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名词从句

第三节:名词从句的译法

英语的名词从句包括主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句。翻译这种从句,可用顺译、倒译、分译、合译、省译等方法处理,这要视具体情况和汉语习惯表达法而定。现分述如下:

I.主语从句的译法

含主语从句的句型有两种:一种是“主语从句+主句谓语+其他成分”;另一种是“形式主语it+主句谓语+主语从句”。

A.上述第一种句型一般用顺译法

1.That she survived the earthquake is sheer luck.

她在地震中幸免于难纯靠运气。

2.Who ever breaks the regulations deserves a fine.

违规者应予罚款。

3.Which result is correct remains to be studied.

哪个结果正确,还有待研究。

4.What little she said has left us much to think about.

她说的短短几句话很发人深思。

有时这类句子在用顺译法的同时,还需要分译法,将两句译为两个单句。例如:

5.That he was in error will scarcely be disputed by his warmest friends. 他弄错了,而他那些真诚的朋友对此不会提出质疑。

B.翻译第二种句型的句子,除需省译形式主语it外,还需根据汉语的表达习惯,有的用顺译,有的用倒译,有的两者均可,有时主从合译

(1)顺译

6.It hasn’t been made clear when the new expressway is to be opened to traffic.

还不清楚新高速公路什么时候通车。

7.It occurred to him that he had forgotten to take his notebook with him. 他突然想起他忘了带笔记本了。

(2)倒译

8.It doesn’t matter where we are going on holiday.

我们去哪儿渡假都没关系。

9.Has it been announced when the planes are to take off?

飞机什么时候起飞播报了没有?

(3)顺译或倒译,两者均可

10.It is common knowledge that the whale is not a fish.

众所周知,鲸不是鱼。(顺译)

或:鲸不是鱼,这是众所周知的。(倒译)

(4)主从合译

11.It is probable that he has got the clue for solving the problem.

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