口双方都面临着风险,因为总存在对方不履约的可能。 In international trade, both the exporter and importer face risks as there is always the possibility that the other party may fail to fulfill the contract.
74. 为处理国际贸易中的不同形势,各种支付方法便发展了起来。 Various methods of payment have been developed to cope with different situations in international trade.
75. 许多国际交易是通过汇票支付的,汇票是对银行或顾客的支付命令。 A lot of international transactions are paid for by means of the

draft, which is an order to a bank or a customer to pay.
76. 即期付款交单要求进口商立即付款以取得单据。 Documents against payment at sight requires immediate payment by the importer to get hold of the documents.
77. 就出口商而言,即期付款交单比远期付款交单有利,付款交单比承兑交单有利。 So far as the exporter’s interest is concerned D\P at sight is more favorable than D\P after sight, and D\P is more favorable than D\A.
78. 信用证的目的是通过银行信誉为国际支付提供便利。 The objective of an L/C is to facilitate international payment by means of the creditworthiness of the bank. 7
9. 只有在符合信用证所规定条款的情况下,才保证向受益人付款。 The letter of credit only assures payment to the beneficiary provided the terms and conditions of the credit are fulfilled.
80. 只要所有单据都符合信用证的规定,便认为银行履行了职责。The banks will be considered as having fulfilled their responsibility so long as all documents comply with the stipulations of the credit. 81. 信 用 证 独 特 而 具 有 代 表 性 的 特 征 就 是 对 买 卖 双 方 所 提 供 的 双 边 保 证 。 The unique and characteristic feature of the letter of credit is the bilateral security offered to both the seller and the buyer.
82. 受益人如果发现信用证中有任何与合同不符之处,便要求开证人进行修改,以便能保证安全及 时地收到货款。 The beneficiary will request the opener to make amendments to any discrepancies in the credit so as to ensure safe and timely payment.
83. 在国际贸易中几乎不可能使付款和实际交货同时进行。 In international trade it is almost impossible In to match payment with the physical delivery of the goods.
84. 信用证付款方式对买卖双方都提供保障。 The method of payment by the letter of credit offers security to both the seller and the buyer.
85. 现代信用证在 19 世纪后半叶开始采用, 第一次世界大战后得到了实质性的发展。 Modern credits were introduced in the second half of the 19th century and had substantial development after the First World War.
86. 要么因为信用证金额过大,要么因为对开证行不完全信任,出口商有时可能需要保兑的信用证。 Either because the credit amount is too large, or because he does not fully trust the opening bank, the exporter may sometimes require a confirmed letter of credit.
87. 信用证的形式、 长短、 语言和规定各不相同。 Letters of credit are varied in form, length, language and stipulations.
88. 虽然保兑信用证能够给受益人提供最大的付款保证,但它却因保兑而增加了费用。 Although a confirmed credit is able to provide the greatest degree of securi

ty to the beneficiary, it involves 4 additional cost as a result of the confirmation.
89. 即期信用证给予受益人最好的付款保障,并有助于他加快资金周转。只要受益人向银行提示汇 票和准确无误的单据, 银行便立即付款。 Sight credit gives the beneficiary better security and helps A him speed up his capital turnover. The bank will make payment provided that the beneficiary presents the draft and impeccable documents to it.
90. 如果信用证上没有明确规定是否可以转让,根据信用证的规定,应视为不可转让信用证。 If a credit does not specify whether it is transferable, it should be regarded as a non-transferable credit according to the credit stipulations.
91. 循环信用证规定,其金额用过后,在未对其进行特定修改的情况下,即可重新恢复到原金额。 Revolving credit stipulates that its amount can be renewed or reinstated without specific amendment to the credit being made.
92. 信用证极大地方便并促进了国际贸易,然而它并不能给缔约双方提供绝对的安全。 The letter of credit has greatly facilitated and promoted international trade. However, it cannot provide absolute security for the contracting parties.
93. 信用证按其作用、形式和机制分作不同的种类。 Letters of credit are classified into different types according to their function, form, and mechanism.
94. 光票信用证主要用于非贸易结算,而在商品贸易中一般使用跟单信用证付款。 Clean letters of credit are mainly used in non-trade settlement, while documentary credits are generally used in commodity trade. 95. 在即期信用证情况下,提示汇票和正确无误的单据后便立即付款。 In the case of sight credits, payment can be made promptly upon presentation of draft and impeccable shipping documents.
96. 远期信用证显然要使用远期汇票。 付款期限可为 30 天、 天甚至可长达 180 天。 A usance credit obviously calls for a time draft, and the usance varies from 30, 60, to as long as 180 days.
97. 如果信用证可以由原受益人转让给另一个或几个人,那么这种信用证即为可转让信用证。原受 益人称作第一受益人,接受转让的人称作第二受益人。 A letter of credit is called transferable if it can be transferred by its original beneficiary to one or more parties. The original beneficiary is called first beneficiary, and the party the credit is transferred to is called the second beneficiary. 补充:对于一笔具体交易来说,信用证不一定是最理想的付款方式。缔约双方应根据具体情况作出最好的选择。 The letter of credit may not be the most ideal method of payment for a particular transaction, and the contracting parties should make their best choice according to the spe

cific conditions.
98. 在国际贸易中使用正确的单据很重要,否则进口商提货时会遇到困难。 It is very important to use correct documents in international trade; otherwise the importer will have difficulties in taking delivery of the goods.
99. 商业发票,一般称为“发票” ,这种单据对货物的质量和数量以及单价和总价进行概括性描述。 The commercial invoice, generally called the invoice makes a general description of the quality, quantity, unit price, and total value of the goods.
100. 货物在运输过程中可能发生风险损失,需要办理货物保险。 It is necessary to insure the goods against the possible risks they are exposed to in the course of transportation.
101. 已装船提单表明货物已实际装上开往目的港的承运船只。 An on board bill of lading indicates that the goods have been actually loaded on board of the carrying vessel bound for the port of destination. 102. 清洁提单指货物在表面状况良好的情况下装船,这意味着提单上未加任何有关包装或货物外表 不良的批注。 A clean bill of lading refers to one that indicates the goods have been shipped in apparent good order and condition, which means it is devoid of any qualifying remarks about the packing and the outer appearance of the goods.
103. 同海运提单类似的有用于航空运输的空运提单和用于铁路运输的铁路提单。 The document similar to the ocean bill of lading is called airway bill for air transportation and railway bill for railway transportation.
104. 提单的签发日期绝不能晚于信用证所规定的时间。 The date when the bill of lading is issued can by no means be later than that stipulated in the credit.
105. 毫无疑问,一个没有先进的运输系统的社会仍然是一个原始落后的社会。 There is no doubt that a society without an advanced transportation system remains primitive.
106. 这些方式在运作特点和性能方面不同,从而使它们各有比较优势和劣势。五种运输方式分别是: 水路、 铁路、 公路、 管道及航空。 The modes differ in terms of operating characteristics and capabilities, giving them comparative advantages and disadvantages. The five major modes are water, rail, truck, pipeline and air.
107. 过去 10 年,公司自己提供运输能力的倾向越来越大。 The past decade has seen an increasing tendency among business firms to provide their own transportation capability.
108. 作为一个社会, 我们现在的生活比完全自给自足时更富裕, 更消闲。 a society, we enjoy a richer As and more leisurely life than we would be in a totally self-suffi

cient community.
109. 最近几年运输功能引人注目的另一个因素就是越来越多的使用零库存系统。这种系统是以公司 保持很少数量的生产投入的生产方式为基础的。 Another factor that has thrust transportation into the limelight in recent years is the growing utilization of just-in-time inventory systems, on the basis of a production approach in which the firm maintains very small quantities of production inputs. 5
110. 从正式的意义上来说,货物运输可定义为商品和产品为经济目的进行的移动以及这种移动对商 业的发展和进步产生的影响。In a formal sense, freight transportation is defined as the economic movement of commodities and products and the effect of such movement on the development and advancement of business.
111. 所有的运输方式以及其代表性的运载工具在整个运输系统中起着重要的作用。 All the modes and their representative carriers play important roles in the overall transportation system.
112. 保险是一种风险转移机制。通过保险个人或企业可以将生活中一些不确定因素转移给其他人。 Insurance is a risk transfer mechanism, by which the individual or the business enterprise can shift some of the uncertainty of life to the shoulders of others. 113. 即使是在这种情况下,大多数公司宁可付已知的费用即保险费来转移风险,而不愿面对不确定 的风险损失。 Even under these circumstances, most of the firms prefer to pay a known cost or premium for the transfer of risk, rather than face the uncertainty of carrying the risk of loss. 114. 对企业来说损失的价值要比个人高很多。因此保险费也比一栋房子或一辆车高出许多。 In the case of business enterprises, the values exposed to loss are usually much higher and the premium charged is substantially higher than that for a house or a car. 115. 企业投保的主要刺激是他们可以腾出资金,进行其他项目的投资。 The main stimulus to the enterprise is the release of funds for investment in the production of other items. 116. 因此,货物保险是一种目的在于把风险从进口商和出口商的肩上转移到专门承担风险的保险人 一方的活动。 Therefore, cargo insurance is an activity aiming at moving the burden of risk from the exporters and importers to the underwriters. 117. 转移风险的人称为投保人,承担风险的人称为承保人。 Those who transfer risk are called insureds. Those who assume risk are called insurers. 118. 保险是一种社会机制,人们在此机制下转移风险,并从所有转移风险的成员所缴纳的基金中提 供损失赔偿金。 Insurance is a social device in which a group of individuals transfer risk and provides for payment of losses from funds contributed by all members who tr

ansferred risk. 119. 货物保险是主要保险中的一种。这些保险通常有火险,海上保险和意外事故险。 Cargo insurance is one of the main branches of insurance. These are usually listed as fire, marine, life and accident. 120. 关于运输保险,重要的一点是要认识到“是为商业服务的” 。 The important point to realize about transportation insurance is that it is “the handmaiden of commerce”. 121. 他并非想挖空保险基金,而宁愿让货物安全到达目的地。 He does not want to scoop the pool; he would prefer his cargoes to reach their destination safely.
122. 没有可保利益的保险合同是无效的。而任何根据这类合同提出的索赔都不会被受理。 An insurance contract without an insurable interest to support it is invalid and any claim made upon it will not be entertained.
123. 尽管错误的陈述是无意的,但保险人还是受到欺骗。从而保险合同无效。 Even though the mis-statement is unintentional, the underwriter will still be deceived and the policy voidable. 124. 将受损失人的利益恢复到损害发生前的状况的合同就是保险合同。 A contract of insurance is one which res
tores a person who has suffered a loss into the same position as he was in before the loss occurred. 125. 赔偿金额一般包括发票金额加上运输费用及保险费再加上一个商定的百分比,如 10%。 The compensation pay
able generally includes the invoiced cost plus freight, the insurance premium, and an agreed percentage, say 10%.
126. 如果投保的险别不是造成损失的直接原因, 保险公司将不予赔偿。 The insurance company will not entertain the claim if the risk covered is not the proximate cause of the loss.
127. 人们对不“涉及自己利益”的东西投保就被认为是“违背公共政策” 。这就意味着鼓励犯罪。 The insuring of anything by people who are not “interested” in it is held to be “against public policy”. This means that crime would be encouraged.
128. 在货物保险中,如果我们了解使用的销售条款,就知道在任何特定的时间谁拥有对货物的权益。 In cargo insurance we know who has an interest in the cargo at any particular point of time, if we know the terms of sale which have been arranged.
129. 人们根据提议形式的书面声明,决定某项保险的保费是否合理。 The people who decide what premium is fair for a particular cover do so on the basis of written statements made in a proposal form.
130. 损失费用分摊原则规定同样的风险不能投保两次,不能从两个保险人那里获得赔偿费。 Contribution holds that a person cannot be allowed to insure twice for the same risk, and claim compensation from both insurers.
131. 保险公司有权利用被保人所享有的一切

权利这一有利条件来减少其不得不承担的损失。 The insurer is entitled to the advantage of every right of the assured which will diminish the loss he has been forced to bear.
132. 第一次世界大战之前,金本位制建立了固定汇率制,每个国家通过将本国货币与黄金挂钩来确 定其货币的平价。 Before the First World War, the gold standard created a fixed exchange rate system 6 as each country pegged the value of its currency to gold to establish its par value.
133. 1944 年 44 国在美国布雷顿森林举行会议签署了协议,计划在世界贸易和货币方面实现更好的 合作。 In 1944, 44 nations held a conference at Bretton Woods, U.S.A., to plan better cooperation in world trade and currency matter.
134. 弹性汇率制从没有真正地“干净”或自由地浮动。因为中央银行为了稳定汇率采取了各种措施 对货币价格进行干涉。 The flexible exchange rate system has never been clean float or free float, because the central bank takes various measures to intervene in the price of its currency in order to stabilize the exchange rate.
135. 在特定条件下, 提高利率可以吸引国外短期资金, 提高一国的外汇汇率。 Under specific conditions, high interest rate will attract short-term international fund, increasing the exchange rate of one’s own currency.
136. 外汇汇率有三种形式, 买进汇率、 即: 售出汇率和两者的平均值—中间汇率。 There are three types of foreign exchange price namely: the buying rate, the selling rate and the average of the previous two the medial rate.
137. 这些机构的共同目标是通过把发达国家的资金输送到发展中国家帮助这些国家提高生活水平。 The common objective of these institutions is to help raise standards of living in developing countries by channeling financial resources to them from developed countries.
138. 国际复兴开发银行的资金有相当大一部分来自它的留存盈余以及偿还贷款的不断流入。 A substantial contribution to the IBRD’s resources comes from its retained earnings and the flow of repayments on its loans.
139. 该银行的贷款是向处于经济和社会发展较高阶段的发展中国家提供的。 The loans of IBRD are directed toward developing countries at more advanced stages of economic and social growth.
140. 国际货币基金组织旨在向那些在付款方面有困难的基金会员国提供中期贷款。 The purpose of IMF is to provide medium term loans to those members with payment difficulties.
141. 为了承担这项使命,多边投资担保机构向投资者提供担保以防范非商业性风险,向发展中

成员 国政府提供咨询, 并为国际商业界与东道国政府就投资问题安排对话。 To undertake this mission, MIG offers investors guarantees against noncommercial risks, advices developing member governments on policies and sponsors dialogues between the international business community and host governments on investment issues. LESSON 19 对外直接投资 FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
142. 对外直接投资是国际投资的主要方式,一国居民为进行督控和经营通过对外投资获取另一国的 资产。Foreign direct investment is the major form of international investment, whereby residents of one country acquire assets in a foreign country for the purpose of controlling and managing them.
143. 控制成本是一些企业进行对外投资的主要动机之一。而降低生产成本是考虑的一个重要方面。 Controlling costs is one of the major motivations for some enterprises to engage in FDI. And lowering production costs is an important consideration.
144. 直接在国外经营提高一个公司产品的能见度,使当地客户对他们所购买的商品更加放心。 Operating directly abroad enhances the visibility of a firm’s products, making local customers feel more assured about the things they buy.
145. 即时库存管理系统的引进能最大限度地降低库存从而提高经营效率。The introduction of JIT inventory management system can minimize the inventory of the stock so as to increase the efficiency of the operation.
146. 国外直接投资主要有三种形式:建立新企业、购买现有设施和建立合资公司。 FDI is mainly practiced in three forms: Building new enterprises, purchasing existing facilities and forming joint ventures. LESSON 20 国际证券交易所 THE INTERNATIONAL STOCK EXCHANGE
147. 选择权是指在特定的时间内按规定的价格购买或出售一种证券的权利。 Options are contracts giving the right to buy or sell a security at an agreed price within a particular period of time.
148. 未挂牌证券市场是为了满足已经确立了地位的,但是较小的,而且不太成熟的公司的需求而建 立的。The unlisted securities market is to meet the needs of established, but smaller, less mature companies.
149. 政府满足公共部门借贷需求的方法之一就是出售金边证券。 One of the ways the government meets the public Sector Borrowing Requirement is by selling gilt-edged stocks.
150. 通过为证券的发行和交易提供中心市场,股票交易所长期为政府、工业以及投资商的需求服务。 The Stock Exchange has long served the needs of government, industry and investors in providing the central market place for the issuing and trading of securities.
151. 国际 股票交易所 提供了一种 途径,使人 们的存款能 够为那些需 要资金的人 所利

用。 The International Stock Exchange provides a channel through which the savings can reach those who need finance.
152. 关贸总协定体系(现为世界贸易组织)是通过一系列的贸易谈判或回合发展起来的,它最初有 三个基本目标。 The GATT system (now WTO) was developed through a series of trade negotiations or rounds. It originally had three basic goals. 7
153. 加入世界贸易组织对中国有益,因为它将促进中国的改革和发展,提高商品和服务的质量,降 低商品成本和服务费用, 刺激投资和创造就业机会, 改善法制。 China’s WTO accession will benefit China because it will help advance its reform and development, improve the quality and reduce the cost of goods and services, spur investment and the creation of new jobs, and promote the rule of law.
154. 世界贸易组织的主要目的是为了促进自由贸易、进一步减少贸易壁垒并建立更有效的贸易纠纷 解决机制。The main objectives of WTO are to promote free trade, further reduce trade barriers, and establish more effective trade dispute settlement procedures.
155. WTO 争端解决机制是当今国际水准上的最为活跃的体系而且对国际法的持续发展具有重大意 义。The WTO dispute settlement system is the most active one today at the international level and has tremendous importance for the progressive development of international law.
156. 尽管中国取得了很大的成就,但仍然面临巨大的挑战。一部分挑战和竞争来自于农业、银行业 和保险业, 还有一部分来自于一些国家所采取的贸易保护主义措施。 Despite all the achievements, China still faces big challenges. Some of the challenges and competition are from the agricultural sector and banking and insurance industries. And some are caused by the protectionist measures in some countries.
157. 尽管第一次会议没有制定出具体目标,联合国贸易和发展会议的总任务是制定、协商和实施改 善发展进程的措施。 Although no specific objectives were laid down at the first conference, the general target of UNCTAD is to formulate, negotiate and implement measures to improve the development process.
158. 在没有有效协议的情况下,一旦出口收入下降,应立即采用强制的和自动的补救措施。 In the absence of effective agreements, compulsory and automatic compensatory measures should be introduced as soon as there is a decline in export earnings.
159. 实际上西方国家在使低收入国家繁荣起来的同时,其对这些国家的出口将增加,因此也能或得 经济效益。 The western nations would, in fact, also have an eco

nomic interest when they are bringing prosperity to the low-income countries, since their exports to these countries would thus be stepped up.
160. 国际经济新秩序主要是要求发达国家提供更多的现金和贸易方面的优惠。 The new international economic order is mainly a demand for more cash and trade concessions from the developed countries.
161. 贸易和发展理事会是联合国贸易和发展会议的常设机构。 A Trade and Development Board is the permanent organ of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
162. 世界 500 强企业中有 160 多家企业总部设在美国,这 160 多家企业中有 24 家是全球前百名企 业。 More than 160 of the leading 500 enterprises are headquartered in US, 24 of the 160 enterprises are in the top 100 enterprises.
163. GDP 计算的是在一个经济体地理区域内所生产的所有实物产品和服务价值。 GDP measures the market value of all goods and services produced within the geographical area of an economy.
164. 国际商务的另一种重要形式是由一国居民向另一国提供资金,称为国际投资。 Another important form of international business is supplying capital by residents of one country to another, known as international investment.
165. 每一份保险合同都需要有可保利益的支持,否则它就是无效的。 Every contract of insurance requires an insurable interest to support it, or otherwise it is invalid.
166. 还盘可以针对发盘中的价格, 付款条件, 装运时间或其它条款提出。 Counter-offer may be made A in relation to the price, terms of payment, time of shipment or other terms and conditions of the offer. 167. 《国际贸易术语解释通则》的目的在于为外贸业务中使用最普通的贸易术语提供一套国际解释 通则。The purpose of Incoterms is to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade.
168. 国际商务比国内商务涉及的因素更多,因而更复杂。 International business involves more factors and thus is more complicated than domestic business.
169. 期权是一种合同,这种合同给予在特定时间内以商定价格买进或卖出某种证券的权利。 Options are contracts giving the right to buy and sell a security at an agreed price within a particular period of time. 170. 建立跨国企业的目的是获取利润, 利润无疑是跨国企业股东们的基本要求。 MNEs are formed for profit. There is little doubt that the profit goal represents the basic need of the MNEs’ shareholders.
171. 合同是在协议基础上制定的, 而协议是商务谈判的结果。 Contract is based on agreement, which The is the result of business negotiations.
172. 在知识产权保护不力的国家,最好不要采用国际许可经营。 It is not advisable to use licensing in

countries with weak intellectual property protection.
173. 就出口商利益而言,即期付款交单比远期付款交单有利,而付款交单比承兑交单有利。 So far as the exporter’s interest is concerned, D/P at sight is more favorable than D/P is more favorable than D/A.
174. 在国际贸易中进出口双方都面临风险,因为总存在对方不履约的可能。Both the exporter and the importer face risks as there is always the possibility that the other party may not fulfill the contract.
175. 信用证是解决这些问题的办法, 旨在通过银行信誉为国际支付提供便利。 The letter of credit is an effective means to solve these problems. Its objective is to facilitate international payment by means of the credit-worthiness of the bank.
176. 银行只关心代表货物的单据,而不是所基于的合同。 The banks are only concerned with the documents representing the goods instead of the underlying contracts.
177. 银行对于货物是否符合合同不承担法律责任。 Banks have no legal obligation whether the goods The comply with the contract.
178. 合法运输承运人所有权形式有三种:1)公共承运人;2) 契约承运人;3)自有承运人。 Three types of carrier ownership are legal forms of transportation: 1) common carriers, 2) contract carriers, and 3) private carriers.
179. 货物保险是主要保险的一种。这些保险通常有火线、海上保险和意外事故险。 Cargo insurance is one of the main branches of insurance. These are usually listed as fire, marine, life and accident.
180. 关于运输保险,重要的一点是要认识到“是为商业服务的” 。 The important point to realize about transportation insurance is that it is “the handmaiden of commerce”.