文档库

最新最全的文档下载
当前位置:文档库 > 人教版八年级英语下册6-10单元课堂笔记

人教版八年级英语下册6-10单元课堂笔记

Unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?

一语法学习

be过去式was/were 过去分词been

现在完成进行时:动作发生在过去,持续到现在,还在进行,未停止。

谓语构成:have/has been doing ,此结构中been 无意义。

I have been skating for five hours.

I have been skating since five o’clock.

for+一段时间,since +一个时间点

练习:用现在完成进行时填空

1.He _____ ______ ______(skate) for four hours.

2.She _____ ____ _____ (study) English for ten years.

3.Li Ly ____ ____ ______ (collect) kites since he was ten years old.

4.You ____ ____ _____ (listen) to music videos.

5.How long ___ you ___ ___ (watch) English movies?

6.How long _____ Li Ly ____ ____ (write) in English? ______ six years.

练习:用since 和for 填空

1 I stayed in Beijing ______ six days last year.

2 I have been learning English _____ I was 11 years old.

3.He has been running ____ six o’clock this morn ing.

4 We have been knowing each other _____ we knew each other.

二词汇考察

1.动词+er变成名词,teach------teacher work----worker write-----writer dance----dancer

动词+or变成名词act---actor collect-----collector

2 a pair of ……,一双,一副,后加可数名词复数a pair of shoes一双鞋,a pair of glasses一副眼镜,a pair of skates 一副滑冰鞋

3为……筹集钱____ money _____

4.隔……一次how often 多久之后how ____ 多长时间how_____

5 整整五个小时the ______ five hours

6.别的人anyone ______ 别的(另外)还有谁who_____别的(另外)还有什么what______ 别的人们________ people 别的东西____ thing

7 顺便说一下___ the way

8 用完,用光run ____ ____

9.with与without,with带着,without 没有,I would like Chinese tea with nothing in it.我喜欢中国的清茶。Without your help ,I can’t do it.没有你的帮助,我做不了。This is an interesting city _____ 具有a very colorful history.这是一个具有绚丽多彩历史的城市。

10 be interested 与be interesting 区别

be interested in 是人对……感兴趣,人的感受,前边有be,后边有ed,事物本身有兴趣用interesting We are interested in the interesting story. 我们对这个有趣的故事感兴趣。

11 thousand 与thousands of 的区别thousand 前边有具体的数字修饰,不带s,当它带s用作复数时,常和of 连用,表示数以千计。There are thousands of people in the park on Sunday.星期天公园里有数以千计的人。There are five thousand books in the library.图书室有500本书。million 百万five million 五百万,millions of 数以百万计

12 the more I learn, the more I enjoy.我越学,我越喜欢。比较级连用,表示“越来越……”程度递增The more, the better.越多越好。Summer is coming and it’s g etting _______(hot) and

____(hot). 夏天来了天气变得越来越热。She listens to the teacher more and _____ carefully in class.她在课堂上听老师讲课越来越仔细。The more friends you have, the happier you will be.你的朋友越多,你就越快乐。13 放风筝_____ kites 14 加班do ____ work14 时髦风格____ style15 存储信息store________16有几个朋友have ____ friends17 许多外国人many _____ 18 整个晚上the ____ night19共同的爱好common ______20 向……借钱borrow……___,把钱借lend……_____

三语言点练习在横线上填上适当的词

1.在第七个生日上____ my ______ birthday

2. The man _______带着glasses is my father.

3. I don’t like this one, please sh ow me _____众多之中的另一个.

4. Students are skating to raise money _____ 为charity.

5. For every hour they skate, each student ______ (raise挣钱)ten yuan for charity.

6. Alison was the first one ______(start到达)

7. Three and a half years _____ (be是)a long time.

8. China has been _____ (send发射) man-made satellites人造卫星

9. We have run out of the ______空间to store them. 10. If you know anyone ____ 别的who collect them, please tell me.11. I would like to start a snow globe _______ 收集者的club.12. He was so _______(surprise惊奇的) when he heard the news 13. I live quite far _____离Beijing .14. If she _______(work工作) far away, she ______ (miss想念)her family.15 .If you ____(do做) that, you ____ ____(miss想念) your family.16. Some of the old buildings in Harbin are _____ 有Russian style.

Unit 7 Would you mind turning down the music?

一句型

1 介意做某事mind doing sth你介意在这里吸烟吗?Would you mind smoking here?不,一点也不介意No, not at all.当然不介意Of course not. 用Would you mind doing sth ?提问题,表示客气语气。mind 意为“介意,在意”,后面跟动词的ing形式,在回答此问句时,如果要表示拒绝所提的请求的话,往往要用I’m sorry.或I’m afraid you’d better not.等表示婉转语气的语言来回答,用yes来回答,含有不客气的拒绝的语气。

如果表示“我做……你介意吗”,要用Would you mind me/my doing……?句型,me/my做doing 的逻辑主语,用宾格或形容词性物主代词都可以。Would you mind my turning the music?我把音乐打开你介意吗?Would you mind if I open the door? No, go ahead.如果我开门你介意吗?不介意,继续。

2打开turn on 关闭turn off把音量调大turn up 把音量调低turn down

3当心小心照看take care of =look _____ =____ for

4 sometimes“有时”,它可以用于一般现在时也可以用于一般过去时,sometime某个时候,即可指将来,也可指过去

5 one……the other“一个……另一个(共两个)”,others“另外一些人”并不排除例外,the others 一般指“剩余的全体”,没有例外,another众多之中的“另一个”

二词汇学习

1立刻马上at once= right _______2排队等候wait ___ line 3插队cut ___ line 4首先___ first 5礼貌的polite------_________不礼貌的comfortable舒服的------------不舒服的__________6控制,抑制keep ________7高声的_____ a loud voice 8违反规则_____ the rule 9扑灭,熄灭,关灯put ________10关心care细心的careful细心地carefully 11拾起捡起pick up 拾起它pick it up 12完成任务finish ______13 停止使生气stop ________14 被允许做be allowed to do allow sb. to do sth 允许某人做某事15 tell sb. to do sth 告诉某人去做某事tell sb. not to do sth ,try to do尽力做某事try not to do尽力不做某事16 seem like好像17 close to 靠近18一点也不not at all=not a bit 19 表现得体behave oneself

三把下列英语翻译成汉语

1 clean the yard ______ 2.move your bike______ 3 wash/do the dishes______4 clean your room ______5 not wear those old jeans ______6 get out of the bathroom ______7 put on another pair jeans _______8 do them in a minute ______9 look terrible ______10 at a meeting at school

______in hospital ______11 make dinner ______12 help sb with sth_______ 13a terrible haircut ________14 a smaller one________15 I can’t stand it _______16 follow me around ______17 follow around________ 18 get mad,______be mad at, _______be angry with _______19 get annoyed, be annoyed ______20 all the time ______21 try to be so polite_______ 22 polite behavior______ 23 it can be very useful to understand it______________________________ 24 Excuse me, would you please put out the cigarette?_________________________________

Unit 8 Why don’t you get her a scarf?

一语法学习提建议

1. Why don’t you do sth?和Why not do sth?(此句中无人)为什么不做某事呢?

译:Why don’t you have a picnic with us?

Why not get him a book?=get a book for him

2. How about和What about+名词、代词、动词ing形式“……怎么样?”

译:What (How) about this scarf?

How(What) about _____(go)fishing this afternoon?

3. You had better(not) do sth 你最好(不)做某事

you had的缩写=You’d

It’s hot here. You’d better take off (脱下、起飞)your coat(大衣)

It’s dark(天黑了).You’d better not go out.

4. Let’s do sth, shall we?(好么)让我们做某事好么?

Let’s have a rest, shall we?

5. Shall I(we) do sth?我(们)做….行么?

Shall I open the window?

6. Would you like sth(to do sth)?你们想要某东西(做某事)么?

Would you like a cup of tea? Would you like to drink a cup of tea?你想喝一杯茶吗?

7. Would you please do…?请你做…..好么?

Would you please turn down the radio?

二词汇考察。英语里词组是固定搭配,相当于汉语成语,也叫习惯用法。填缺少的词

1. 为…买get……_______

2.怎么样how(what)_______

3. 足够生动creative______

4.太私人化_______personal

5. 最好的礼物the____gift

6.在她的第六个生日上_____his_____birthday

7. 给某人某物give sth____sb.

8.一个幸运的小伙子a______guy

9. 不确定not____ 10.最不寻常的宠物____most____pets

11.看管照顾(两种)take____of=look_____ 12.足够友好___ ____足够的时间____ _____ 13.太….以致不能_____........______ =so+形容词(副词)that…..not

例:He is so tired that he can not go .The story is too hard to read.

14.一个名叫Tom的男孩a boy ____Tom(两种) a boy ____Tom

15.做一顿特别的饭make a_____meal 16.半道(途)half____,

17.使…高兴make sb.____,独自住live alone,感觉孤单feel lonely 18.赠送分发_____ _____ 19.别的人someone _______;other______ 20.和…..一样as…_______

21.对…..感兴趣be interested______22.与…..交朋友make friends______

23.而不是rather_______24.收….的信hear from =get a letter from=receive a letter from

25.would rather +动词原型than+动词原型sth

26.一个八岁的小孩_____8-year-old child(eight 元音开头)

三、同义词辨析

1.except与besides,除了

except不包含列举项;besides含列举项

例:Everyone is here except Tom.Tom is ill at home.每个人都在这除了汤姆。汤姆在家病了。

I like basketball besides football.我喜欢篮球和足球。

2.spend、pay、cost、和take 花费、付款

(1)take

It takes(花费)sb.(某人)some(多少)time(时间)to do(去做) sth..

例:每天步行上学花我20分钟

It takes me twenty minutes to walk to school every day.

(2)pay付款人+pay 钱for 物

例:I____six yuan_____the book.(买…..花)

(3)cost 花费物+cost+钱数

例:The book ______me two yuan .(cost的过去式为cost)

(4)spend花费时间或金钱人+spend+时间爱你(金钱)+on the 名词/(in)doing sth. 例:I spent two yuan on the book (in) buying the book..

四、词类转换

要点:“的”为形容词,修饰名词;“地”为副词,修饰动词、副词、和形容词。

He is a lucky guy.(lucky,幸运的,形容词;luck,名词,运气;luckily副词,幸运地)

You are a careful (细心的)boy.You do everything carefully(细心地).

但early既是形容词也是副词:come early/get up early/You are early.

五、感叹句:两种结构

(1)How +形(副)+主语+谓!

How hard he works! How beautiful she is!

(2)What+ a(an)+形容词+名词+主语+谓语!

What a nice girl she is!(可以省she is)

What bad weather it is!(省去了a,an,因为weather不可数)

Unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement park?

一.语法学习

现在完成时(Present perfect)过去发生并且已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果,过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在并且有可能还会持续的动作或状态。

基本结构:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词

(1)强调动作是从过去持续到现在,并有可能继续持续下去。

(2)强调对现在的影响或结果,此用法容易和一般过去时混淆。

两者的区别是:一般过去时有动作发生的时间点,即过去某一时间发生某一动作;现在完成时则没有,即不强调是哪个时间点发生的动作,而强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响和结果。(3)在过去不确定的时间里发生的动作,但是结果对现在有影响。

但过去分词一定要选择准确。

时间状语:already,yet,ever.never just ,recently,lately,since...for... ,in the past few years 。

1)动作发生在过去,而对现在造成的影响和结果.

I have closed the door..(现在门是关着的.)

Jane has had lunch. (现在不饿了)

Michael has been ill.(现在仍然很虚弱)

He has returned from abroad. (现在已在此地)

(2)现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一时刻的,持续到现在的动作(用行为动词表示)或状态(用be动词表示),常与for(+时间段)或since(+时间点或过去时的句子)连用.

①for+时段,为…时间

②since+过去一个时间点(译为:自从……以来)

③since+时段+ago

④since+从句(过去时)

●⑤It is+时段+since+从句(过去时)

Mary has been ill for three days.

I have lived here since 2008.

●注:瞬间动词;英语里有些动词所表示的动作瞬间就结束了(begin, come, go, leave, buy, borrow, die, join, become, lose)这些词有现在完成时,但是不能直接与for 或since 连用。I have come.我来了。(人在这)I have been here for three hours. I have been away for three years.I have borrowed the book。我借了书(书在我这)I have had the book for a week.但不能说The dog has died for three days(三天未咽气就是未死了)如果上述瞬间动词的要与表一段的时间状语连用,有三种方法。

1把它们换成可以延续的近义词要改变动词

come/arrive/reach/get to-----be in go out----be out finish----be over open----be open die----be dead buy---have fall ill---be ill come back---be back put on ---be on/wear worry---be worried catch a cold---have a cold

狗死了三天了The dog has been dead for 3 days. 我借这本书一周了。I have had the book for a week. 我可以借多久?How long may I keep it?

★1.have代替buy

My brother has had(不能用has bought) this bike for almost four years.

★2、用keep或have代替borrow

I have kept(不能用have borrowed) the book for quite a few days.

★3、用be替代become

How long has your sister been a teacher?

2 用过去时态表达相同的意思

The dog died three days ago.狗三天前死了。I joined the Party in 2003.我2003年加入的中国共产党。

3 用It’s ……时间since 主语+瞬间动词的过去式

It is two years since the dog died.

词汇考察

1 在船上____ board ,in the ship, on the boat 2以结束end up with, end up doing,

3 neither of them他们两个都不Neither of them is right.(谓语用单数)Neither film is interesting 没有一部电影是有趣的。在英语里讲究靠近原则,也就是谁靠近谓语谁决定谓语的单复数。Neither you nor he is right. Neither he nor you are right. 他和你两个都不对。Neither……nor……既不……也不……She speaks neither English nor Chinese.他即不说英语也不说汉语。either……or……或者……或者Either is OK,I don’t mind.任意一个都可以,我不介意。On either side of the road there are some trees.在街道的任何一边都有一些树。You can come either on Friday or on Saturday.你可以星期五来也可以星期六来。both……and……两者……都(只有两个)Both of them are right. 两个都对Both your mother and your father are teachers.你的爸爸和妈妈都是老师。

4 so much fun这么多的趣事so much 这么多It is just so much fun in Disneyland.在迪斯尼有这么多的乐趣。Children like Disneyland because there is so much fun there. 这么多的趣事

5 discover首次发现find找到find out查出来

6 such as“例如”,和列举词之间无逗号,而for example有逗号,常和……and so on连用,翻译成“例如……等等”

7 wonderful=very good极好的

8 population,“人口”,作主语时谓语用单数The population of China is 130 million.中国的人口是13亿。提问人口多少用what, What is the population of China?中国的人口是多少?人口多用large, great,人口少用small,China has large population.= The population of China is large.

9 wake醒来唤醒wake……up,wake me/him/her up,醒着的awake,做表语,He is awake. He lay awake

10关于分数,先读分子,再读分母,分子用基数词,分母用序数词,当分子大于一时,分母用序数词的复数,四分之一,one fourth,四分之二,two fourths,三分之二,two thirds,六分之五,five sixths 当用“分数+of + 名词+谓语”结构时,谓语遵循靠近原则,也就是靠近谓语的名词决定谓语的单复数。Three fifth of students are from Beijing.Three fifths of water is bad.

11 have a hard time(a great trouble) doing sth做某事费力I don’t have any trouble in studying English. I have a hard time studying English.

12 电影演了(开始了)10 分钟了The film has been on for ten minutes.

(begin---began---begun ,has begun 不能与for 连用)

13 The population of Tianjin is smaller than that of Shang hai. 天津人口比上海的少(比较对象要一致不能丢掉that)

14 关于倒装句,前后时态一致,肯定句用so ,He likes English。So do I.He is a boy.So is he.He is playing. So is he. He went to Beijing.So did Tom.否定句用Neither 引导He doesn’t like English.Neither do I.He isn’t a student.Neither am I.He isn’t playing.Neither is she.

15 关于省略句I will go. Me too.You don’t smoke.Me either.

16关于强调句It is +被强调部分+ that +从句It was because I could speak English that I got the job.It was yesterday morning that he told me about it.

17rather than“而不是”,连接两个并列部分,词形要对等I decided to walk rather than take the bus. He likes to lie in bed rather than go out.

18秃头不定式:口诀:一感feel二看see watch三听hear四让let五迫使make 后用动词原形。I often see him play in the playground.我经常看见他在操场上玩。

19 too+形容词+for sb.to do sth“太……以致不能”The room is too small for us to live in.=The room is so small that we can’t live in it. so+形容词/副词+that +从句,翻译为“如此……以致”20 收到来信hear from=get a letter from=receive a letter

He got a letter from his parents yesterday.=He heard from his parents yesterday.做同意句时,时态要与原句保持一致

Unit 10 It’s a nice day,isn’t it?

一、反义疑问句,叙述一件事情,再加上简短的反问部分。注意三点

1.前后结构相反,即前肯后否,前否后肯

2.前后时态一致

3.反问部分用相应的(人称)代词

练习:(各种时态大综合)He is lazy,_____ ______?

He has lunch at home,____ ____?

We go by ship,____ _____?

Lily is playing,_____ ______?

My mother has been learning English for 10 years,_____ ______?

There is a little water in the cup,____ _____?

He has gone to Beijing,____ ____?

It is going to rain,____ _____?

There will be a meeting tomorrow,____ _____?

几种比较特殊的反意疑问句

1.句中含few little hardly nobody nothing时,反问部分用肯定句

I have few friends here,____ _____?

There is little water in the cup,_____ ______?

I can hardly go,____ _____?

There is nobody here,_____ ______?

There is nothing here,_____ ______?

2.I am a boy,_______?(提示:用aren’t)

3.Let’s go, shall we? (祈使句,合着写,含自己,用shall) Don’t go, will you?

Let us go, will you? (拆着写,不含自己,用will) Don’t come, will you?

4.Li Ping has a book,_____ _____?

5.在主从复合句中,当主句谓语动词是think, guess, believe时,反义疑问句反问主句,

除此之外,反问从句。

I think he is a worker, don’t I? I hear he is a worker, isn’t he?

二、词汇考查

1.look through浏览look up 向上看,查字典look over 检查

Two people are looking through books in a bookstore.

If you don’t know a word, please look it up in a dictionary.

When I look up into the sky, I often see millions of stars at night.

He is ill. the doctor looked over him carefully.

2.谈论价钱高用high,低用low

Their prices are low.

3.再说“拥挤的”be crowded

The bus is very crowded. There are a lot of people on it.

4.再说副词修饰形容词(real形容词“真的”----really 副词,真地)

This is a real story.这是一个真实的故事

I am really sorry about it.我真地为此事难过

The story is really funny.这故事真地有趣。

5.在中午at noon

6.cross the street=go across the street

Turn right at the second crossing(十字路口)

7.feel like感觉像

It was only ten days here but I felt like a month.

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/7f4545204b35eefdc8d3339c.htmle along (意外)发生,跟着来

9.get along with 与….相处=get on with sb.

10.今天他不高兴,是么?

He is unhappy(不高兴),isn’t he? 带un缀的词,不影响肯定形式

It’s impolite, isn’t it?(带un缀的“不”,不影响肯定形式)

三、前否后肯句型中,反问句的答法

在这样的句子中,Yes译为不,No译为对,No后跟not,no和not是一伙的例:He isn’t here, is he?

Yes, he is(不,他在)

No, he is not.(对,他不在)