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Democracy and personal liberty are not limitless, and they are under the control of certain conditions. It is known that in most parts of the world, the relation between population and resources is already unfavorable and will probably become even more unfavorable in the future.



The unbalanced relation between population and resources makes the growing poverty more deteriorat-ing. This growing poverty constitutes a permanent menace to peace. And not only to peace, but also to democratic institutions and personal liberty. For over-population is not compatible with freedom. An unfavor-able relationship between numbers and recourses tends to make the earning of a living almost intolerably difficult. Labor is more abundant than goods, and the individual is forced to work long hours for little pay. The un-friendly nature or the equally unfriendly wielders of po-litical and economic power enable labor to have no sur-plus of accumulated purchasing power.


Democracy is, among other things, the ability to say “no” to the boss. As a man lives in a society confining to a govern-ment, he can‘t say “no” to the boss, unless he is sure of being able to eat when the boss’s favor has been with-drawn. And he cannot be certain of his next meal un-less he owns the means of producing enough wealth for his family to live on, or has been able to accumulate sur-plus out of past wages. If he had a chance of moving to virgin territories, where he could make a fresh start, he would be able to say “no” to the boss, but there is no free land.



In an overcrowded country, very few people own enough to make them financially independent; very few people are in a position to accumulate purchasing power.

Moreover, in any country where population presses hard upon natural resources,the general eco-nomic situation is apt to be so precarious that govern-ment control of capital and labor, production and con-sumption, becomes inevitable. It results that democratic ideals will not work in conditions of poverty and extreme social unrest.


What is an American? An American is someone who loves their country and the people in it, and believes in bettering their own lives as well as the lives of those around them. Does it really matter that these individuals may be of German or Chinese descent? No, not at all; their ethnic background has nothing to do with being American. To say that the majority of people in the United States have some sort of tie with an ethnic background from a different country would be a safe assumption. This is what makes our American Culture unique. Immigrants bring to our country strong family structures and strong morals. Foreigners also help our economy prosper. Immigrants are what help make America be America; by being a multicultural society standing united. 美国人是什么?


In today‘s American society it is not uncommon for people to be families broken up by divorce or other domestic disturbances. However, immigrants seem to have much stronger family values. For many immigrants, family comes first over everything;for many of them family is all they have. This is especially true of traditional developing societies. Many of these newcomers have strong traditions and beliefs which are strict and are instilled in their children. Immigrants coming to America with this type of beliefs and strong traditions sets good examples for our western civilization. By receiving new cultures to our society it is a chance to absorb their rules and respect they have for one another. This is ideal to help restore our family values.


It has been said that “immigration is a threat to our economy.” This statement is so absurd. Immigration increases purchasing thereby, increases demand for labor. Immigration not only takes jobs, but also creates them. (Wall Street Journal)For instance, a man comes to America from China. This man opens a small Chinese restaurant. The restaurant makes outstanding business. Ten years later this man owns twelve restaurants and employs three hundred Americans. Stories like that happen all the time, which help our economy.


Immigrants are what help America be America. They say that America is just a melting pot. This is what makes our country unique. We have many cultures, many ideas, and traditions, but all of us have the same dream. That Dream is the American Dream. The same dream that keeps Americans in America and immigrants to come here. Diversity of cultures helps people understand and learn from each other. Taking immigration away would hurt this country more than economically, but, socially also.


Immigration, I feel is extremely important. Being an Italian American myself,I understand the importance of immigration. My family has traditions and beliefs that they teach me and I‘ll teach my kids some day. And no one should be denied the opportunity my parents and I have to be a part of America.


We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person‘s knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It really is extraordinary that after all these years, educationists have still failed to device anything more efficient and reliable than examinations.


For all the pious claim that examinations test what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite. They may be a good means of testing memory, or the knack of working rapidly under extreme pressure, but they can tell you nothing about a person‘s true ability and aptitude.


As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none. That is because so much depends on them. They are the mark of success of failure in our society. Your whole future may be decided in one fateful day. It doesn‘t matter that you weren’t feeling very well, or that your mother died. Little things like that don‘t count: the exam goes on. No one can give of his best when he is in mortal terror, or after a sleepless night, yet this is precisely what the examination system expects him to do.


The moment a child begins school, he enters a world of vicious competition where success and failure are clearly defined and measured. Can we wonder at the increasing number of “drop-outs”: young people who are written off as utter failures

before they have even embarked on a career? Can we be surprised at the suicide rate among students?


A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt is rigidly laid down by a syllabus, so the student is encouraged to memorize. Examinations do not motivate a student to read widely, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to seek more and more knowledge, but induce cramming. 一种好的教育应当包括培养你独立的能力。而考试制度绝对没有这样的作用。必须学的东西被强硬地用课程大纲给制定出来,鼓励学生去死记。考试不能激励学生去广泛阅读,而是限制他阅读;考试不能使学生探索越来越多的知识,而是起到填鸭式的作用。

They lower the standards of teaching, for they deprive the teacher of all freedoms. Teachers themselves are often judged by examination results and instead of teaching their subjects, they are reduced to training their students in exam techniques which they despise. The most successful candidates are not always the best educated; they are the best trained in the technique of working under duress.


The results on which so much depends are often nothing more than a subjective assessment by some anonymous examiner. Examiners are only human. They get tired and hungry; they make mistakes. Yet they have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time. They work under the same sort of pressure as the candidates. And their word carries weight. After a judge‘s decision you have the right of appeal, but not after an examiner’s.


There must surely be many simpler and more effective ways of assessing a person “s true abilities. Is it cynical to suggest that examinations are merely a profitable business for the institutions that run them? This is what it boils down to in the last analysis. The best comment on the system is this illiterate message recently scrawled on a wall:”I were a teenage drop-out and now I are a teenage millionaire.



He failed in the exam, which has made him aware of the importance of reviewing his lessons regularly.


Be sure not to forget what your parents said to you before you left home.


I‘m sure her knowledge of English is adequate for the job.


The purpose of his article is to tell the students how to develop good study habits.


In our age, people depend more on computers to solve various kinds of difficult problems.


Skimming not only helps you get some idea of what you are going to read, but also helps you read faster and improve your comprehension.


Some people think that boys performance on tests is always better than girls. That is not necessarily the case, however.


Even students of average intelligence can become top students by improving their study habits.


Fortunately there was a hospital nearby and we took him there at once.


We often find it much more difficult to apply a rule than to know it.


He is determined to continue his experiment but this time he‘ll do it another way.


When she read the novel, she couldn‘t help thinking the five years she had spent in the countryside.


Mary thought it difficult to carry out her plan all by herself.


We didn‘t think he could cover the distance in a quarter of an hour, but he succeeded in doing it.


The two animals are similar in appearance, but they belong to different species.


I don‘t know for sure whether the bank will grant him the loan he has applied for.


That famous actor seemed content to play a minor part in the play.


National Day is round the corner. Let‘s give our bedroom a thorough clean.


She agreed to be operated on by a young doctor.


They‘ve arranged for us to visit the Great Wall tomorrow. I’m sure we‘ll have a good time there. (we’ll enjoy ourselves there)


Through the article the author wants to convey to the readers his view on praise and criticism.


Of the dozen of waitresses in the restaurant, only three have had any previous experience.


There are indications that numerous factories are faced with a very difficult situation.


Everything points to the fact\indicates that something has gone wrong with his project\plan.


To take this job would involve working on weekends frequently, but John didn ‘t mind.


The criminal was given a stiff sentence of fifteen years.


My grandparents said that the man who invented television had once lived in their neighborhood.


I propose that we go to find Prof. Smith in his office after the meeting and invite him to our English evening.


Lennie was late for school again this morning. He ought to \should have got up earlier. He must have stayed up too late last night.


He was busy writing the story all the morning, only breaking off occasionally to have a cup of tea.


It is very important for nurses stick to this rule.


It was reported that the building of the railway had been held up by a flood.


The strike resulted in the management‘s accepting the workers demands.


Workers of the coalmine decided to go on strike for better working conditions.


I want to buy the English dictionary very much. Unfortunately, I don‘t have enough money on me.


The foreign expert hopes to achieve all his objectives in three years.


Those who still have doubts on this, please hold up their hands.