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研究生英语系列教材综合教程(上)原文+翻译 熊海虹

Unit One

TRAITS OF THE KEY PLAYERS (David G. Jensen)

核心员工的特征大卫·G.詹森

1 What exactly is a key player? A "Key Player" is a phrase that I've heard about from employers during just about every search I've conducted. I asked a client - a hiring manager involved in a recent search - to define it for me. "Every company has a handful of staff in a given area of expertise that you can count on to get the job done. On my team of seven process engineer and biologists, I've got two or three whom I just couldn't live without," he said. "Key players are essential to my organization. And when we hire your company to recruit for us, we expect that you'll be going into other companies and finding just that: the staff that another manager will not want to see leave. We recruit only key players."

1核心员工究竟是什么样子的?几乎每次进行调查时,我都会从雇主们那里听到“核心员工”这个名词。我请一位客户——一位正参与研究的人事部经理,给我解释一下。“每家公司都有少数几个这样的员工,在某个专业领域,你可以指望他们把活儿干好。在我的小组中,有七名化工流程工程师和生物学家,其中有那么两三个人是我赖以生存的,”他说,“他们对我的公司而言不可或缺。当请你们公司替我们招募新人的时候,我们期待你们会去其他公司找这样的人:其他公司经理不想失去的员工。我们只招募核心员工。”

2 This is part of a pep talk intended to send headhunters into competitor's companies to talk to the most experienced staff about making a change. They want to hire a "key player" from another company. Every company also hires from the ranks of newbies, and what they're looking for is exactly the same. "We hold them up to the standards we see in our top people. If it looks like they have these same traits, we'll place a bet on them." It's just a bit riskier.

2这是一段充满了鼓动性的谈话,目的是把猎头们派往竞争对手的公司去游说经验丰富的员工们做一次职业变更。他们想从另一家公司招募核心员工。然而,每家公司也从新人中招人。他们要寻找的是完全一样的东西。“我们把他们和公司顶级员工表现出的特质进行对照。假如他们看起来有同样特征的话,我们就在他们身上赌一把。”只是这样有点儿冒险。

3 "It's an educated guess," says my hiring manager client. Your job as a future employee is to help the hiring manager mitigate that risk. You need to help them identify you as a prospective "key player".

3“这是一种有根据的猜测,”我的人事经理客户说。作为未来的一名员工,你的工作是帮助人事部经理降低这种风险,你需要帮助他们认定你有潜力成为一名核心员工。

4 Trait 1: The selfless collaborator

John Fetzer, career consultant and chemist, first suggested this trait, which has already been written about a great deal. It deserves repeating because it is the single most public difference between academia and industry. "It's teamwork," says Fetzer" The business environment is less lone-wolf and competitive, so signs of being collaborative and selfless stand out. You just can't succeed in an industry environment without this mindset"

4特征1:无私的合作者

职业顾问和化学家约翰·费策尔最早提出了这个特征。关于这个特征,人们已经写了大量的文章。它之所以值得被反复谈及,是因为这一特征是学术界和企业间最明显的差别。“这里需要合作,”费策尔说,“企业的环境并不需要单打独斗,争强好胜,所以表现出合作和无私精神的员工就脱颖而出了。在企业环境中,没有这样的思维方式就不可能成功。”

5 Many peptides and grad students have a tough time showing that they can make this transition because so much of their life has involved playing the independent- researcher role and outshining other young stars. You can make yourself more attractive to companies by working together with scientists from other laboratories and disciplines in pursuit of a common goal—and documenting the results on your resume. This approach, combined with a liberal use of the pronoun "we" and not just "I" when describing your accomplishments, can change the company's perception of you from a lone wolf to a selfless collaborator. Better still, develop a reputation inside your lab and with people your lab collaborates with as a person who fosters and initiates collaborations—and make sure this quality gets mentioned by those who will take those reference phone calls.

5许多博士后和研究生在进行这种过渡的过程中表现得相当费力。因为生命中有那么长一段时间他们都在扮演一个独立研究者的角色,并且要表现得比其他年轻的优秀人才更出色。你可以藉此提高在公司的吸引力:为追求一个共同的目标和来自其他实验室和学科的科学家们合作——并且为你的个人履历上的内容提供事迹证明。这个方法,加上你在描述业绩时开明地使用代词“我们”,而不是“我”,能使公司对你的看法从“单干户”转变成“合作者”。更为有利的是,要在你实验室内部,以及在和你们实验室合作的人们之间,培养一个良好声誉:一个鼓励并发动合作的人——还要保证让那些会接听调查电话的人们谈及你的这个品质。

6 Trait 2: A sense of urgency

Don Haut is a frequent contributor to the aas.sciencecareers. org discussion forum. He is a former scientist who transitioned to industry many years ago and then on to a senior management position. Haut heads strategy and business development for a division of 3M with more than $2.4 billion in annual revenues. He is among those who value a sense of urgency.

6特征2:紧迫感

唐-豪特是一位给aaas.sciencecareers@org网站论坛频繁写稿的撰稿人。他之前是一名科学家。许多年前他转向了企业,并一直做到高级管理的职位。他在3M公司一个部门负责策略和商业开发工作,这个部门每年上缴的税收高达24亿多美元。他就是一个重视紧迫感的人。

7 "Business happens 24/7/365 which means that competition happens 24/7/365, as well," says Haut. "One way that companies win is by getting 'there' faster, which means that you not only have to mobilize all of the functions that support a business to move quickly, but you have to know how to decide where 'there' is! This creates a requirement not only for people who can act quickly, but for those who can think fast and have the courage to act on their convictions. This requirement needs to run throughout an organization and is not exclusive to management."

7“一年365天,一周7天,一天24小时,生意始终在进行,那意味着一年365天,一周7天,一天24小时,竞争也同样在进行,”豪特说,“公司取胜的方法之一就是要更快地到达?目的地?。这就是说,你不仅要把所有能支持公司快速运转的功能都调动起来,而且还得知道如何决定?目的地?是哪里。这样,不仅对那

些行动快速的人们,也对那些思维敏捷,并有勇气按自己的想法行事的人们都提出了要求。这需要全公司各部门的运作,而不仅仅是管理部门的工作。”

8 Trait 3: Risk tolerance

Being OK with risk is something that industry demands. "A candidate needs to have demonstrated the ability to make decisions with imperfect or incomplete information. He or she must be able to embrace ambiguity and stick his or her neck out to drive to

a conclusion," wrote one of my clients in a jo

b description.

8特征3:风险容忍度

企业要求员工能承受风险。“一名求职者需要表现出仅凭不准确、不完整的信息

就做出决策的能力。他或她必须能接纳不确定因素并冒着风险做出结论,”一位

客户在职业描述中写道。

9 Haut agrees. "Business success is often defined by comfort with ambiguity and risk- personal, organizational, and financial. This creates a disconnect for many scientists because success in academia is really more about careful, studied research. Further, great science is often defined by how one gets to the answer as much as by the answer itself, so scientists often fall in love with the process. In a business, you need to understand the process, but you end up falling in love with the answer and then take a risk based on what you think that answer means to your business. Putting your neck

on the line like this is a skill set that all employers look for in their best people."

9豪特赞同这一说法。“商业成功通常有这样一个特质:那就是能接受不确定因

素和风险——个人的,组织上的和财务上的。这就让许多科学家感到不适应,因为学术上的成功其实是依靠认真而严谨的研究。更进一步说,伟大的科学常常是由找寻答案的过程和答案本身两者同时来定义的。因此科学家们往往沉迷于过程。在企业里,你需要了解过程,但最终你会迷上答案,然后根据你认为该答案对你的企业所具有的意义来冒风险。像这样敢冒风险是一套技能组合,是所有雇主在他们最好的员工身上所寻找的东西。”

10 Another important piece of risk tolerance is a candidate's degree of comfort with failure. Failure is important because it shows that you were not afraid to take chances. So companies consistently look for candidates who can be wrong and admit it. Everyone knows how to talk about successes—or they should if they're in a job search—but far fewer people are comfortable talking about failures, and fewer still know how to bring lessons and advantages back from the brink. "For my organization, a candidate needs to have comfort discussing his or her failures, and he or she needs

to have real failures, not something made up for interview day. If not, that person has not taken enough risk." says Haut.

10风险容忍度的另外一个要点是求职者对失败的承受度。失败很重要,因为这

表示你不怕冒险。所以各家公司总会寻找有可能犯错误并敢于承认错误的求职者。大家都知道如何谈论成功——或者当他们在寻找工作的时候应该知道。但很少有人乐意谈论失败,更少有人知道如何从失败的边缘吸取教训和获得经验。“对我

的企业来说,求职者需要坦然地谈论他或她的失败,而且他或她需要有真正的失败经历,而不是特意为面试而杜撰的东西。如果做不到的话,那么这个人冒的风险还不够,”豪特说。

11 Trait 4: Strength in interpersonal relationships

Rick Leach is in business development for deCODE Genetics. Leach made the transition to industry recently, on the business side of things'". I asked him about this

key trait because in his new business role, interpersonal abilities make the difference between success and failure. "Scientists spend their lives accumulating knowledge and developing technical acumen," he says, "but working for a business requires something else entirely—people skills. The scientist who is transitioning into the business world must prioritize his or her relationship assets above their technical assets. To suddenly be valued and measured by your mastery of human relationships can be a very scary proposition for a person who has been valued and measured only by his mastery of things," says Rick.

11特征4:善于处理人际关系

瑞克·李奇在迪科德遗传工程公司从事业务拓展。李奇最近才转行到企业,做业务方面的工作。我向他咨询这个重要特征,是因为在他的新业务角色中,人际沟通能力在成功和失败之间发挥着很大的作用。“科学家毕生都在积累知识,培养技术上的敏锐感,”他说,“但为企业工作需要完全不同的东西——人际交往的能力。想转行到企业界的科学家们必须优先考虑他们的社会关系资源而不是技术资源。对一个以前一直根据专业知识水平被评价的人来说,突然之间要根据他的人际交往能力来评价他,真是十分令人恐惧。”

12 It would be a mistake, however, to assume that strong people skills are required only for business people like Leach. Indeed, the key players I've met who work at the bench in industry have succeeded in great measure because they've been able to work with a broad variety of personalities, up and down the organization.

12然而,如果认为只有像李奇那样的生意人才需要熟练的人际沟通技巧,那就错了。事实上,我所遇见的在企业工作的核心费工们之所以取得成功,很大程度上是因为他们能够与公司上下各种各样的人共事。

Unit Two

中餐被公认为全球最佳美食之一,其种类之丰富,工艺之繁复,使其理所当然地成为游客大快朵颐的乐事之一。

CULINARY DELIGHTS IN CHINA

中国美食

1 Chinese cuisine is a brilliant facet of Chinese culture, which is proven by the fact that Chinese restaurants are found scattered everywhere throughout the world. Today, the culinary industry is developing even more rapidly than before. A decade ago, Beijing had a few thousand restaurants, while today there are over 100,000 restaurants of different sizes in the city.

1中国美食是中国文化一道绚烂的风景线,这点从世界各地随处可见的中餐馆可以窥见。当今,烹饪业正以前所未有的速度在发展。10年前,北京只有几千家餐馆,而今天却有10万多家大小不等的餐馆遍布市内。

2 Regional Chinese Cuisines

It is widely acknowledged that from the Ming (1368-1644) dynasties onwards, there are eight major schools of cuisine based on regional cooking. They came from Shandong, Sichuan, Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, and Anhui provinces. In addition to these traditional cuisines, the culinary industry in China has undergone great changes, as almost every place has its own local specialties, and as the different cuisines gather together in big cities, such as Beijing.

2地方美食

众所周知,明朝以来出现了八大菜系,分别是山东菜、四川菜、广东菜、福建菜、江苏菜、浙江菜、湖南菜和安徽菜。除了这些传统菜系,中国的烹饪业也经历了巨大的变化:每个地方都形成了自己的特色菜,不同菜系汇集于诸如北京这样的大城市。

3 Sichuan, known as Nature's Storehouse, is also a storehouse of cuisine. Here, each and every restaurant provides delicious yet economical culinary fare. The ingredients for Sichuan cuisine are simple but the spices used are quite different. Sichuan cuisine is famous for its spicy and hot food, yet just being hot and spicy does not necessarily distinguish it from other hot and spicy cuisines such as Hunan or Guizhou cuisines. What is really special about Sichuan cuisine is the use of Chinese prickly ash seeds, the taste of which leaves a feeling of numbness on one's tongue and mouth. Besides this unique spice, Sichuan dishes are usually prepared with other spices such as chili pepper. Using fermented bean sauce and a set of unique cooking methods. Sichuan cuisine is now famous and popular across the world. In recent years, there have appeared many more renowned restaurants specializing in Sichuan cuisine, such as the Tan Family Fish Head restaurant.

3 被誉为“天府之国”的四川也是个美食之都。在那里的任何一家餐馆都能找到既可口又经济实惠的美食。川菜的原料虽简单,但调料却大有讲究。川菜以口味辣著称,但仅是口味辣还不能使川菜区别于其他辣口味的菜系,比如湖南菜和贵州菜。川菜的特别之处在于花椒的使用。尝过花椒之后,人们的舌头和嘴巴会留下酥麻的感觉。除了花椒之外,川菜还常用辣椒粉之类的调料。因使用豆豉作配料,再加上一套独特的烹饪方式,如今川菜在全世界都十分有名和受欢迎。近几年涌现了一大批著名的专做川菜的餐馆,比如谭鱼头。

4 Guangdong Province is located in southern China, with a moderate climate and abundant produce all year round. As one of the earliest ports open to foreign trade, the province has developed a culinary culture with its own characteristics that has exerted a far-reaching influence on other parts of China as well as throughout the world where it is the most commonly available Chinese cuisine. Guangdong cuisine is famous for its seafood as well as for its originality and refined cooking processes. Various soups in this cuisine are loved by people all over the country.

4 广东省在中国南部,全年气候温和,物产丰富。它还是最早对外开放的通商口岸之一。广东的餐饮文化独具特色,对中国其他地方乃至全世界产生了深远的影响。广东菜以其好生猛海鲜、追求新奇、细致考究的烹饪方法而著称。广东菜中的各式煲汤如今已深受全国各地人民喜爱。

5 Zhejiang cuisine is light and exquisite, and is typical of food from along the lower Yangtze River. One famous dish is West Lake Vinegar Fish, which looks pretty and has the delicate refreshing flavors of nature. Many Chinese restaurants in China, as well as in other parts of the world, serve this dish, but often the flavor is less authentic compared to that found in Hangzhou, capital of Zhejiang Province, which has unique access to the fish and water of West Lake.

5 浙江菜口味清淡,精致玲珑,是长江下游区域菜肴的代表。西湖醋鱼是其中的一道名菜。这道菜鲜美,酥嫩,带着自然的清香。中国乃至世界各地的中餐馆大都能找得到这道菜,但口味往往不及在浙江杭州吃得那般纯正。因为只有杭州拥有来自西湖的鱼和水。

6 Every Dish Has a Story

The names of Chinese dishes are diverse, but behind each of the famous dishes is an interesting story explaining why it is popular. A good name can make the dish more interesting; however, some names are so eccentric that they may confuse people, both Chinese and foreigners. If you only translate the names literally with no explanation, you could make a fool of yourself.

6每道菜都有一段故事

中国菜名五花八门,而每道名菜都有一段有趣的故事,说明它如何博得人们的喜爱。一个好名字能使这道菜更有意思;但有些菜名太怪异了,听起来让人一头雾水,不要说外国人难以理解,就是中国人往往也不是很清楚。你要是望文生义,准得闹出笑话来。

7 Take Goubuli steamed buns in the city of Tianjin for example. These popular buns are all of the same size and handmade. When served in neat rows on a tray, they look like budding chrysanthemum flowers. The wrapping is thin, the fillings are juicy, the meat, tender and the taste delicious and not at all greasy. Then, why the name?

7拿天津“狗不理”包子来说吧。“狗不理”纯手工制作,大小均等,深受欢迎。这些包子整整齐齐地放在托盘上时,看上去就像是含苞欲放的菊花。皮儿很薄,馅儿饱蘸肉汁,口感柔软,香而不腻。可为什么叫“狗不理”呢?

8 There is an interesting story behind it. Goubuli steamed buns were first sold in Tianjin out 150 years ago. A local man by the name of Gouzi (Dog) worked as an apprentice in a shop selling baozi (steamed buns). After three years, he set up his own baozi shop. Because his buns were so delicious, he soon had a thriving business with more and more people coming to buy his buns. As hardworking as Gouzi was, he could not keep up with demand so his customers often had to wait a long time to be served. Impatient, some people would call out to urge him on, but as he was so busy preparing the buns, he didn't answer. People therefore came to call his buns Goubuli, meaning "Gouzi pays no attention." This eccentric name, however, has had very good promotional effects, and has been used ever since. Goubuli is now a time-cherished brand name in Tianjin.

8 “狗不理”的背后有一段有趣的故事。大约150年前,“狗不理”包子在天津初次亮相。当地有个小伙子,名叫狗子,在一家包子店当学徒。三年后,自己单独开了一家包子店。他做的包子味道鲜美,因此生意十分红火,吸引了越来越多的顾客。狗子工作十分卖力,可他还是满足不了大家的需要,顾客们只得等很长时间。有些顾客等得不耐烦了,就在外面嚷嚷着催他快点,可狗子忙着做包子呢,哪有时间搭理。后来人们就把他做的包子称作“狗不理”,意思是“狗子不搭理他们”。可就是这个有点怪里怪气的名字,反倒起了很好的广告作用,这个名字一直沿用到了今天。如今“狗不理”已经成为天津的老字号。

9 In Zhejiang cuisine, there is a well-known dish called Dongpo Meat. This dish of streaky pork is prepared over a slow fire where the big chunks of pork are braised with green onion, ginger cooking wine, soy sauce, and sugar. The finished dish is bright red in color and the meat is tender and juicy and, like the Goubuli buns, not at all greasy. This dish was named after Su Dongpo (1037-1101), a great poet of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), who created it when he was an official in Hangzhou. It is said that, when he was in charge of the drainage work for the West Lake, Su Dongpo rewarded workers with stewed pork in soy sauce, and people later named it Dongpo Meat, to commemorate this gifted and generous poet.

9 浙江菜里有一道深受欢迎的菜,叫东坡肉。这道菜是把五花肉切成大块,配上青葱,在锅底放些生姜,然后加料酒、酱油和糖用慢火做出来的。这道菜色泽红亮,酥嫩多汁,如“狗不理”一样毫无肥腻之感。它以北宋时代大诗人苏东坡的名字命名。苏东坡在杭州做官时发明了这道菜。据说,他当时负责西湖的排污工程,经常拿红烧肉犒劳工人。后来为了纪念这位才华横溢、慷慨大方的诗人,人们就把它称作东坡肉。

10 Fujian cuisine boasts a famous dish called Buddha Jumping over the Wall, the number one dish of the province. This dish is prepared with more than 20 main ingredients including chicken, duck, sea cucumber, dried scallop, tendon, shark lip, fish maw and ham. All these ingredients are placed into a ceramic pot, with cooking wine and chicken broth, and then cooked over a slow fire until the meat is tender and juicy and the soup becomes smooth and thick. Then it is served with more than a dozen garnishes such as mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots and pigeon eggs. It is famous for leaving a lingering aftertaste in the mouth. The story behind the name of the specialty goes as follows:

10佛跳墙是福建莱里的一道名菜,亦被称作福建第一菜。这道莱的主料不下20种,有鸡肉、鸭肉、海参、干贝、蹄筋、鱼唇、鱼肚、火腿配料10多种,有蘑菇、冬笋、鸽蛋等。所有的原料均放在一个陶罐里,加上料酒和鸡汤后,用文火炖,一直炖到肉汁鲜美,柔润细腻,汤味浑厚。轻舔一口,余香满口。这道特色菜的背后有这么一个故事:

11 Buddha Jumping over the Wall was created in a restaurant called Gathering Spring Garden in Fuzhou, Fujian, during the reign of the Qing Emperor, Guangxu

(1875-1908). It was named Eight Treasures Stewed in a Pot and the name was later changed to blessing and Longevity. One day, several scholars carne to Gathering Spring Garden for a meal. When the dish was served, one of the scholars improvised a poem: "Fragrance spreads to the neighborhood once the lid lifts, / One whiff and the Buddha Jumps the wall, abandoning the Zen precepts” Hence the name of the dish!

11佛跳墙是由福州市一个叫聚春园的餐馆在清朝光绪年间发明的,早先菜名为八珍锅,而后改为福寿全。一日,几位秀才到聚春园饮酒。菜上桌时,其中一位即兴赋诗一首“坛启荤香飘四邻,佛闻弃禅跳墙来。”佛跳墙这一菜名便由此得来。

12 Warmth and Hospitality Expressed by Food

In the eyes of Chinese, what is important about eating, especially at festivals, is to eat in a warm atmosphere. Often the young and old still sit in order of seniority, and the elders select food for the young while the young make toasts to the elders. Chinese people like to create a lively, warm, and harmonious atmosphere during meals.

12食物传达的温馨和盛情

在中国人看来,吃最重要的,尤其在过节时,莫过于是吃饭时的温馨气氛。吃饭时,年长的和年少的按照年龄大小依次坐好,在欢乐祥和的气氛中,说说笑笑。席间,长辈为晚辈夹菜,晚辈给长辈敬酒,营造出一派欢乐、温馨、和谐的气氛。

13 A hostess or host in China will apportion the best parts of the dishes to guests. Using a pair of serving chopsticks, she or he places the best part of a steamed fish or the most tender piece of meat on the plate of the most important guest. Such a custom is still popular, especially among the elder generation, as a way of expressing respect, concern and hospitality.

13 在中国,主人会把最好的莱分给客人。他们用公筷把清蒸鱼最好的部分或最嫩的肉夹给最重要的来宾。这种习俗用来表达尊敬、关怀和好客之意,至今在老一辈的中国人中还是很流行。

14 Such culinary customs have had a certain influence on the character of the Chinese people. In a. sense, it has strengthened the collective spirit of the nation. At a party or

a banquet, everyone first takes into consideration the needs of the group; with the eating process also being a time to show humility and concern for others.

14这种饮食习俗对中国人的性格也有几分影响。从某种意义上说,它增强了人

们的集体主义精神。无论在聚会还是在宴席上,人们首先考虑大家的需求,把吃饭当成是谦卑有礼和关怀他人的场合。

15 In China, food eaten during festivals is particularly important. At different festivals, people partake of different fare. For example, on the eve of the Spring Festival, people in the north always eat. jiaozi, meat and vegetable dumplings, at family reunions. This is a way of bidding farewell to the old year and welcoming the New Year. The Lantern Festival is a day of celebration, and on this day people like to eat yuanxiao, sweet dumplings made of glutinous rice flour, to symbolize family reunion and perfection. At the Duanwu Festival, people eat zongzi, glutinous rice wrapped in triangular shape in reed leaves, to commemorate the beloved poet Qu Yuan (c.1339-c. 278 BC), who drowned himself in the Miluo River after being politically wronged. Legend has it that people at the time threw zongzi into the river in the hope that the dragon would not take him away. This later gradually developed into a custom of making and eating zongzi during the Duanwu Festival.

15 中国人特别在乎过节时吃什么,不同的节日吃不同的食物。比如除夕夜全家团圆时,北方人吃肉饺或菜饺,象征辞旧迎新。元宵节吃元宵,元宵是糯米粉做的甜团子,象征家庭团圆、美满。端午节吃粽子,人们用芦苇叶子把糯米包成三角形的粽子是为了纪念受人爱戴的诗人屈原。屈原因遭政治迫害自沉于汨罗江。传说古时候人们把粽子投到江中,希望水中的龙不要带走他。之后,端午节包粽子和吃粽子的习俗就慢慢形成了。

Unit Three

Leisure without literature is death and burial alive.

—Seneca, Roman philosopher 没有文学的休闲生活犹如死亡抑或活埋。

——西尼加(古罗马哲学家)

WHY HARRY'S HOT?

《哈利波特》风行之迷

1 J. K. Rowling swears she never saw it coming. In her wildest dreams, she didn't

think her Harry Potter books would appeal to more than a handful of readers. "I never expected a lot of people to like them," she insisted in a recent interview. "Well, it turned out I was very wrong, obviously. It strikes a chord with an enormous number

of people." That's putting it mildly. With 35 million copies in print, in 35 languages, the first three Harry Potter books have earned a conservatively estimated $480 million in three years. And that was just the warm-up. With a first printing of 5.3 million copies and advance orders topping 1.8 million, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire,

the fourth installment of the series, promises to break every bookselling record. Jack

Morrissey, 12, plainly speaks for a generation of readers when he says, "The Harry Potter books are like life, but better."

1J.K.罗琳发誓说自己从来没有过这种预想。她做梦也没有想到会有那么多人对她的书感兴趣。“我从来没有指望过有这么多人喜欢它,”在最近的一次访谈中她仍然这样说,“可是,很显然,我大错特错了。它在许多人心中产生了共鸣。”她说得很委婉。《哈利波特》系列丛书的前三册被翻译成了35种语言,已出版3,500万册,据保守估计,这三册书在三年时间里已经赚了四亿八千万美金。而这还只是个开始。《哈里波特》系列丛书的第四册《哈利波特与火焰杯》初版530万册,加上高达180万册的订单,有望创造新的畅销书销售记录。12岁的杰克·莫里西的话很清楚地表达了他们这一代读者的想法。他说:“《哈利波特》就如同生活,但比生活更美好。”

2 Amazingly, Rowling keeps her several plotlines clear of each other until the end, when he deftly brings everything together in a cataclysmic conclusion. For pure narrative power, this is the best Potter book yet.

2让人称奇的是,罗琳让每一册书的情节相互独立,但最后,她却能够巧妙地把它们衔接起来,形成一个意想不到的结局。单从叙述能力而言,《哈利波特与火焰杯》也是《哈利波特》系列丛书中最好的一本。

3 When the book finally went on sale at 12:01 am. Saturday, thousands of children in Britain and North America rushed to claim their copies. Bookstores hosted pajama parties, hired magicians and served cookies and punch, but nobody needed to lift the spirits of these crowds. In one case, customers made such a big, happy noise that neighbors called the cops. At a Borders in Charlotte, N.C., Erin Rankin, 12, quickly thumbed to the back as soon as she got her copy. “I heard that a_ major character dies, and I really want to find out who," she said. But minutes later she gave up. “I just

can't do it. I can't read the end first."

3当这本书终于在星期六午夜12:01面市时,在英国和北美,成千上万的孩子争相购买。书店举办了睡衣派对,邀请了一些魔术师表演,并提供曲奇饼和潘趣酒,可是没人需要这些,因为人们个个情绪高涨。有一次,顾客们发出了巨大的欢呼声,以致邻居们实在难以忍受而报了警。在美国北卡罗来纳州的夏洛特市“边界”连锁书店,12岁的艾琳·兰金一拿到书就快速翻到最后一页。“我听说有一个主角死了,我真的很想知道是谁,”她说。但是几分钟后她放弃了。“我做不到,我不能先看书的结尾。”

4 The only sour note in all the songs of joy over this phenomenon has come from some parents and conservative religious leaders who say Rowling advocates witchcraft. Reading of the books has been challenged in 2

5 school districts in at least 17 states, and the books have been banned in schools in Kansas and Colorado. But that's nothing new, says Michael Patrick Hearn, a children's book scholar and editor of The Annotated Wizard, of Oz. "Any kind of magic is considered evil by some people," he says. "The Wizard of Oz was attacked by fundamentalists in the

mid-1980s."

4 在对“哈利波特”现象的一路欢歌中,出现的唯一一个不和谐音符来自于一些父母和保守的宗教领袖。他们认为罗琳在宣扬巫术。至少在17个州的25所学校校区内,阅读《哈利波特》受到了质疑,而在堪萨斯州和科罗拉多州的学校里,《哈利波特》系列丛书则被明令禁止。但是作为儿童图书专家和《绿野仙踪》的编辑,

迈克尔·帕特里克·赫恩觉得这并不奇怪。“无论何种魔法都会被有些人视为邪恶,”他说,“《绿野仙踪》就曾经在80年代中期遭到正统派基督教徒们的抨击。”

5 But perhaps the most curious thing about the Potter phenomenon, especially given that it is all about books, is that almost no one has taken the time to say how good—

or bad—these books are. The other day my 11-year-old daughter asked me if I thought Harry Potter was a classic. I gave her, I'm afraid, one of those adult-sounding answers when I said, "Time will tell." This was not an outright lie. There's no telling which books will survive from one generation to the next. But the fact is, I was hedging. What my daughter really wanted to know was how well J. K. Rowling stacks up against the likes of Robert Louis Stevenson or Madeleine L'Engle.

5 但是对于“哈利波特”现象最让人感到好奇的事情可能是几乎没有人会花时间

去讨论这些书有多好或者多糟,尤其是当这些评论仅仅涉及书本身的时候。有一天,11岁的女儿问我是否认为《哈利波特》是经典之作,我给出了一个恐怕听

起来十分成人化的回答,“时间会证明一切的。”这不能算是一个彻头彻尾的谎言,因为谁也没有办法预测有哪一本书能够代代相传。但事实上,我在闪烁其词。我女儿真正想知道的是:与罗伯特·路易斯·史蒂文森和马德琳·英格这一类人相比较,罗琳到底有多棒。

6 I could have told her that I thought they were beautifully crafted works of entertainment, the literary equivalent of Steven Spielberg. I could also have told her I thought the Potter books were derivative. They share so many elements with so many children's classics that sometimes it seems as though Rowling had assembled her novels from a kit. However, these novels amount to, much more than just the sum of their parts. The crucial aspect of their appeal is that they can be read by children and adults with equal pleasure. Only the best authors—and they can be as different as Dr. Seuss and Philip Pullman" and, yes, J.K. Rowling—can pull that off.

6 我本可以告诉她我认为这些书是精心构思的通俗作品,是堪比史蒂文·斯皮尔

伯格之电影的文学作品。本来我还可以告诉她我认为《哈利波特》系列丛书没有什么新意,它们与众多儿童经典作品有太多相似之处,所以有时候会给读者一种感觉,仿佛罗琳组装编织了这些故事。但是,这些故事绝对不仅仅是各个部分的简单相加。它们如此受欢迎的关键之处就在于无论是大人还是小孩都能够从阅读中获得乐趣。只有最好的作家——他们能够与苏斯博士和菲利普·普尔曼,当然

还有罗琳一样与众不同——才能够做到这一点。

7 P. L. Travers, the author of the Mary Poppins books, put it best when she wrote, "You do not chop off a section of your imaginative substance and make a book specifically for children, for—if you are honest— you have, in fact, no idea where childhood ends and maturity begins. It is all endless and all one. There is plenty for children and adults to enjoy in Rowling's books, starting with their language. Her prose may be unadorned, but her way with naming people and things reveals a quirky and original talent.

7 《欢乐满人间》的作者帕梅拉·林登·特拉弗斯概括得精辟至极。她写到,“你

不能把你想象的东西砍掉一部分然后写成一本专给孩子看的书,坦白地说,因为事实上你根本无从知道童年究竟是什么时候结束,而成人期又是什么时候开始的。它们相互连接、浑然一体。”在罗琳的书中,从语言开始,就有足够多的让大人

和孩子都喜欢的东西。也许她文风朴实,但是她给人和物取名的方式显示了独特的原创才能。

8 The best writers remember what it is like to be a child with astonishing intensity. Time and again, Rowling articulates just how defenseless even the bravest children often feel. Near the end of the second book Dumbledore, the wise and protective headmaster, is banished from Hogwarts. This terrifies Harry and his schoolmates—"With Dumbledore gone, fear had spread as never before"—and it terrified me. And in all of Rowling's books there runs an undercurrent of sadness and loss. In the first book the orphaned Harry stares into the Mirror of Erised, which shows the viewer his or her utmost desires. Harry sees his dead parents. "Not until I'd reread what I'd written did I realize that that had been taken entirely- entirely- from how I felt about my mother's death," Rowling said. "In fact, death and bereavement and what death means, I would say, is one of the central themes in all seven books." Do young readers pick up on all this deep intellectualism? Consciously, perhaps not. But I don't think the books would have their broad appeal if they were only exciting tales of magical adventure, and I know adults would not find them so enticing.

8 优秀作家关注孩子特点的能力达到惊人的程度。罗琳不只一次地清楚表达出,即便是最勇敢的孩子也经常会表现得那么无助。在《哈利波特》(二)中,当那位智慧的、对学生呵护有加的魔法学校校长邓布利多被驱逐出霍格华兹时,哈利和他的同学们都感到恐惧万分。“邓布利多走了,前所未有的恐惧蔓延开来。”而这也让我很害怕。在罗琳所有的书中都流淌着一种潜在的伤感与迷失。在《哈利波特》(一)中,变成孤儿的哈利盯着那面能够说出每个人内心深处愿望的厄里斯魔镜看,他看见了逝去的双亲。“直到我自己重读我写过的东西,我才意识到这个情节完完全全——完完全全地——来自于我对于母亲去世的感觉,”罗琳说,“事实上,我可以说,死亡、丧亲之痛以及死亡意味着什么是所有这七册书的中心主题之一。”而年轻的读者们能够领会这一份深刻的理性吗?也许不能自觉地做到这一点吧。但是我认为,如果这些书只是一些有关魔幻之旅的有趣的故事,那么它们就不可能有这么广泛的吸引力。而且我知道,那样的话成人就不会被它吸引。

9 The Harry Potter books aren't perfect. What I miss most in these novels is the presence of a great villain. And by great villain I mean an interesting villain. Long. John Silver is doubly frightening because he is both evil and charming. If he were all bad, he wouldn't frighten us half as much. Voldemort is resistible precisely because he is just bad to the bone. That said, I should add that in the new book Rowling outdoes herself with a bad guy so seductive you'll never see him coming. And he is scary.

9 《哈利波特》系列丛书不尽完美。在这些丛书中我最想看到的是一个绝妙的反面角色。我这里说的“绝妙的反面角色”是指“有趣的反面角色”。因为高个子约翰·希尔弗既邪恶又迷人,所以他才让人更觉害怕。如果他仅仅只是坏的话,他带给我们的恐怖感会减少一大半。伏地魔王让人抗拒就是因为他仅仅只是一个十足的坏蛋。这么一说,我想在罗琳超越自己的这本新书中加上这样一个反面角色。这个角色是如此的有魅力,你是永远也见不到的,而且他相当令人恐惧。

10 That quibble aside, Rowling’s novels are probably the best books children have ever encountered that haven't been thrust upon them by an adult. I envy kids reading these books, because there was nothing this good when I was a boy-nothing this good, I mean, that we found on our own, the way kids are finding Harry. We affectionately remember The Hardy Boys and Nancy Drew, but try rereading them and their charm fades away pretty quickly. Rowling may not be as magisterial as Tolkien or as quirky as Dahl, but her books introduce fledgling readers to a very high standard of entertainment. With three books left to go in the series, it's too early to pass final

judgment. But considering what we've seen so far, especially in the latest volume, Harry Potter has all the earmarks of a classic.

10 除了这些吹毛求疵的意见,罗琳的书可能是孩子们所接触到的最好的书,而且阅读这些书也不是家长强加的任务。我羡慕那些阅读这些书的孩子,因为在我还是个孩子的时候,可没有这么好的东西——我的意思是说,我们没有通过自己去发现有这么好的东西,不像现在的孩子,他们找到了哈利。我们深深地记着哈迪男孩和南茜·朱尔,但是当我们尝试着重新阅读这些角色的时候,他们的魅力很快就散去了。罗琳的书也许不如托尔金的书那么具有权威性,也不如达尔的作品那般跌宕起伏,但是她的书将涉世未深的读者带入了一个相当高的娱乐水准。《哈利波特》系列丛书还有三册尚未出版,现在下定论还为时尚早。但是,就目前我们看到的情况来看,特别是在最后一册,《哈利波特》具备了经典作品的所有特征。

Unit Four

The following text is extracted from Marriages and Families by Nijole V. Benokraitis. The book has been used as a textbook for sociology courses and women's studies in a number of universities in the United States. It highlights important contemporary changes in society and the family and explores the choices that are available to family members, as well as the constraints that many of us do not recognize. It examines the diversity of American families today, using cross-cultural and multicultural comparisons to encourage creative thinking about the many critical issues that confront the family of the twenty-first century.

下面的文章选自奈杰尔贝诺克瑞提斯的婚姻与家庭。此书在美国的一些大学里被用作社会学和妇女研究等课程的教材,它强调了在当代社会和家庭中所发生的重要变化,探索了家庭成员所面临的选择,以及我们很多人都还未意识到的种种约束。该书还审视了当今美国家庭的多样性,运用跨文化和多元文化的比较,以激发创造性思维来研究21世纪家庭所面临的许多严峻问题。

LOVE AND LOVING RELATIONSHIPS (Nijole V. Benokraitis)

爱和情感连系奈杰尔·贝诺克瑞提斯

1 Love- as both an emotion and a behavior- is essential for human survival- The family is usually our earliest and most important source of love and emotional support. Babies and children deprived of love have been known to develop a wide variety of problems- for example, depression, headaches, physiological impairments, and neurotic and psychosomatic difficulties- that sometimes last a lifetime. In contrast, infants who are loved and cuddled typically gain more weight, cry less, and smile more. By five years of age, they have been found to have significantly higher IQs and to score higher on language tests.

1 爱,对于人类的生存是不可或缺的。它既是一种情感,又是一种行为。家庭通常是我们最早和最重要的爱和情感支持的来源。众所周知,缺乏爱的婴幼儿会产生各种各样的问题,如抑郁症、头痛、生理残疾、神经质或身心疾病,这些病有时会伴随他们一生。而对比之下,拥有爱和拥抱的婴儿通常体重增加得快,哭得少,而笑得多。到了五岁时,他们的智商和语言测试的分数明显比前一类儿童高得多。

2 Much research shows that the quality of care infants receive affects how they later get along with friends, how well they do in school, how they react to new and possibly stressful situations, and how they form and maintain loving relationships as

adults. It is for these reasons that people's early intimate relationships within their family of origin1 are so critical. Children who are raised in impersonal environments (orphanage, some foster homes, or unloving families) show emotional and social underdevelopment, language and motor skills retardation, and mental health problems.

2很多研究发现婴儿获得关爱的质量会影响到他们以后的交友,在学校的表现,如何应对陌生的或可能充满压力的情况,以及他们成年后如何建立并且维系情感连系。正是因为这些原因,人们与家庭成员的早期亲密关系才如此至关重要。在人情冷漠的环境中(如孤儿院,某些寄养家庭,或缺乏关爱的家庭)长大的孩子会出现情感和社会性发育不良,语言和运动技能迟缓,以及精神健康问题。

3 Love for oneself, or self-love, is also essential for our social and emotional development. Actress Mae West once said, "I never loved another person the way I loved myself." Although such a statement may seem self-centered, it's actually quite insightful Social scientists describe self-love as an important oasis for self- esteem. Among other things, people who like themselves are more open to criticism and less demanding of others. Fromm (1956) saw self-love as a necessary prerequisite for loving others. People who don't like themselves may not be able to return love but may constancy seek love relationships to bolster their own poor self-images. But just what is love? What brings people together?

3 对自己的爱,或者说自爱,对我们的社会性和情感发展也是至关重要的。女演员梅·韦斯特曾说过,“我从没有像爱自己那样爱过别人。”虽然这样的话听起来似乎有些以自我为中心,实际上却是相当有见地。社会学家将自爱描述为自尊的一个重要基础。从别的方面来说,自我喜欢的人更乐于接受批评,对别人的要求也不那么苛刻。弗罗姆(1956)认为自爱是爱别人的先决条件。不喜欢自己的人也许不懂得回报爱,而却有可能不停地寻找爱的关系来改变卑微的自我形象。那么到底什么是爱?是什么让人们走到一起?

4 Love is an elusive concept. We have all experienced love and feel we know what it is; however, when asked what love is, people give a variety of answers. According to a nine- year-old boy, for example, "Love is like an avalanche where you have to run for your life." What we mean by love depends on whether we are talking about love for family members, friends, or lovers. Love has been a source of inspiration, wry witticisms, and even political action for many centuries.

4 爱是一个难以描述的概念。我们都经历过爱,觉得我们知道爱是什么,然而当被问到什么是爱时,人们给出的答案却不尽相同,比如一个九岁的男孩说,“爱像雪崩,你必须快跑才能活命。”爱对我们来说意味着什么,这取决于我们所指的是家人之间、朋友之间还是恋人之间的爱。几百年来爱都是灵感、俏皮的揶揄、甚至是政治活动的来源。

5 Love has many dimensions. It can be romantic, exciting, obsessive, and irrational- It can also be platonic, calming, altruistic, and sensible? Many researchers feel that love defies a single definition because it varies in degree and intensity and across social contexts. At the very least, three elements are necessary for a loving relationship: (1) a willingness to please and accommodate the other person, even if this involves compromise and sacrifice; (2) an acceptance of the other person's faults and shortcomings; and (3) as much concern about the loved one's welfare as one's own. And, people who say they are "in love" emphasize caring, intimacy, and commitment.

5爱有很多层面,它可能是浪漫的,令人激动的,让人着迷的,或者是非理性的。它也可能是柏拉图式的,令人平静的,无私的,或者理智的。许多研究者觉得爱没有一个唯一的定义,它有程度和强度之分,并且跨越了社会背景。拥有恋爱关系至少需要具备三个元素:1) 愿意取悦和迁就另一方,即使需要妥协或牺牲;

2)能接受另一方的错误和缺点;3)关心爱人的幸福像关心自己一样。而且,说自己“处于恋爱中”的人们重视相互之间的关心、亲密和忠诚。

6 In any type of love, caring about the other person is essential. Although love may, involve passionate yearning, respect is a more important quality. Respect is inherent

in all love: "I want the loved person to grow and unfold for his own sake, and in his own ways, and not for the purpose of serving me." If respect and caring are missing, the relationship is not based on love. Instead, it is an unhealthy or possessive dependency that limits the lovers' social, emotional, and intellectual growth.

6 不管是哪种类型的爱,关心另一方是非常必要的。虽然爱可能包含激情的渴望,然而相互尊重才是更重要的品质。相互尊重是所有爱的共性:“我想要我爱的人为他自己成长发展,并且用他自己的方式,而不是为了迎合我。”如果没有尊重和关怀,两人的关系就不是建立在爱的基础上;反而成为一种不健康的或者是具有占有欲的依赖,而这会限制爱的双方在社会、情感和智力方面的发展。

7 Love, especially long-term love, has nothing in common with the images of love

or .frenzied sex that we get from Hollywood, television, and romance novels. Because of these images, many people believe a variety of myths about love. These misconceptions often lead to unrealistic expectations, stereotypes, and disillusionment. In fact, "real" love is closer to what one author called "stirring-the-oatmeal love" (Johnson 1985). This type of love is neither exciting nor thrilling but is relatively mundane and unromantic. It means paying bills, putting out the garbage, scrubbing toilet bowls, being up all night with a sick baby, and performing myriad other ' oatmeal" tasks that are not very sexy.

7爱,特别是长久的爱,和我们从好莱坞、电视、或爱情小说中获得的对爱和狂热的性爱的印象完全不同。由于这些印象的缘故,许多人对爱有各种各样的误解,这些误解常常会导致不现实的期望、固定模式或幻觉破灭。事实上,“真”爱更接近于一位作家(约翰逊,1995)所称的“搅燕麦粥之爱”。这种爱既不令人激动也不能令人兴奋,但是它却是实实在在的,不浪漫的。它是付账单,倒垃圾,刷马桶,孩子生病时守夜,以及完成其他各种各样不那么性感的“搅燕麦粥”的任务。

8 Some partners take turns stirring the oatmeal. Other people seek relationships that offer candlelit gourmet meals in a romantic setting. Whether we decide to enter a serious relationship or not, what type of love brings people together?

8有些伴侣们轮流来“搅燕麦粥”,其他人则寻求一种能带来浪漫的烛光美餐的恋爱关系。不管我们是否决定建立认真的恋爱关系,是什么样的爱让我们走到一起?

9 What attracts individuals to each other in the first place? Many people believe that "there's one person out there that one is meant for" and that destiny will bring them together. Such beliefs are romantic but unrealistic. Empirical studies show that cultural norms and values, not fate, bring people together We will never meet millions of potential lovers because they are "filtered out" by formal or informal rules on partner eligibility due to factors such as age, race, distance, Social class, religion, sexual orientation, health, or physical appearance.

9 一开始让人相互吸引的是什么?许多人相信“世上有一个人是你为之而生的”,而且命运会将你俩带到一起。这样的想法很浪漫却不现实。实证研究发现,是文化标准和价值观而非命运,将人们连系在一起。我们错过了成千上万的可能的爱人,因为他们早就被正式的或非正式的挑选理想爱人的准则筛选出局,这些准则包括年龄、种族、地域、社会阶层、宗教、性倾向、健康状况或外表。

10 Beginning in childhood, parents encourage or limit future romantic liaisons by selecting certain neighborhoods and schools. In early adolescence, pear norms influence the adolescent's decisions about acceptable romantic involvements ("You want to date who?!"). Even during the preteen years, romantic experiences are cultured in the sense that societal and group practices and expectations shape romantic experience. Although romance may cross cultural or ethnic borders, criticism and approval teach us what is acceptable romantic behavior and with whom. One might "lust" for someone, but these yearnings will not lead most of us to "fall in love" if there are strong cultural or group bans.

10从童年开始,父母们就通过选择某个街区和学校,或是鼓励或是限制孩子未来的情感关系。在青少年早期,同伴们的标准也会影响青少年决定哪些情感关系是可以接受的(“你想和谁约会?”)。甚至在13岁之前,情感经历就由社会和群体的活动和期望所决定和培养起来了。虽然爱情可以跨越文化和民族的界线,但批评和赞同教会了我们什么是可以接受的浪漫行为和与谁发生浪漫行为。一个人也许会对另一个人产生“欲望”,但是如果有强烈的文化或族群反对,我们中的大多数人即使有这样的渴望也不会因此而爱上某人的。

11 Regan and Berscheid (1999) differentiate between lust, desire, and romantic love. They describe lust as primarily physical rather than emotional, a condition that may be conscious or unconscious. Desire, in contrast, is a psychological in which one wants a relationship that one doesn't now have, or to engage in an activity in which one is not presently engaged. Desire may or may not lead to romantic love (which the authors equate with passionate or erotic low). Regan and Berscheid suggest that desire is an essential ingredient for initiating and maintaining romantic love. If desire disappears, a person is no longer said to be in a state of romantic love. Once desire diminishes, disappointed lovers may wonder where the "spark" in their relationship has gone and may reminisce regretfully (and longingly) about "the good old days".

11 里根和波谢德(1999)曾把贪欲、性欲和浪漫的爱加以区分。他们把贪欲描述为身体上的而非情感上的兴奋,是一种有意识的或无意识的状态。相反性欲是一种心理状态,在这种心理状态下,一个人想建立一种目前还不具有的恋爱关系,或者是想进行一种目前还没有进行的行为。性欲可能会成为或不会成为浪漫的爱情(作者把浪漫的爱情等同于充满激情或性欲的爱)。里根和波谢德认为:性欲是点燃并维持浪漫爱情的必要成分。一旦性爱消失了,一个人就不能再说成是还处在浪漫恋情中。一旦欲望消失了,失望的恋人就会诧异原来他们关系中的“火花”去哪儿了,他们可能会很遗憾地(而且渴望地)怀念“过去的美好时光”。

12 One should not conclude, however, that desire always culminates in physical intimacy or that desire is the same as romantic love. Married partners may love each other even though they rarely, or never, engage in physical intimacy. In addition, there are some notable differences between love- especially long-term love- and romantic love. Healthy loving relationships, whether physical or not (such as love for family members), reflect a balance of caring, intimacy, and commitment.

12 然而,我们不应就此得出性欲总是以身体的亲密接触告终,或性与浪漫爱情是同一回事的结论。结了婚的伴侣们可以深爱对方,即使很少或从来没有身体的亲密接触。此外,爱,尤其是长期的爱,和浪漫的爱是有很大区别的。健康的恋爱关系,不管它们是有性的或是无性的(比如对家人的爱)都反映了关怀、亲密和忠诚的平衡。

Unit Five

The term yoga comes from a Sanskrit word which means yoke or union. Traditionally, yoga is a method joining the individual self with the Divine, Universal Spirit, or Cosmic Consciousness. Physical and mental exercises are designed to help achieve this goal, also called self-transcendence or enlightenment. On the physical level yoga postures, called asanas, are designed to tone, strengthen, and align me body. These postures are performed to make the spine supple and healthy and to promote blood flow to all the organs, glands, and tissues, keeping all the bodily systems healthy. On the mental level, yoga uses breathing techniques (pranayama) and meditation (dydna) to quiet, clarify, and discipline the mind. However, experts are quick to point out that yoga is not a religion, but a way of living with health and peace of mind as its aims.

“瑜伽”这个词源于梵语,意思是“结合”或“联合”,传统上瑜伽是一种把个人和神,万物之灵或无穷的意识联合在一起的方法。为了帮助达到这个也被称为“自我超越”或“启蒙”的目的,设计了身体上和精神上的锻炼方法。在身体上,设计了各种瑜伽姿势来使人的身体结实、强壮,有协调性,练习这些体位能使脊柱变得柔软健康,血液更通畅地到达各器官、腺或人体组织,从而使身体各系统更健康穹在精神上,瑜伽使用呼吸法和冥想使心境平和、澄净,精神得到很好的修养。但是专家们很快指出瑜伽不是一种宗教,而是将健康与平和的心境结合在一起的一种生活方式。

YOGA IN AMERICA (Douglas Dupler)

瑜伽在美国道格拉斯·多普勒

1 Yoga originated in ancient India and is one of the longest surviving philosophical systems in the world. Some scholars have estimated that yoga is as old as 5,000 years; artifacts detailing yoga postures have been found in India from over 3,000 B.C. Yogis claim that it is a highly developed science of healthy living that has been tested and perfected for all these years. Yoga was first brought to America in the late 1800s when Swami Vivekananda, an Indian teacher and yogi, presented a lecture on meditation in Chicago. Yoga slowly began gaining followers, and flourished during the 1960s when there was a surge of interest in Eastern philosophy. There has since been a vast exchange of yoga knowledge in America, with many students going to India to study and many Indian experts coming here to teach, resulting in the establishment of a wide variety of schools. Today, yoga is thriving, and it has become easy to find teachers and practitioners throughout America. A recent Roper poll, commissioned by Yoga Journal, found that 11 million Americans do yoga at least occasionally" and six million perform it regularly. Yoga stretches are used by physical therapists and professional sports teams, and the benefits of yoga are being touted by movie stars and Fortune 500 executives. Many prestigious schools of medicine have studied and introduced yoga techniques as proven therapies for illness and stress. Some medical schools, like UCLA, even offer yoga classes as part of their physician training program.

1瑜伽起源于古印度,是世界上最古老的哲学体系之一。一些学者估计,瑜伽至少有5,000年的历史;印度曾出土过3,000年前的表现瑜伽姿势的手工艺品。瑜伽师们认为,经过几千年的考验和完善,瑜伽已经发展成为一门养生的成熟科学。19世纪晚期,印度学者、瑜伽师斯瓦米·维韦卡南达在芝加哥做了一场关于冥想的演讲,从此瑜伽传人了美国。慢慢地有人开始练习瑜伽,并在20世纪60年代东方哲学热盛行的时候形成了学习瑜伽的高潮。从此,瑜伽知识在美国传播开来,许多学徒专程前往印度学习,很多印度瑜伽师也来到美国教学,创办了大量瑜伽学校。今天的美国,瑜伽已十分盛行,瑜伽教练和练习者随处可见。最近一项由《瑜伽月刊》委托洛普民调机构所做的调查显示,有1,100万的美国人至少会偶尔做一次瑜伽,另有600万的美国人会经常做瑜伽。瑜伽已被广泛应用于身体治疗和专业运动队的日常训练,做瑜伽的好处也被电影明星和《财富》杂志世界500强企业的总裁们争相吹捧。许多医学名校已经研究并提出能够有效缓解疾病和压力的瑜伽术了。包括加州大学洛杉矶分校在内的一些医学院甚至还为内科医学专业的学生开设了瑜伽课程。

2 There are several different schools of hatha yoga in America; the two most prevalent ones are Iyengar and Ashtanga yoga. Iyengar yoga was founded by B.K.S. Iyengar, who is widely considered as one of the great living innovators of yoga. Iyengar yoga puts strict emphasis on form and alignment, and uses traditional hatha yoga techniques in new manners and sequences. Iyengar yoga can be good for physical therapy because it allows the use of props like straps and blocks to make it easier for some people to get into the yoga postures. Ashtanga yoga can be a more vigorous routine, using a flowing and dance-like sequence of hatha postures to generate body heat, which purifies the body through sweating and deep breathing.

2 美国有许多不同的哈他(传统)瑜伽学派,其中影响最大的是艾扬格派和阿斯汤加派。艾扬格瑜伽的创立者是波·可·斯·艾扬格,他是世界上目前仍健在的最伟大的瑜伽改革者之一。艾扬格瑜伽十分注重姿势的精准,它采用新的方式和顺序练习传统瑜伽。艾扬格瑜伽有助于身体治疗,因为它允许练习者使用瑜伽伸展带、瑜伽砖等辅助器材来减少做瑜伽动作的难度。阿斯汤加瑜伽有着更精准的要求,练习者要用舞蹈般流畅的动作来练习传统瑜伽,从而使身体发热,并通过出汗和深呼吸来净化自己的身体。

3 Yoga routines can take anywhere from 20 minutes to two or more hours, with one hour being a good time investment to perform a sequence of postures and a meditation. Some yoga routines, depending on the teacher and school, can be as strenuous as the most difficult workout, and some routines merely stretch and align the body while the breath and heart rate are kept slow and steady. Yoga achieves its best results when it

is practiced as a daily discipline, and yoga can be a life-long exercise routine, offering deeper and more challenging positions as a practitioner becomes more adept. The basic positions can increase a person's strength, flexibility and sense of well-being almost immediately, but it can take years to perfect and deepen them, which is an appealing and stimulating aspect of yoga for many.

3做瑜伽没有场地的限制,一套瑜伽动作通常需要20分钟到两个小时或者更多的时间,而一个小时左右的时间则是一系列动作和冥想的最佳选择。根据瑜伽师和学派的不同,一些瑜伽动作做起来辛苦异常,而另一些却只是在呼吸和心跳平稳的情况下调整和伸展肢体。每天练习瑜伽会达到最好的效果,随着动作越来越熟练,你就可以加大强度和难度,这样瑜伽就能成为你相伴终生的日常锻炼

方式了。练习基础的瑜伽动作即可收到增强力量,改善柔韧性并使人感到舒适的效果,但要想达到完美和高深的境界还是需要日积月累的练习,这也是瑜伽吸引人的地方之一。

4 Yoga is usually best learned from a yoga teacher or physical therapist, but yoga is simple enough that one can learn the basics from good books on the subject, which are plentiful. Yoga classes are generally inexpensive, averaging around 10 dollars per class, and students can learn basic postures in just a few classes. Many YMCAs, colleges, and community health organizations offer beginning yoga classes as well, often for nominal fees. If yoga is part of a physical therapy program, it can be reimbursed by insurance.

4能向瑜伽教练或身体治疗师学习瑜伽是最好不过了,但因为瑜伽入门并不难,所以也可以从大量的介绍瑜伽的正规书籍中自学它的基本动作。瑜伽课的学费一般不贵,平均一堂课10美元,学员们在几节课内就能学会基础的瑜伽动作。许多地方的基督教青年会、大学和社区健康协会都开办有瑜伽入门学习班,而且通常只象征性地收取一点儿费用。如果是作为身体治疗项目的一部分,瑜伽费用还能算在医疗保险的范围之内。

5 Yoga can also provide the same benefits as any well-designed exercise program, increasing general health and stamina reducing stress, and improving those conditions brought about by sedentary lifestyles. Yoga has the added advantage of being a low- impact activity that uses only gravity as resistance, which makes it an excellent physical therapy routine: certain yoga postures can be safely used to strengthen and balance all parts of the body.

5瑜伽还能带来和精心设计的练习一样的效果,使人增强体质、焕发活力,并帮助人们舒缓压力和久坐带来的疲劳。瑜伽的另一个优点是,除了地心引力外,它不需承担额外的阻力,这使它成为身体治疗方法的不二之选;特定的瑜伽动作能安全有效地增强人的力量,提高身体的平衡度。

6 Meditation has been much studied and approved for its benefits in reducing stresses- related conditions. The landmark book, The Relaxation Response, by Harvard cardiologist Herbert Benson, showed that meditation and breathing techniques for relaxation could have the opposite effect of stress, reducing blood pressure and other indicators, Since then, much research has reiterated the benefits of meditation for stress reduction and general health. Currently, the American Medical Association recommends meditation techniques as a first step before medication for borderline hypertension cases.

6研究表明,冥想能帮助人们缓解压力。哈佛心脏医学家赫伯特·班森在他划时代的著作《放松反应》里说道,冥想和呼吸技巧能使身体放松,达到与压力相反的效果,并使血压等一系列指标回落。从那以后,越来越多的研究都重申了冥想对减压和身体健康的积极影响。现在,美国医学协会已推荐把冥想疗法替代药物治疗用于治疗疑似高血压的第一步了。

7 Modern psychological Studies have shown that even slight facial expressions can cause changes in the involuntary nervous system; yoga utilizes the mind/body connection, that is, yoga practice contains the central ideas that physical posture and alignment can influence a person's mood and self-esteem, and also that the mind can be used to shape and heal the body. Yoga practitioners claim that the strengthening of mind/body awareness can bring eventual improvements in all facets of a person's life.

7现代心理学研究表明,即使细微的表情变化也会引起神经系统的自主改变;而瑜伽正是身体和心灵的绝妙结合——瑜伽练习的中心思想就是,身体的姿态将影响人的心情和自我意识,而人的精神又能塑造和治愈人的身体。瑜伽练习者认为,精神/体质的加强最终将为生活的各方面都带来好处。

8 Yoga can be performed by those of any age and condition, although not all poses should be attempted by everyone. Yoga is also a very accessible form of exercise; all that is needed is a flat floor surface large enough to stretch out on, a mat or towel, and enough overhead space to full raise the arms. It is a good activity for those who can't go to gyms, who don't like other forms of exercise, or have, very busy schedules. Yoga should be done on an empty stomach, and teachers recommend waiting three or more hours after meals. Loose and comfortable clothing should he worn.

8虽然有些姿势并不适合所有人练习,但是任何年龄段的人在任何条件下都能练习瑜伽。练瑜伽的准备工作也很简单;只需一块可以伸展肢体的平地、一块草垫或毛巾和一个足以抬起手臂的空间就可以展开练习了。对去不了体育馆、不喜欢其他体育运动和十分忙碌的人来说,瑜伽是一项再好不过的活动了。练习时应穿着宽松舒适的服装并保持空腹,瑜伽师推荐饭后三小时以上为宜。

9 Beginners should exercise care and concentration when performing yoga postures, and not try to stretch too much too quickly, as injury could result. Some advanced yoga postures, like the headstand and full lotus position, can be difficult and require strength, flexibility, and gradual preparation, so beginners should get the help of a teacher before attempting them.

9初学者在练习时应集中注意力,小心动作不要做得太过太快,以免受伤。一些高阶的瑜伽动作,如头倒立式和全莲花坐式,需要有很好的力量、柔韧性和日积月累的练习作准备,因此初学者应在瑜伽师的指导下做这些动作。

10 Yoga is not a competitive sport; it does not matter how a person does in comparison with others, but how aware and disciplined one becomes with one's own body and limitations. Proper form and alignment should always be maintained during a stretch or posture, and the stretch or posture should be stopped when there is pain, dizziness, or fatigue. The mental component of yoga is just as important as the physical postures. Concentration and awareness breath should not be neglected. Yoga should be done with an open, gentle, and non-critical mind: when one stretches into a position, it can be thought of as accepting and working on one's limits. Impatience, self-criticism and comparing oneself to others will not help in this process of

self-knowledge. While performing the yoga of breathing (pranayama) and meditation (dyana), it is best to have an experienced teacher, as these powerful techniques can cause dizziness and discomfort when done improperly.

10 瑜伽不是竞技体育;练瑜伽不需要和别人比,练瑜伽的目的是提高自己的觉悟和身心自律能力。做瑜伽必须保持姿势的正确,一旦感到疼痛、头晕或疲劳就必须停止。做瑜伽时,身体和精神一样重要,要注意集中精力去感受呼吸。练习时必须心胸开阔、平和;当你伸展肢体做每一个瑜伽动作时,你就是在接受挑战去达到自己的极限。不耐烦、自责和与他人相比都不利于这一过程中自我认识的实现。当练习呼吸法(调息)和冥想法(禅定)时,最好由经验丰富的瑜伽师来指导,因为一旦练习不当,这些技巧性很强的动作会使人感到头晕不适。

11 Although yoga originated in a culture very different from modern America, it has been accepted and its practice has spread relatively quickly. Many yogis are amazed