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Unit 3 An American Love Affair

Unit three: An American Love Affair

Brock Yates


Translation from English into Chinese

Translation from Chinese into English

Key to Vocabulary and Structure

Key to Reading Practice

(Introductions: Automobiles have greatly contributed to the prosperity of our modern economy and brought people much convenience. But they are a mixed blessing. They have caused plenty of problems that we have to live with, such as pollution, road accidents, traffic congestion, etc. The text tells us an American's attitudes towards cars. Can you summarize their basic arguments?)

1.My father was a Buick man. Prior to the Great Depression he had been a Stutz man. But like thousands of other upward and mobile citizens, he faced a severe adjustment in his automotive tastes because of that tragic shift in the economy. To the day he died, his Buicks were more than mundane transportation modules. They defined him in the class structure - better off than a Pontiac man, not as well off as a Cadillac man - and offered him instant identification on the social landscape. Equally well positioned were the Ford men and the Chrysler men.

2.These loyalties, hard won and supremely valued, form a granite-like foundation for the special bond we Americans enjoy with our automobiles. Is it love? The word may be overwrought, but Americans revere these machines above all others - not only as objects of 20th century rolling sculpture but also as social amulets. The first Buick I remember was a shining black sedan with acres of mohair upholstery and a newfangled column-mounted shifter. My father liked to brag that it would go 120 miles an hour.The very thought of such velocity electrified men and lent credence to my nicknaming the smart beast Black Beauty, after the mysterious machine piloted by the Green Hornet inside the recesses of the family Philco.

3.Unlike the telephone, the television or the personal computer, all of which have strongly altered the human condition in this century, cars enjoy anthropomorphic status. Some become members of the family, mechanical pets. We give them names.

4.We preen them in our driveways, curse them when they fail and lament their passing at trade-in time.

This is a love affair that annoys environmentalists, safety advocates and social engineers who believe that the path to paradise is overlaid with the shining rails of mass transit. They see us packed into futuristic bicycles, not behind the wheels of what one fevered critic denounced as "insolent chariots". This attitude is not new. The mobility represented first by the railroad, then the automobile, has traditionally unsettled the privileged classes. The Duke of Wellington, brilliant on the battlefield but noted for his disdain for the great unwashed, opposed the development of the British railway system 150 years ago because trains would only encourage the common people to move around needlessly". Because the accepted party line is that automobiles pollute, kill, maim and displace populations at a contemptible rate, the sooner they are excised from the planet, the better (and take with them the clutter of shopping malls, drive-ins, and junk-food stores).

5.While the automobile is surely guilty of many sins, its critics choose to ignore that it has been the great liberator, permitting monumental population shifts, city to suburb, east to west, south to north and, more recently, north back to south, as millions of citizens sought improved economic opportunities. Sprawling new metropolitan complexes - Los Angeles, Orlando, Atlanta, Charlotte, Dallas, Las Vegas, Phoenix - have risen up based on layouts that accommodate the auto. The configurations have not been perfect (nor have the mass transit alternatives), but the fact remains that massive growth is being enjoyed by southern and western cities built around cars. While environmentalists fret, the multitudes drive on.

6.There are more than 175 million licensed drivers in America, wheeling nearly 200 million vehicles over 3.9 million miles of roads and streets. Hopping aboard their cars, pickups, motorcycles,motor homes and sport utilities, they roll nearly 2.4 trillion miles every year. About 15 million brand-new cars and light trucks pour onto the highways annually. Stock car racing is the fastest-growing sport in the nation. The automobile industry employs more workers than any other manufacturer - 2.3 million

7.To be sure, cars hurt people, but recent advances in body structures (door beams), passenger packaging (air bags) and brakes (discs, antilock) have made them significantly safer. In the past 30 years, deaths have dropped from 5.3 to 1.7 per 100 million miles driven (a statistic that includes fatalities involving farm implements, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles - any vehicle on a public road).

8.Yes, the car pollutes, but advances in fuel quality and efficiency, and in microprocessed or engine technology, have radically cut emissions. Experts estimate that as few as 10 percent of the automobiles on the road - poorly tuned, aging crocks - produce as much as 50 percent of the emissions. If they could be eliminated from the highways, automobiles might cease to be a major factor in the production of dirty air.

9.Yes, the automobile has been the source of urban sprawl and freeway traffic jams from coast to coast. But the fact remains that drivers by the millions are unwilling to forgo the freedom of movement (although sometimes slow) for the podlike constriction of mass transit. Says a commuter who daily drives his BMW from suburban Westchester County into the jammed maw of Manhattan, "It's the only time of the day when I'm alone and completely in control of my own destiny. It's outrageously expensive, considering the tolls and the parking, and heaven knows it can be slow and frustrating. But it's my choice, and in a world where that becomes rarer by the day, that is important."

10.Such talk may annoy the anticar crowd. If only people would climb aboard the buses and trains the government has so thoughtfully provided. If only people would behave! And that is the crux of it: The modern automobile is a tool of anarchy. It offers such freedom that, short of a total redesign of the nation's cities and the completely banning of autos from vast areas of the nation, the automobile will remain integral to modern life. It might be that even if every last mile of pavement were torn up, every last parking garage leveled, every last service station closed, the automobile would change into a more adaptable form and continue as the essential provider of individual transport. The basic concept is legitimate.

11.Now that the genie is out of the bottle, the challenge is to housebreak it as much as possible, to integrate it into a population that grows by the year, spreading across the landscape. It will take a careful balance of planning and prudence. The automobile will remain the central source of personal transportation in all free, high technology societies. How best to integrate it into a global ecosystem with finite resources is a question that may not be easy to solve, but the first step might be to acknowledge that like it or hate it, the automobile is here to stay.

12.And if my father were still alive, he'll still be a Buick man.

Explanation of the text

1.Buick, Stutz, Pontiac, Cadillac and Chrysler like Ford, are the brand names of a car. The cars with different brands one drives can immediately show one's different socioeconomic status. The ranking of these cars from low to high may roughly be Pontiac(庞蒂亚克), Buick(别克), Ford(福特), Chrysler(克莱斯勒), Stutz, Cadillac(卡迪拉克).

2. prior to: prep. (formal) before, previous to e.g. He set off prior to the notice.在通知发布之前他就动身了。prior adj. 1) earlier e.g. have a prior engagement有约在先2) more important优先的 e.g. You have the prior claims on the professor's time.你有优先占用教授时间的权力。c.f. former /previous/past: former engagement (以前的约会是针对以后的约会而提的latter engagement); previous two attempts 前两次努力(所指不仅是时间还有顺序); the previous pages 前几页; past story 过去的经历(past是相对于present而说的,多指时间)

3.Great Depression: a term applied, especially in the United States, to the worldwide economic disaster of 1930s.The Great Depression was the longest and deepest of the setbacks that have scarred the American economy.

4.upward and mobile citizens: people who try to rise from a lower to a higher economic or social class

5.adjustment n.适应,调整an adjusting or being adjusted e.g. make adjustment adjust (=adapt) v.1) change so as to fit 改变…以适应能力e.g. adjust oneself to new conditions 2) set right 校正, 调整e.g. adjust a telescope to one's sight

6.to a/the day: exactly e.g. We left high school five days ago to a/the day.我们离开中学整整五年了。cf. to this day: up to now e.g. haven't told him the whole story to this day.直到今天我都没有将整个事情告诉他。

7.his Buicks were more than mundane transportation modules: his Buick cars not only symbolized his means of transportation tools but also ...mundane: ordinary

8.offered him instant identification on the social landscape: clearly showed his social status. the social landscape: the social hierarchy 社会等级

9.These loyalties, hard won and supremely valued: The loyalties which are difficult to win and are greatly appreciated. These loyalties here refer to "faithfully buying and/or praising a particular brand of car." supreme adj. 1) highest in degree or rank or authority e.g. the Supreme Court 2) greatest, most important e.g. make the supreme sacrifice (=lay down one's life)

10.granite-like: solid, firm

11.the special bond we Americans enjoy with our automobiles: a special kind of feeling of love or connection that unites Americans and their cars bond: n. 1) sth. that joins or unites 明盟,联系e.g. crate a sympathetic bond between two countries 在两国间建立起和谐的联系; dissolve the bonds of matrimony 解除婚姻关系2) printed paper in which a government or a corporation promises to pay back with interest money that has been lent 契约,债券e.g.issue a baby/ lottery /public bond 发行小额/有奖/公债债券

12.overwrought: adj. 1) overworked, fatigued 用得过滥的, 精疲力竭2) too elaborate 矫揉造作的

13.revere: respect and admire e.g. revere virtue; my revered grandfather

14.amulet: sth. worn in the belief or hope that it will protect the wearer 护身符e.g. The baby is wearing amulet in red against evil.

15.a shining black sedan with acres of mohair upholstery and a newfangled column-mounted shifter:这辆小轿车乌黑发亮。轿车软椅的垫衬是用许多马海毛布做的,轿车还装有崭新的柱形的换挡器。sedan: a small car acres of:(spoken) lots of newfangled:(Am E) new

16.brag: boast e.g. He bragged of having won first prize. nothing to brag about: not very good e.g. His performance was nothing to brag about, and he won't be coming back.

17.The very thought of such velocity electrified men and lent credence to my nicknaming the smart beast Black Beauty:人们对此车速度如此震惊以至于对我把时髦别克车叫做黑美人投出信任的目光。electrify: excite or shock as if by electricity 使兴奋,使惊奇lent credence to my nicknaming the smart beast Black Beauty: gave validity to the nickname Black Beauty, which I called my first Buick. credence: n. quality of sth. which makes people believe it is true e.g. letter of credence介绍信; 推荐信;(大使等的)国书lend/give/attach/(full) credence to sth. (both sth. and sb. can be used as subj. (formal) believe sth. e.g. I’m not prepared to give credence to complaints made anonymously.refuse credence to sth.: not believe. e.g. His mother refused credence to gossip she heard about his daughter. conquer/gain credence from sb. or find credence with sb. (sth. as subj.) e.g. These tales found credence with him.他相信这些无稽之谈。Those views were too extreme to gain credence from the practical- minded. 那些看法过于极端,不大能为讲究实际的人所相信。

18.after the mysterious machine piloted by the Green Hornet inside the recesses of the family Philco: after the car driven by the Green Hornet...在Philco品牌半导体传出的Green Hornet 音乐节目的美妙乐曲声中, 驾驶着神奇的别克车。The Green Hornet: a radio broadcast program. Philco: a brand of radio inside the recesses of the family Philco: refers to the sounds the program produced through the radio to help people imagine a mysterious car being driven by the main character. 19.anthropomorphic: regarding sth. as having the form and qualities of man 人性

20.preen:1)(of a bird)smooth with its peak (鸟)用嘴整理(羽毛)2)(of a person)tidy (oneself)打扮自己preen oneself on: pride oneself, show self-satisfaction 赞扬自己,夸耀自己

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/7a543e07e87101f69e319517.htmlment their passing at trade-in time: feet sorry about having to get rid of a current car when it's time to buy a new one lament: 1) v.: feel sorry about e.g. He deeply lamented the death of his wife. He laments the changing pattern of life in the countryside. 2) n. strong expression of grief e.g. The band was playing a lament.乐队正在演奏哀乐。passionate lament悲痛欲绝trade-in: n.以旧换新业务trade... in: hand over (a used article) in payment for a new purchase trade...for: exchange, barter

22.the path to paradise is overlaid with: path to: e.g. Hard work is the path to success. be overlaid with: be covered with

23:mass transit: public transportation by means of bus, light rail or subway

24.They see us packed into futuristic bicycles, not behind the wheels of what one fevered critic denounced as "insolent chariots”. Pay more attention to the structure of it. The clauses both one fevered and critic denounced as "insolent chariots"modify"what". behind the wheels of what one fevered critic: behind the steering wheels of cars

25.unsettled the privileged classes: unsettle: make troubled, anxious and uncertain the privileged classes: the elite classes

26.Duke of Wellington:(1769-1852) a British general, victor over Napoleon at Waterloo (1815).

27.but noted for his disdain for the great unwashed: but known for his contempt for the people of lower classes disdain v. /n.: dislike (of) sb or sth. that you feel does not deserve your interest or respect e.g. They disdained him for the coward he was. The older musicians disdain the new, rock-influenced music. Our posh new neighbors seem to disdain to speak to us. (refusing to speak to us because they think we do not deserve their attention)The local citizens showed their disdain of/for the foreign artists. unwashed a. /n.: (an) ignorant or low-class (group) e.g. Popular support lay in the unwashed social stratum. 民众的支持存在于社会的底层。

28.the accepted party line: the official view taken by a political party. Here it refers to the view taken by the public.

29.maim: injured badly e.g. After the car accident she was maimed for life.

30.displace: 1)put out of the right or usual place 被迫离开家园e.g. displaced person (=refugee left homeless, unable or unwilling to return to his own country) 2) replace 代替e.g. Tom has displaced Harry in Mary's affections. cf. replace (displace) B with/by A; substitute A for B or substitute B with /by A

31.contemptible: a. deserving or provoking disdain 可鄙的e.g. For a person in a position of such responsibility, her behavior was contemptible. He is contemptible for his meanness. 他很卑劣,实在可鄙。contemptuous a.: showing disdain (表示)轻蔑的He was very contemptuous of "popular” writers, whom he described as talentless and worthless. contempt n. [U] a strong feeling of combined dislike and lack of respect; disdain They used to have/feel contempt for peasants. Such accusations are beneath contempt.这样的指责实在不值得一顾。

32.excise...from:(formal) remove completely...from e.g. excise an organ from the body cf. amputate a finger

33.guilty (of): 1) having done wrong e.g. He was guilty of arson. 2) showing or feeling guilt e.g. look guilty; guilty look

34.monumental population shifts: large-scale population movement

35. sprawling new metropolitan complexes: a group of buildings spread out irregularly a big cities

36. layout: the planned arrangement of a town, garden etc.


38.While environmentalists fret, the multitudes drive on: While environmentalists worry about the effects of cars, the majority of people continue to drive them unconcernedly.

39.licensed/licensed drivers: drivers who have official permission to drive licensed:得到许可(或)批准的领有执照的 e.g. a licensed house/premises 特许的卖烟酒处

40.hop aboard: climb aboard

41.pickups:a type of light van having an open body with low sides 轻型货车

pick-up n. :1)a stimulant; bracer 临时餐, 饮料e.g. want to stop for a cup of tea, I should have a pick-up. 2)(sl)person whose acquaintance is made usually 偶然结识的人adj.(Colloq.) assembled informally or hastily e.g. a pick-up jazz band 临时拼凑而成的乐队

42.motor homes:(Am E)an automotive vehicle with a truck chassis, outfitted as a traveling home with self-contained electrical and plumbing facilities 旅宿汽车, 车屋, 住房汽车, 流动住宅(一种长车厢,设备齐全,可供宿营或旅行时, 暂居住使用的汽车)cf.m obilee home

43.light trucks: 小吨位运货汽车

44.stock car racing:汽车比赛

45.to be sure:1)it is admitted, granted (用作插入语)诚然,固然e.g. She is not pretty, to be sure, but she is very intelligent.2) an expression of surprise (用于惊叹句) e.g. So it is, to be sure.哎呀//啊,真的是那样。

46.door beams:光束(射束)门

47.air bags:(汽车驾驶室内的)保险气袋(以备发生撞车时能立刻充气鼓起成的一种保护性垫子)


49.statistic: n. (only sl)统计量,统计资料中的一项statistics 1)(pl) collection of information shown in number 统计数字(资料)Statistics tell part of the story.2)(sl) the science of statistics 统计学e.g. Statistics is rather modern branch of mathematics. statistical adj. e.g. statistical date/figures

50.fatality: misfortune, calamity

51.farm implements: plows, threshing machines and other farming tools and equipment

52.efficiency: [U] state or quality of being efficient e.g. The skilled carpenter worked with great efficiency to finish the job quickly. Efficient: adj.1)(of person) capable e.g. efficient secretary 2) producing a desired or satisfactory result e.g. efficient methods of teaching [Ant] inefficient

53.microprocessed: 微处理

54.the automobiles on the road-poorly tuned, aging crocks: very old cars that are so poorly adjusted that they could not work well

55.eliminated: remove, take or put away: e.g. Be sure to eliminate spelling mistakes in your article.

56.urban sprawl: urban expansion

57.drivers by the millions: millions of drivers

58.forgo (=forego), forwent, forgone: give up; do without e.g. I shall be happy to forgo pleasures in order to study hard.

59.the podlike constriction of mass transit: a situation in which you are confined in

a very small space while taking public transportation

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/7a543e07e87101f69e319517.htmlmuter:person who commutes 乘公交车辆上下班的人commute: v. travel regularly e.g. by train or car, between one's work in a town and one's home in the country or suburbs e.g. commute between Guang Zhou and Zhu Hai 经常往返于广州与珠海之间

61.maw: an animal's stomach or throat

62.outrageously: adv.outrageous: adj. shocking, very cruel蛮横的,残暴的: e.g. outrageous behaviour 2) shameless, immoral 令人憎厌的,令人不能容忍的: an outrageous price/remark

63.toll: n.1) payment required for the use of a road, bridge, harbour, etc e.g. collect tolls at the gateway 在入口处收通行费2)(fig.)sth paid, lost or suffered: The war took a heavy toll of the nation's manhood.战争使一个国家的男子汉伤亡惨重。

64.it:refers to the movement of driving.

65.that: refers to the choice for people to make about freedom.

66.if only:(=I wish) used to express a wish or desire. With this use, there is often no main clause to go with the if-clause. e.g. If only he would arrive in time! If only she had asked someone's advice. cf.only if

67.thoughtfully: carefully thoughtful: adj. 1) expressing thought e.g. The girl looked thoughtful for a moment and answered. 2) careful e.g. You should be more thoughtful of your safety. 你应当注意自己的安全。3) considerate, thinking of e.g. It was thoughtful of you to warn me of your arrival.你来之前先通知我,真是考虑得很周到。More examples: She is always thoughtful for her friend.她总是关心朋友。Young people are often thoughtless for the future. 年轻人常常不想到未来的事。

68.crux:(pl. ~es) part that is the most difficult to solve 症结关键 e.g. The crux of matter is this.

69.short of: except for e.g. Short of unexpected delay on his way, he will arrive by tomorrow. 只要路上没有意外的耽搁, 他将尽快于明天到达。We will never stop short of the goal.我们不达到目的,决不罢休。

70.integral: a. essential e.g. The arms and legs are integral parts of a human being.

71.tear up: destroy by breaking (it) into pieces e.g. Parks, once bursting with flowers, were now being torn up in favor of factories. She folded the letter, intending to tear it up and throw it out of the window.

72.level: make or become level or flat e.g. level the building with the ground; Death levels all men. (makes them equal by ending social distinctions)

73.housebreak: control

74.integrate ... into: combine ... into e.g. integrate theory with practice

75.prudence:[U] wise thought before acting 谨慎, 慎重 e.g. exercise prudence in dealing with sth.慎重处理某事; cast/fling/ throw prudence to the winds 不顾一切,鲁莽从事

76.finite: limited, having bounds e.g. Human understanding is finite.

Translation and Writing

A. Translate the following English into Chinese.

Historically, Jeep's reputation as a go-anywhere vehicle dates back to the Second World War when the original Jeeps, supplied by the Willys company, carried Allied forces through the Pacific and Europe.

The Macquarie Dictionary of Motoring says the mane Jeep stemmed from the United States Army's decision to call the vehicle GP, for General Purpose vehicle. The name was eventually corrupted to "jeep," from the pronunciation of the letters GP, and became a trademark owned by the Willy company.

Jeep became part of Chrysler in 1988 and the company has since spent a lot of money to revitalize the Jeep production facilities, and to increase the number and style of models available. Chrysler says the Jeep's wartime reputation and rugged image undoubtedly helped it to carve out a new role in peacetime as a recreational vehicle. It says the Jeep created the original market for recreational, off-road vehicles using the powerful four-wheel drive traction (known commercially as 4 WD) for which the army jeep was famous.

B. Translate the following Chinese into English.

1. 汽车诞生后发展很快,不久就替代了马。(displace)

2.由于汽车污染环境并严重伤害人体,甚至杀人,我们可能不得不削减私人拥有汽车的数量而更多地依赖公共交通系统。(mass transit systems)

3.汽车给我们带来了更好、更为便利的交通时,它也应对诸如空气污染、交通事故、交通拥挤之类的许多问题负责。(be guilty of)

4. 美国人对汽车的热爱以及他们较大的工作流动性时出了名的。(be noted for)

5. 要是燃料质量和效率的提高和技术的进步能大大减少汽车的排放量,那该多好啊。(if only)

6. 在美国,高度发达的公路网使在各地之间来来往往成为可能。(from coast to coast)

7. 一想到这条林荫大道的建设速度,参观者都感到很吃惊:这条路不久前还在开挖及铺设排水管。(the very thought of , tear up)

8. 环境保护主义者严厉谴责了汽车,认为汽车是产生空气污染的主要因素。(denounce)

9. 由于有便利的公共交通,在大都市的市郊,许多新建的住宅群拔地而起。(rise up, complex)

10. 尽管非常喜欢汽车,许多人还是相信广泛地使用公共交通系统能缓解交通拥挤。(lend credence to)

Comprehension of the Text

A. Questions(Textbook pp63-64)

1 What social and economic status did the author's father enjoy in his days? Was he

satisfied with it? What did he attempt to do?

3 What are the other words showing such a feeling in this paragraph?

4 What is the difference between cars and other high tech products, such as the telephone, the television, the personal computer, etc.? Give evidence to support your idea.

5 How do environmentalists and social engineers look at automobiles? What does the author intend to mean by the example of "the Duke of Wellington?"

6 What is the ugly image of the automobile commonly accepted?

7 What has contributed to the expansion of metropolitan complexes? Why?

8.In paragraph 6, the author mentions a series of statistics. Why does he do so? What kind of paragraph is it in terms of organization?

9 In paragraphs 7, 8, and 9, the author deals with the problems caused by automobiles and their possible solutions. What are they?

1) Problem / solution

2) problem / solution

3. problem / solution

10.Why are millions of drivers reluctant to give up their freedom of movement?

11.Why will automobile continue to be the essential means of individual transport?

12. What is the conclusion the author has made about the future of automobiles?

B. Answers for Reference

1.The author's father enjoyed a middle-class status. He was satisfied with what he had achieved and attempted to rise to a higher socioeconomic position.

3.Love, revere, social amulets, brag, electrify, smart, beast, Black Beauty, and mysterious machine are the words and expressions that show such a feeling.

4.The difference lies in the fact that cars enjoy anthropomorphic status. They are treated as members of the family and have their own names. People curse them when they fail and feel sorry for them when they trade them in.

5.They see automobiles negatively the author gives the example of the Duke of Wellington to illustrate how the privileged classes did not encourage common people to have the freedom to move around.

6.Automobiles are the cause of many problems. They are the cause of death, injury and population movement. Therefore they should be abandoned as soon as possible.

7.Automobiles have contributed to the expansion of many metropolitan areas because they make monumental population shifts possible, thus resulting in expanding cities. The last sentence implies that people will continue to move in large numbers by means of automobiles no matter how worried environmentalists are about it.

8.This paragraph is a supporting paragraph.

9.1) problem: Cars hurt people. solution: Automobiles have been made much safer by means of various technological advances.

2)problem: Cars pollute.solution: a. Advances in fuel quality and efficiency and in microprocessed engine technology, have radically cut emissions. b. The elimination of poorly tuned, aging cars or vehicles from the highways, which account for 50% of the emissions.

3) problem: Cars are the source of traffic jams and urban sprawl. solution: a. People take the buses and trains the government has so thoughtfully provided. b. People behave properly

10.Because they highly value their freedom and want to control their own destiny In the world today people have fewer and fewer choices and this is their own choice, though it is not perfect.

12.We will live with the automobile despite all the problems it has brought with it.

Key to the Translation from English into Chinese



《麦氏汽车驾驶大全》一书认为,“吉普”这个名字起源于美国军队决定把这种车辆叫做GP(for General Purpose)即多功能车之意。而后,GP这两个字母的读音被误发成为“吉普”,并成为威利斯公司享有的商标名称。


B.Key to t he Translation from Chinese into English.

1.The automobile was improved very rapidly after it was invented and soon displaced horses.

2. We may have to cut down on the number of privately owned cars and depend more on public mass transit systems because cars pollute and maim or even kill people.

3. While wheels (automobiles) have brought with them better or more convenient transportation, they are guilty of many sins, such as air pollution, traffic accidents and traffic congestion.

4. Americans are noted for their love for cars and great job mobility.

5. If only advances in fuel quality and efficiency and in technology would radically reduce the emissions from automobiles.

6. A highly developed highway network has made possible the easy movement from coast to coast in the United States.

7. The very thought of the speed at which the beautiful avenue was constructed electrified every visitor; the road had only recently been torn up to lay drainpipes not long ago.

8. Environmentalists have denounced automobiles, believing they are a major factor in the production of dirty air.

9. Many new residential complexes have risen up in the suburbs of metropolitan cities because of the availability of convenient public transportation.

10. Despite their love for cars, many people lend credence to the extensive use of the public transport system, which can cut down on traffic congestion.

Suggested Key to Vocabulary and Structure

A. 1 -d 2 - f 3 - j 4 - a 5 - i6 - h 7 - g 8 - e 9 - c 10- b

1. mobility

2. toll

3. accommodate

4. landscape

5. sprawled

6. implement

7. legitimate

8. transit 9. electrified 10. pickup

B.1. Integral 2. better off 3. sprawling 4. emissions 5. metropolitan 6. ban 7. commuters 8. clutter 9. accommodate 10. displaced

C.1. from coast to coast 2. the great unwashed 3.revere 4.denounce 5. tore up 6. Short of 7. are noted for 8. constriction 9. was guilty of 10. well off

D.1. C. overcrowded 2. B. worthy 3. A. sitting 4. D. recovered 5. D. in nonsmokers and nondrinkers 6. D. poured 7. B. unaware of 8. C. recent 9. C. out of the question

10. B. understands

E.1. move 2. drive 3. down 4. wheels 5. out 6. without 7. majority 8. imagine

9.realize 10. plagued 11. burns 12. that 13.to 14. what 15. But 16.done 17. altogether 18.on 19. electricity 20. practical

Key to Reading Practice:

1B 2A 3D 4C 5D