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有道考神四级模考试卷(二)

星火英语

Model Test Two

Part I Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay. You should start your essay with a brief description of the picture and then express your views on college life and the Internet. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

有道考神四级模考试卷(二)

You shouldn’t cut classes. You can’t just follow me on Twitter.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Part II Listening Comprehension (25 minutes) Section A

Directions: I n this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Questions 1 and 2 will be based on the following news item.

1. A) They are safe in daily use. C) No chemicals should be used in daily life.

B) They can be put on skins except faces. D) Children should not use them.

2. A) To inspect harmfulness of chemical mixtures. C) To produce safe chemicals.

B) To prove chemicals are harmless. D) To study chemical compositions.

Questions 3 and 4 will be based on the following news item.

3. A) They are rare species. C) They pollinate crops and wild plants.

B) They protect the environment. D) They protect crops and wild plants.

4. A) Chemicals should be used as many as possible.

B) Chemicals should be used only if necessary.

C) Chemicals should be used as few as possible.

D) Chemicals should be used once a month.

Questions 5 to 7 will be based on the following news item.

5. A) In Australia and Africa. C) In Australia and America.

B) In Austria and Africa. D) In Austria and America.

6. A) Better medical equipment. C) Better education.

B) More health care. D) More job chances.

7. A) It's about 2 500 pounds. C) It’s about 250 pounds.

B) It’s about 2 500 dollars.D) It’s about 250 dollars.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Conversation One

Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

8. A) He has got the first place in the test. C) He has been praised by his professor.

B) He has got high scores in the test. D) He has passed all of the tests.

9. A) A few weeks before the exam. C) A few days before the exam.

B) A few months before the exam. D) A few hours before the exam.

10. A) Ask his classmates. C) Go online to check them.

B) Look up some information. D) Discuss them with his teachers.

11. A) Classmates. C) Teacher and student.

B) Mother and son. D) Headmaster and student.

Conversation Two

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard..

12. A) He has to meet an important client. C) He has to attend a business discussion.

B) He has to attend a meeting. D) He has to sign an important contract.

13. A) Help him buy some medicine. C) Send some documents to him.

B) Change the time of the meeting. D) Book a 12 o’clock flight.

14. A) He has got a fever. C) He is allergic to cats.

B) He is allergic to drugs. D) He has got the flu.

15. A) Make an appointment with the doctor. C) Find the root cause of the man’s allergy.

B) Go to see the doctor directly. D) Go to have a meeting in the man’s company. Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Passage One

Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passage you have just heard.

16. A) Indicate our lifestyles and values. C) Cultivate our values.

B) Improve our communicative skills. D) Determine our lifestyles and values.

17. A) They cared little about clothing. C) They were very conscious of clothing.

B) They had poor taste in clothing. D) They were proud of women’s clothes.

18. A) They cared more about clothing than white-collar workers.

B) They were manipulated by white-collar workers.

C) They scoffed white-collar workers for their clothing.

D) They conformed to the accepted pattern of clothing.

19. A) Dressing patterns of workers. C) The importance of clothing.

B) Man’s attitude towards dress.D) The styles of clothing.

Passage Two

Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.

20. A) Many workers feel embarrassed when talking about office gossip.

B) More than half of the workers are involved in office gossip.

C) The percentage of workers involved in office gossip has increased.

D) Workers were reluctant to talk about office gossip before.

21. A) Office gossip may boost when the company expands.

B) Workers dare not to gossip when the company is downsizing.

C) Office gossip may relatively drop when the economy turns better.

D) In a financial crisis, workers are over pressured to gossip.

22. A) It is beneficial to the workers5 productivity.

B) It helps to deliver the latest news of the company.

C) It is an efficient way to relax people's mind.

D) It is a direct way for the boss to know his workers.

Passage Three

Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

23. A) They put them in a well. C) They put them in an evaporative cooler.

B) They put them in the ice. D) They put them into boxes.

24. A) Place it at the top of the cooler. C) Put its ends in the water.

B) Place it at the bottom of the cooler. D) Put it outdoors.

25. A) To store them in conditions that are not cold enough.

B) To keep them directly into storage containers.

C) To put them on the ground after cutting them with knife.

D) To prepare them at harvest time when they’re in the field.

Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes) Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.

Oversleeping on Saturday after a few weeks of too little shut-eye may feel refreshing, but it can give a false sense of security.

New research shows 26 sleep loss cannot be cured that easily. Scientists studied the effects of short- and long-term sleep loss respectively and found that people with long-term sleep loss may function normally soon after waking up, but experience steadily slower reaction times as the day 27 on, even if they had tried to catch up the previous night.

It is work with important safety 28 in an increasingly busy society, not just for shift-workers but for the 29 one in six Americans who regularly get six hours or less of sleep a night.

“We know that staying awake 24 hours in a row impairs one's performance to a level 30 to a blood-alcohol content beyond the legal limit to drive,” said lead researcher Dr. Daniel Cohen of Boston’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

The National Institutes of Health says adults need seven hours to nine hours of sleep for good health. Regularly getting too little sleep increases the risk of health problems, including memory impairment and a weakened 31 system. More immediately, too little sleep affects reaction times; sleepiness is to blame for car 32 and other accidents.

It is 33 important for anyone who works “crazy hours" and thinks they are performing fine with a few hours of weeknight sleep, said Shelby Freedman Harris, behavioral sleep-medicine director at New York’s Montefiore Medical Center, who was not 34 with the new research. “Don’t think you can just 35 on your sleep on the weekend, because it doesn’t work that way,” Harris warned.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

有道考神四级模考试卷(二)

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once, Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Your Perfectionism Has Gotten Out of Control

A) If you’ve ever cried about getting a B+ or ending up in second place, there’s a good chance you’re a

perfectionist. As a culture, we tend to reward perfectionists for their insistence on setting high standards and relentless drive to meet those standards. And perfectionists frequently are high achievers—but the price they pay for success can be chronic unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

B) “Reaching for the stars, perfectionists may end up clutching at air,” psychologist David Burns warned

in a 1980 Psychology Today essay. “Perfectionists are especially given to troubled relationships and mood disorders.” Perfectionism doesn't have to reach Black Swan levels to wreak havoc on (影响) your life and health. Even casual perfectionists (who may not think of themselves as perfectionists at all) can experience the negative side-effects of their personal demand for excellence. Here are some signs that perfectionism could actually be holding you back— and simple ways to start letting go. C) Perfectionism often starts in childhood. At a young age, we’re told to reach for the stars--parents and

teachers encourage their children to become high achievers and give them gold stars for work well done (and in some cases, punishing them for failing to measure up). Perfectionists learn early on to live by the words “I achieve, therefore I am”—and nothing thrills them quite like impressing others (or themselves) with their performance. Unfortunately, chasing those straight A’s—in school, work and life —can lead to a lifetime of frustration and self-doubt. “The reach for perfection can be painful because it is often driven by both a desire to do well a of the consequences of not doing well,” says psychologist Monica Ramirez Basco. “This is the double-edged sword (双刃剑) of perfectionism.”D) The prototypical perfectionist is someone who will go to great (and often unhealthy) lengths to avoid

being average or mediocre, and who takes on a “no pain, no gain” mentality in their pursuit of greatness. Although perfectionists aren't necessarily high achievers, perfectionism is frequently tied to workaholism. “The perfectionist acknowledges that his relentless standards are stressful and somewhat unreasonable, but he believes they drive him to levels of excellence and productivity he could never attain otherwise/' Burns writes.

E) The great irony of perfectionism is that while it’s characterized by an intense drive to succeed, it can

be the very thing that prevents success. Perfectionism is highly correlated with fear of failure (which is generally not the best motivator) and self-defeating behavior, such as excessive procrastination (拖延).

Studies have shown that other- oriented perfectionism (a maladaptive form of perfectionism which is motivated by the desire for social approval), is linked with the tendency to put off tasks. Among these other-oriented perfectionists, procrastination stems largely from the anticipation of disapproval from others, according to York University researchers. Adaptive perfectionists, on the other hand, are less prone to procrastination.

F) Being judgmental toward others is a common psychological defense mechanism: we reject in others

what we can’t accept in ourselves. And for perfectionists, there can be a lot to reject. Perfectionists are highly discriminating, and few are beyond the reach of their critical eye. By being less tough on others, some perfectionists might find that they start easing up on themselves. “Look not to the faults of others, nor to their omissions and commissions,” the Buddha wisely advised. “But rather look to your own acts, to what you have done and left undone.”

G) Many perfectionists struggle with black-and-white thinking—you’re a success one moment and a

failure the next, based on your latest accomplishment or failure—and they do things in extremes. If you have perfectionist tendencies, you’ll probably only throw yourself into a new project or task if you know there’s a good chance you can succeed—and if there’s a risk of failure, you’ll likely avoid it altogether. Studies have found perfectionists to be risk-averse(不喜欢冒险的), which can inhibit innovation and creativity. For perfectionists, life is an all or nothing game. When a perfectionist sets her mind to something, her powerful drive and ambition can lead her to stop at nothing to accomplish that goal. It's unsurprising, then, that perfectionists are at high risk for eating disorders.

H) Author and researcher Brene Brown has called perfectionism a “20-ton shield” that we carry around to

protect ourselves from getting hurt—-but in most cases, perfectionism simply prevents us from truly connecting with others. Because of their intense fear of failure and rejection, perfectionists often have

a hard time letting themselves be exposed or vulnerable, according to psychologist Shauna Springer.

I) “It is very hard for a perfectionist to share his or her internal experience with a partner,” Springer writes

in Psychology Today. “Perfectionists often feel that they must always be strong and in control of their emotions. A perfectionist may avoid talking about personal fears, inadequacies, insecurities, and disappointments with others, even with those with whom they are closest.”

J) Whether it’s burning the cookies or being five minutes late for a meeting, the perfection-seeking tend to obsess over every little mistake. This can add up to a whole lot of meltdowns, existential crises, and grown-up temper tantrums (脾气发作). When your main focus is on failure and you’re driven by the desire to avoid it at all costs, even the smallest infraction is evidence for a grand thesis of personal failure. “Lacking a deep and consistent source of self-esteem, failures hit especially hard for perfectionists, and may lead to long bouts of depression and withdrawal in some individuals,” writes Springer.

K) Some people hated school, but you loved it, because success was quantifiable—you had assignments, grades, feedback, and a teacher whose job it was to provide positive feedback and a pat on the back for a job well-done. You might have been a teacher’s pet, or maybe you were voted “Most likely to succ eed” in the yearbook. The structure of school and easy equation of “work hard, do well, be rewarded” is a comfort for most perfectionists. In the real world, success is measured differently.

Everything is structured differently. And while you might not ever tell anyone, there's a part of you that misses that world where it was possible to get an A+ and call it a day.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

36. We tend to give bonus to perfectionists for they set high standards and drive themselves to achieve

these goals.

37. Perfectionists might get worried about even a little mistake.

38. Psychologist Shauna Springer believes that perfectionists find it hard to make themselves seem

vulnerable for they fear failure and rejection.

39. In the views of perfectionists, schools can bring them comfort.

40. According to recent studies, perfectionists may lack innovation and creativity.

41. It is told by Monica Ramirez Basco that becoming perfect can be a painful process accompanied with

hope as well as fear.

42. Perfectionists think that they start being self-indulgent if they are less tough on others.

43. It is told by David Burns that perfectionists may have difficulty in dealing with relationships and

personal mood.

44. Perfectionists may fear failure and tend to procrastinate.

45. Perfectionists are more regarded as workaholics than high achievers.

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B) C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Two months ago, an awful lot of us decided to get off our ever-spreading backsides and do some exercise. This new year’s resolution wasn’t just about vanity, oh no. The government tells us that obesity has a “severe impact” on our health, and places a “significant burden” on National Health Service, so slimming is practically our patriotic duty.

If the lard (脂肪) is already melting away, then lucky you. But what if the exercise doesn’t seem to be working? What if you can now run a kilometre in a minute and a half, yet your weight has hardly changed? Are you a lost cause? Or is it possible to be both fat and fit—not just fit enough to exercise, but fit enough to live as long as someone a lot lighter?

Not according to a study from the Harvard School of Public Health, which looked at 115 000 nurses aged between 30 and 55. Compared with women who were both thin and active (i. e., who reported taking 150 minutes or more of exercise a week), researchers found that obese but active women had a mortality rate that was 91% higher. Though far better than the inactive obese (142% higher), they were still worse off than the inactive lean (5% higher). “This data does not support the hypothesis (猜想) that if you are physically active, you don’t have to worry about your weight,” said Frank Hu, who led the study.

A similar picture emerged after Harvard-affiliated researchers examined 39 000 women with an average age of 54. Next to active women of normal weight, the active but overweight were 54% more likely to develop heart disease, while the active but obese were in 87% greater danger. “Even high quantities of physical activities are unlikely to fully reverse the risk of coronary heart disease(冠心病) in overweight and obese women without concurrent weight loss,” the authors concluded.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

46. What does the author mean by saying losing weight is our patriotic duty?

A) The country needs slimmer people. C) Losing weight is a nationwide activity.

B) Only those slim people love the country. D) Losing weight is very important and urgent.

47. What is the problem that bothers those who are trying to lose weight?

A) They already have little fat in their bodies.

B) Exercise doesn’t seem to w ork as expected.

C) They can’t run a kilometre in a minute and a half.

D) They are both fat and fit, but not fit enough to exercise.

48. The study from the Harvard School of Public Health didn’t give the result people expected in that .

A) it involved 115 000 nurses

B) it confirmed the previous hypothesis

C) it didn’t confirm the previous supposition

D) it only studied nurses

49. According to the passage, inactive obese women .

A) have a mortality rate that was 91 % higher C) have the lowest rate of mortality

B) have the highest rate of mortality D) needn't worry about their weight

50. According to the passage, the study carried out by Harvard-affiliated researchers found that .

A) active but overweight women were 44% more likely to develop coronary heart disease

B) active but obese women were 54% more likely to develop heart disease

C) active but obese women with weight loss might get rid of the risk of coronary heart disease

D) overweight and obese women could do nothing to reduce their risk of heart disease

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

It’s been 30 years since Congress revised US patent laws to encourage universities to embrace the world of commerce. Critics predicted that the integrity of academic research would be compromised by patent-grubbing and attempts to build companies around the latest laboratory findings. But such fears did not come true, says a new report from the National Academies released Monday. The panel—chaired by Mark Wrighton, Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis—examined a vast file of scholarly work on how universities have managed intellectual property in the wake of the 1980Bayh-Dole Act and concluded that things are pretty much hunky-dory(极好的) right now. Or, as the report says: The Bayh-Dole legal framework and the practices of universities have not seriously undermined academic norms of uninhibited inquiry, open communication, or faculty advancement based on scholarly merit. There is little evidence that intellectual property considerations interfere with other important avenues of transferring research results to development and commercial use.

At the same time, however, the Academies’ panel warns universities not to go overboard hunting for patents. While some universities have made millions of dollars by licensing discoveries from their labs, raising money should not be the main goal. Instead, the report says, universities should aim to disseminate(传播) technology as widely as possible for the public good. This may mean passing up the best-paying licensing deal and taking one that allows for broader use of the technology. For most schools, it adds, the likelihood of “raising significant revenue” from patents is small, the probability of disappointment is high, and the risk of “distorting and narrowing” the use of new knowledge is great.

It’s important not to get carried away with racking up patents at the expense of the university’s primary obligation to disseminate new knowledge and technologies, says panel member David Korn, assistant provost (教务长) for research at Harvard University. A former dean of the Stanford University Medical School, Korn was involved in reviewing a set of high-minded guidelines for universities that were largely adopted by the panel. These “Nine Points to Consider in Licensing” were previously endorsed by the Association of University Technology Managers.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

51. What was the critics, attitude toward the revised US patent laws?

A) They thought the patent laws may promote the economic development.

B) They thought the patent laws may exert negative influence on scholarship.

C) They thought the patent laws may give the universities more power.

D) They thought the patent laws may make the universities more active.

52. What is the result of the panel’s examination?

A) The laws make agreement with the academic norms.

B) The laws interfere with the academic norms.

C) The laws enlarge the revenue of the panel.

D) The laws prevent the universities’ development.

53. What can we learn from this passage about the function of universities?

A) The universities should follow the policy of their country.

B) The universities should choose their faculty by economic ability.

C) The universities should bring large amount of money despite the public good.

D) The universities should do things mainly based on the public interest.

54. According to the panel's suggestion, what should most universities do?

A) They should try hard to invent patents.

B) They should develop the technology for profit.

C) They should take risk of licensing the patents.

D) They should spread the technology based on use rather than profit.

55. The phrase “racking up” (Line 1, Para. 4) means .

A) achieving something in a competition C) suffering the loss of something

B) trying hard to remember something D) neglecting the profits of something

Part IV Translation (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

老龄化对国家财政的影响众所周知一节节高攀的医疗和养老金(pension)支出。然而,老龄化的影响远不止于此。在老龄化社会里,劳动力市场、储蓄方式以及人口流动都会发生变化。最令人担忧的是,劳动力短缺,劳动力市场不稳定,生产力下降等问题都会对发展造成严重威胁。由于中国平均收入水平仍然停留在低收入阶段,这使得中国人口老龄化问题尤其复杂。

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。