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人教版英语八下知识点串讲

八年级下期中考试要点串讲

要点归纳1

某人拥有/某地存在(有)某物:

People will have robots in the near future.

People是主语,位于动词之前

There will be robots working in factories.

Robots是主语,位于动词之后

若写成

Robots will be working in factories.在意义不表示“将会有”的意思。

翻译下列句子:

There will be more birds singing in the trees in ten years.

There will be less pollution in the river after fewer factories.

There will be more free time.

区别下列句子:

A -----I will be an engineer in ten years. Be here means become

B-----There will be an engineer in my family in ten years. Be here means exist

C----These(robots)will be in every home. Be here means “come true”

某地存在(有)某物句型的疑问、否定、肯定回答和否定回答。

There will be more birds singing in the trees in ten years.

改写为疑问句

______ ______ be more birds singing in the trees in ten years?

作肯定回答 Yes,______ _______.

否定回答 No,_____ ______.

There will be less pollution in the river after fewer factories.

改为疑问句

_____ ______ be less pollution in the river after fewer factories?

There will be more free time.

改为否定句 There ______ be more free time

要点归纳2

情态动词

can, may, might, could, would and should等。

Might ,could ,would, should 四个情态动词既是may, can, will, shall的过去时,又不表示过去时,而是情态动词,要同实意动词连用,常用的还有must ,needn’t,can’t. might 表示小于50%的可能性,could 表示一种客气的请求, would 表示有礼貌的邀请,should 表示应当/该。

典型考题区别:

He can speak several languages.

He is able to swim across the river, though it is flooded.

-------Could you tell me where Center Street _______(is was)?

-------Sorry, I ________(couldn’t can’t).

I would like you to come to my house.

(Should Would) you mind my invitation? 邀请的,委婉的说法

常用的还有

Why not ______( come to come) to my house?

Should 常用于提出建议

You _________(should would) say you’re sorry.

Maybe you ______(could should) give him a ticket to a ball game. could 用于劝说更委婉(潜在的意思是“这不就和解了。”)(refer to page11 课文句子改写)

You ______(should would)be ashamed of yourself. 语气坚决,应该

You ________(wouldn’t shouldn’t) tell lies.含有责备,不应当

It ___(should might) be easy.表示期待某事发生或对某事进行推断Might only means not sure

要点归纳3

当心句末的时间词/标志词

前面有Look, -------. Listen,---------. 我们知道后面的句子要用“现在正在进行时”

Look, mom is driving her new car.

Listen, something strange is happening outside.

当心后面的时间词 at that time, at 8 o’clock yesterday when引导过去时间的动作,(有时也可以引导过去进行时。)

while可以引导过去正在进行时,如:

page19 2b改写句子

1 The boy was walking down the street when suddenly a UFO landed.

When 引导的动作突然插入到前面正在进行的动作之中,

3 While the alien was buying a souvenir, the girl called the police.

外星人正在买纪念品,乘此时间,另一个动作发生了。

P20 4

A: What were you doing at nine o’clock last Sunday morning?

B: I was sleeping at that time.

4. The girl was shopping when the alien got out.

While the girl was shopping, the alien got out.

when 与while区分:

(1)"当...的时候",如后面连接的动词为进行时态,则用while多于用when。而when通常与瞬间性动词或延续性不强的动词连用。

(2)如果while前后的动词都是进行时态,while可译为"与此同时"

I was reading while my brother was drawing. (含有对比而非转折)

(3)当while前后的句子描述的情况相对或相反,while可译为"而",while更强调并列的对比而非转折。

e.g. I am out-going while my sister is quiet and shy.

总之,when表示做某种动作的时间或瞬间,由其引导的时间状语的时态如果是一般过去时,其主句通常要用过去进行时。while表示略长的一段时间,由其引导的时间状语从句用过去进行时,而主句时态根据实际情况而定。过去进行时的用法

过去进行时由“was/were+现在分词”构成。表示过去某一时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作。其用法有:

1.表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作。如:

I was doing my homework at eight o’clock last night. 昨晚八点我正在做作业。

2.表示过去某段时间正在进行的动作。如:

They were building a house last winter. 去年冬天他们在建一座房子。

3.表示过去频繁发生的习惯性动作。常与always等词连用。如:

Little Tom was always asking many questions. 小汤姆总是会问许多的问题。

4.动词come, go, leave, start, arrive等表示位置转移的动词用过去进行时表示过去将要发生的动作。

如:They wanted to know when we were leaving for Shanghai. 他们想知道我们什么时候去上海。

过去进行时和一般过去时的用法比较:

一般过去时强调过去某个时候或某段时间曾有过的某个已结束的动作;过去进行时则强调过去某个时候或某段时间正在进行的动作。如:

Lily wrote a letter to her aunt last night. 莉莉昨晚给她阿姨写了封信。(信已写完了。)

Lily was writing a letter to her aunt last night. 莉莉昨晚一直在给她阿姨写信。(强调写的动作一直在进行,信不一定写完。)

课文的例句很多,可以仿造练习。

要点归纳4

本单元重点解决陈述句的间接引语。(预备知识: 1 陈述句 2 疑问句 3 祈使句。对于初上讲台的教师,要懂得铺垫这些知识的重要性。)

把直接引语变成间接引语,中英文存在很大的差异,夸张地说是“牵一发而动全身”。

直接引语和间接引语

直接引述别人的原话,叫做直接引语;用自己话转述别人的话,叫做间接引语。间接引语一般构成宾语从句。直接引语必须放在引号内,间接引语则不用引号。直接引语改为间接引语时,除将引语部分变成宾语从句外,还必须对直接引语中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等进行改变。

时态的变化:直接引语变为间接引语时,通常受转述动词said,asked等的影响而使用过去化的时态,即把原来的时态向过去推,也就是一般现在时变为一般过去时,现在进行时变为过去进行时等。

1.陈述句的间接引语

陈述句由直接引语变间接引语,通常由that引导,可以省略。

参见课文例句page 27

“I am not mad at Marcia anymore.” Lana told us.

“我不再对Marcia生气了。” Lana说。

→Lana told us that she wasn’t mad at Marcia anymore.

Lana说她不再对Marcia生气了。

Marcia said to everyone, “I am not going to have the surprise party.”

Marcia对每一个人说:“我不打算开一个惊喜晚会。”

→Marcia told everyone that she wasn’t going to have the surprise party.

Marcia对每一个人说她不打算开一个惊喜晚会。

要点归纳5

If 的用法

例句:

What will happen if they have the party tomorrow?

如果他们明天开晚会,将会发生什么?

If you become a professional athlete, you’ll be able t o-------

如果你成了专业运动员,你就将能够------

当if 引导条件状语从句时,表示“如果”时,必需要用现在时态替代将来时,类似还有连词as long as unless before while when if once the moment as soon as

I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow, if it rains tomorrow,I won’t go camping with you.前面的if表示是否,用将来时态,后面的 if 才表示条件。

翻译下列句子:

1 如果你不马上走的话,你就会迟到。

..

2 你看医生之前,什么东西都不可以吃。

3 你们不来,我们不会出发。

4 在汤姆回来前,我不会告诉你的。

5 没洗手前,别吃东西。

Keys

1 If you don’t go soon, you’ll be late.

2 If you are ill, you’ll have to see the doctor.

You mustn’t eat anything until you see the doctor

= You must n’t eat anything before you see the doctor.

3 We won’t start until you come.

4 I won’t tell you until Tom comes back.

5 Don’t eat until you wash your hands

八年级下学期期中复习(一)

一.重点词汇

1. in the future

in the future意为“将来,一段时间之后的事”;in future意为“今后”,可解释为from now on,如:

The little boy didn’t know what he would do in the future, but he did know that he wouldn’t talk with Bob in future because they had just had a big fight.

小男孩儿不知道将来要做什么,但他的确知道他今后不会再和Bob说话了,因为他们刚打了一架。

2. fall(过去式:fell;过去分词:fallen)

fall down跌倒, 例如:He fell down to the ground.

fall in love with爱上某人或某物, 例如:He fell in love with her.

fall into 掉入, 例如:He fell into the river.

fall onto跌倒在…之上, 例如:He fell onto the ground from his bike.

fall off从…跌落下来, 例如:He fell off his bicycle.

3. talk 的用法

talk about sth.意思是“谈论某事”, 例如:

Now let’s talk about your homework. 现在我们来谈谈你的作业。

talk with sb. 意思是“和某人交谈”, 例如:

My mother is talking with my English teacher. 我妈妈在和我的英语老师交谈。

talk to sb.意思是“对某人谈”, 例如:

The teacher is talking to the students. 老师在对学生们谈话。

talk over sth.作“讨论某事”解,宾语是代词时须位于副词over之前, 例如:

They talked over the matter at table.他们吃饭时讨论了这个问题。

give a talk意思是“作一个报告”

注意要表示“告诉某人某事”时,须用tell sb. about sth.这样的结构。

4. argue with sb和discuss

argue 重在就自己的看法、立场提出论证说理,以说服他人。

而discuss 重在交换意见,进行讨论,不含有意说服对方的成分, 如:

I argued with him for a long time,but he refused to listen to reason.

我和他辩论了好久,但他拒不服理。

The women were discussing hats. 女人们在谈论帽子。

argue的常见搭配有:

argue on / about sth. 就…进行辩论

argue with sb.about sth.就某事与某人一起辩论

5. enough “足够的,充足的”

enough作为形容词放在名词之前,起修饰名词作用,作为副词修饰形容词或副词放置其后,常用于:be+ adj.+enough to do sth.的句型,意为“足以能……”,如:

She has drunk enough water/water enough. 她已经喝了足够的水。

I'm strong enough for this work. 我够强壮,足以能胜任这项工作。

The boy is not old enough to go to school. 这孩子不够上学的年龄。

He runs fast enough. No one can catch up with him. 他跑得足够的快。没人能赶得上他。

另外,enough前除可用quite外,一般不用修饰;enough作名词用时,表示“足够,充足”,如:The man never has enough. 这个人永远不知足。

I've had enough,thank you. 我吃饱了,谢谢。

6. find, find out和look for

find表示“找到,认为,觉得”,强调动作的结果。常指找到丢失或忘掉的东西,如:

Jim couldn’t find his hat.吉姆找不着帽子了。

I can't find my book.我找不到我的书。

look for意为“找,寻找”是持续性动词,强调动作,不表示结果,如:

She is looking for her son.她正在找她的儿子。

I’m looking for my watch. 我正在寻找我的手表。

比较:He can’t find his pen.他找不到他的钢笔了。

--- What are you looking for? 你在干什么?

--- I’m looking for my maths book. I can’t find it. 我正找我的数学书,我找不到了。

find out作经过打听,询问后搞清楚,弄明白。或指“查明”的动作,“经过调查”发现,查明真相,如:

I can find out the truth of the fact. 我能查出事实的真相。

7. be angry with sb;be angry at sth

(1)表示“对某人生气”,可以说be/get/become angry with sb.

也可说be/get/become angry at sb.

前者更普遍,后者更侧重于:“对某人的言行生气”。

如:

Mother got angry at(with)me only because I had broken a precious cup.

妈妈对我发火,只是因为我打破了一只贵重的杯子。

I was very(rather)angry at what he said.我对他所说的话非常生气。

(2)表示“因某事生气”,可说be/get/become angry at sth.

也可说be/get/become angry about sth.

如:

He was angry at(about)what I said.他对我所说的感到生气。

She was angry at being kept waiting.她因别人让她久候而生气。

8. on the tree和in the tree

表示“在树上”既可以用on也可以用in,但用的词不一样,所隐含的意思也就不一样:

in the tree通常表示所提物体不是树上长出来的,而是挂在、落在或是停歇在树上,如:

The birds are singing in the trees. 鸟在树上唱歌。

The child is staying in the tree. 小孩呆在树上。

on the tree通常表示所提物体是树上长出来的部分,如:

They are busy picking the apples on the trees. 他们正忙着摘树上的苹果。

There aren’t many oranges on the tree. 这棵树上桔子不多。

9. the same… as 同……一样的

same

adj.同一的,相同的,如:

Meet me at the same time tomorrow. 明天的这个时间和我见面。

pron. 同样的事物,如:

I would do the same again. 我愿意重做一次。

the same…as 同……一样的,表示与as后的事物很相像,但并不是同一个,如:

Your pen is the same as mine. 你的钢笔和我的一样。

the same … that = one and the sa me 同……一样的,表示与as后的事物完全一致,完全一样,如:

He was wearing the same shirt (that) he'd on the day before.

他穿的那件衬衫, 是他前一天穿过的同一件衬衫。

I went out the same way (that) I'd got in. 我顺着进来的原路出去了。

10. help with+n. = help sb. (to) do sth. 帮助某人做某事,如:

He often helps me with my English.= He often helps me to study English.

他经常帮助我学习英语。

11. bored 和boring.

bored 表示被动的含义,例如:

I feel bored about it. 它使我感到乏味。

boring 表示主动的含义,例如:

It is very boring to study English. 学习英语很无聊。

12. surprise 动词“使惊奇”,如:You surprise me! 你吓了我一跳!

(1)surprise 还可以作为名词“惊奇,吃惊”;“可惊的事情, 意外的事情”。作为“令人吃惊的事情,意外的事情”是可数名词,如:

What a surprise! 多么令人吃惊的事!

Don't tell him about the present — it's a surprise.

不要告诉他礼物的事,这是件意想不到的礼物。

(2)surprising 形容词“令人吃惊的”,表示主动的含义,如:

They have heard the surprising news. 他们听到了那惊人的消息。

(3)surprised形容词“感到惊讶的”,表示被动的含义,如:

I am surprised at you. 我对你的举动感到诧异。

(4)to one's surprise 使某人非常惊奇的是,如:

To my surprise,I found him sing well. 使我吃惊的是他歌唱得很好。

八年级下学期期中复习(二)

一.重点词汇

1. different kinds of

意为“不同种类的”,“各种各样的”,等于all kinds of,kinds of 后面接可数或不可数名词均可。

kind有两个词性:

1)kind作名词,意为“种类”。

如:

There are many kinds of animals in the zoo. 动物园里有很多种动物。

2)kind作形容词,意为“和善的,友好的”。

如:

It's very kind of you to help me.你帮助我真是太好了。

2. advice

意为“劝告,意见,忠告”等,是不可数名词,前不加冠词。

可用“a piece of advice”,“pieces of advice”的结构来表示数量。

与advice搭配的动词短语有:

ask sb. for advice向某人征求意见

follow/take sb's advice遵从某人的劝告

give sb. some advice 给某人提出建议

如:

The doctor gave us some advice on how to improve our health.

医生对如何提高我们的身体素质提出了一些建议。

3. 辨析leave和forget

这两个词都有“遗忘,忘记”的意思,但用法不同,注意区别。

1)leave+sth.+sp. 指“把某物遗忘在某地”

如:

I left my notebook in the classroom. 我把笔记本忘在教室里了。

2)forget to do sth.指“忘记去做某事”

forget doing sth. 指“忘记做过某事”

如:

I forget to tell her about it. 我忘了把这件事告诉她。

I forgot telling her about it. 我忘记曾把这件事告诉过她。

4. in hospital

该短语译为“住院”,hospital前面无冠词,表示抽象概念。

而短语“in the hospital”则译为“在医院里”,并非生病住院之意。

在英语中,介词和一些单数名词连用,可以表示抽象概念。

at school 上学go to school上学go to bed 上床睡觉

in/ out of jail坐牢/出狱

5. take a day off

该短语译为“休一天假”。off表示缺席、不在、不工作或责任的免除,如:

You mustn't take a day off just because you want to see a football match.

你不能只是为了想看一场足球赛而休息一天。

I think I will take the afternoon off,because I get sick.

我想我下午要休假,因为我实在是病了。

6. be mad at...“对……非常愤怒,恼火”,如:

They were mad at missing the train. 没赶上火车,他们气得发疯。

mad还可以和其他的介词搭配构成一些短语。

如:

be mad about“对……狂热,着迷”;

go mad “发疯,疯了”。

7. bring...to...“把……带到……来”。其反义词组为“take...to....”,即“把……带到……去”,如:

It is raining heavily outside. Take an umbrella with you.外面正在下雨,随身带把伞吧。

Please bring the long ruler here,and take the short one away. 请拿把长尺子到这儿来,把这把短的带走。Mum,please bring the English book and the CDs to school. I need them for my English class.

妈妈,请把英语书和CD碟带到学校来。我上英语课时要用的。

8. be supposed to为“认为必须;认为应该;认为……必要”,如:

Am I supposed to clean all the rooms? 我必须打扫所有的房间吗?

You are supposed to pay the bill by Friday. 你最晚在星期五必须结清这笔账。

9. remind

remind及物动词,意为“提醒,使记起,使想起。”

remind + doing sth.和remind sb. of sth.都可以表示“提醒某人做某事情”

如:

Please remind him closing the window when he goes to school.

他去上学的时候,记得提醒他关窗户。

10. make money赚钱,挣钱。

make money=earn money赚钱

如:He makes money by fishing. 他靠打鱼赚钱。

11. hard与hardly

hard 为副词,意思是“努力地,费力地,辛苦地”, 如:

He works hard.他努力工作。

hardly否定副词,意思为“几乎不”,表示否定含义, 如:

He works hardly. 他几乎不工作。

12. response

相当于answer,reply,但是比这两个词的用法要正式。

常用于词组response to sb./sth.“回复某人或某事”,注意to在这里是介词,它后面要跟名词或代词。

如:I've had no response to his letter. 我还没有给他回信。

13. be good at 和do well in

这两个词组都意为“擅长……、善于……”;

be good at 侧重于惯常的行为,do well in 侧重于具体的事情,指做某事做得好,但是现在这两个词组用法的区别日益缩小,通常可以互换。

be good at的比较级是be better at,反义词组是be weak in;

do well in 的比较级是do better in,反义词组是do badly in。

如:I am good at English composition.

You must do well in this test.

二. 重点结构

1. It seems that…是一个固定句型,“看来,似乎是,好像”的意思。相当于“主语+ seem+ to do”,如果动词不定式为to be +形容词时,to be往往省略。

如:

It seems that she is very sad. 她似乎很难过。

= She seems (to be) very sad.

It seems that he likes his new job. 他看起来很喜欢他的新工作。

= He seems to like his new job.

It seems that与人称代词连用,意为:“感到好像,觉得似乎”,

如:

It seems to me that it will snow. 我看要下雪。

2. What's wrong (with sb./ sth.)?

What's wrong? 的意思是“怎么啦?”,用于询问发生了一件什么事情,也可以在what's wrong的后面接一介词短语,询问某人或某物出了什么问题。

如:

— What's wrong? 怎么回事?

— I don't know. 我不知道。

— What's wrong with your bike,Jake? 你的自行车怎么啦,Jake?

— It is broken. 我的车坏了。

There is something wrong with his leg. 他的腿出了毛病。

类似的表达方法还有:

What’s the matter (with sb./ sth.)?

What’s the trouble (with sb./ sth.)?

What’s up?

3. It is + adj. / n. + for sb. to do sth.,做某事对某人来说……,在这个句型中真正的主语是动词不定式,也就是to do sth.是真正的主语,而it只是形式主语,如果不强调对某人的影响,可以省略for sb.

如:

It’s very good for you to read more English books. 多读些英语书对你来说是很有益处的。

It is quiet surprising to hear the news. 听到这个消息确实很震惊。

4. If +一般现在时句子,主语+一般将来时。

这是我们初中学习阶段中比较重要的结构,是if引导的条件状语从句。这里最关键的是要注意从句与主句的时态。

如:

If he is ill,he won’t go to school. 如果他生病了,就不会上学了。