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2008年1月研究生学位英语真题(附完整参考答案)

2008年1月研究生英语学位课统考

PART II VOCABULARY (10 minutes, 10 points )

Section A (0.5 point each)

21. The city was virtually paralyzed by the transit strike for better wages.

A. subjectively

B. imaginably

C. positively

D. practically

22. In spite of the taxing business schedule, he managed to take some time off for exercise.

A. imposing

B. demanding

C. compulsory

D. temporary

23. The court held the parents accountable for the minor child's acts of violence.

A. responsible for

B. indifferent to

C. desperate for

D. involved in

24.The visitors were impressed by the facilities planned and programmed in terms of their interrelationships.

A. in units of

B. with reference to

C. in aspects of

D. on condition of

25. "There is a weird power in a spoken word," Joseph Conrad once said.

A. mighty

B. prospective

C. odd

D. formidable

26. Poverty and inadequate health care take their toll on the quality of a community's health.

A. destruction

B. contribution

C. charge

D. origin

27. This old man had trouble expressing the attachment he felt when arriving at his native town.

A. hospitality

B. affection C: appeal D. frustration

28. If you become reconciled to your lot, you will never get a new start in life.

A. submissive

B. resistant

C. tolerable

D. committed

29. The little girl felt increasingly uneasy while waiting for her mother at the bus-stop.

A. difficult

B. excited

C. relieved

D. restless

30. A high official is likely to win respect and trust if he can stick to his principles.

A. turn to

B. add to

C. keep to

D. lead to

Section B (0.5 point each)

31. To achieve sustainable development, the of resources is assuming new importance.

A. conservation

B. reservation

C. exhaustion

D. devastation

32. The sale of alcoholic beverages is ________ to those above 21 in some regions.

A. confined

B. inhibited

C. obliged

D. restricted

33.The importance of protecting rainforests from human invasion is increasingly realized by

developing and developed countries_______.

A. both

B. either

C. alike

D. apart

34. Before the 1980s, the idea of health insurance was quite _______ to those living in the mainland

of China.

A. overseas

B. abroad

C. foreign

D. offshore

35. The government is expected to make new legislations to ______ foreign investment in real estate.

A. manipulate

B. regulate

C. dominate

D. prevail

36. Despite the suspect's ________to be innocent, there is compelling evidence that he was involved.

A. conviction

B. assertion

C. accusation

D. speculation

37. For many countries, being part of a global supply chain is like striking oil -- oil that may never

____.

A. run out

B. work out

C. turn out

D. call out

38. Having been an office secretary for some years, she always _______chores in a responsible way.

A. goes on

B. goes for

C. goes without

D. goes about

39. Without clear guidelines ______, executives of hospitals are sometimes at a loss about what to do.

A. in order

B. in place

C. in need

D. in trouble

40. The age of other trees is variously estimated as ______ from two hundred to eight hundred years.

A. changing

B. differing

C. varying

D. ranging

PART III CLOZE TEST (10 minutes, 10 points, 1 point each)

Every year, as the price of goods rises, the inflation refuses to (41) even from the high educational institutions.

In the US, according to a 2005 survey by the College Board, (42) at state universities rose by an average of 7.1 percent annually, after a year when inflation grew much less. At private schools it was up 5.9 percent. The survey which (43) more than 3,000 colleges and universities did not provide clear reasons for the continued increases. It did say that the price of goods and services at universities have risen rapidly. Some of the fastest growth has been in employee health (44), and professional salaries.

Living expenses on campus have also (45). At the university of Southern California student dining hall, a buffet meal cost $5.50 in 2004. But now it's $9. The US government often provides (46) assistance to students' lunch in primary and high schools, but these favorable policies usually don't (47) universities.

Some students said the food on campus is sometimes even more expensive than that at restaurants (48) campus.

To compensate the rise in tuition and living expenses, the federal and state governments (49) universities and private sources have provided (50) for students. Of all the full time undergraduates about 62 percent have a grant covering 30-50 percent of their tuition, according to the College Board.

41. A. stay away B. stand out C. step down D. set off

42. A. fares B. payment C. charges D. tuition

43. A. attended B. covered C. included D. composed

44. A. welfares B. advantages C. benefits D. goods

45. A. rolled up B. gone up C. sat up D. taken up

46. A. management B. economic C. policy D. financial

47. A. apply to B. suit for C. adjust to D. gear for

48. A. in B. to C. off D. over

49. A. as well as B. the same as C. as far as D. such as

50. A. grasps B. grains C. grounds D. grants

PART IV READING COMPREHENSION (45 minutes, 30 points, 1 point each)

Passage One

Did your mum and dad go to university, or did they leave school and go straight to the Job Centre? The educational experience of parents is still important when it comes to how today's students choose an area of study and what to do after graduation, according to The Future-track research in the UK.

The research was done by the Higher Education Careers Service Unit. It plans to follow university applicants for six years from 2006 through their early careers.

The first year's findings come from a study of 130,000 university applicants. They show significant differences in prospective students' approach to higher education, depending on whether their parents got degrees (second-generation applicants) or didn't (first-generation applicants).

First-generation applicants were more likely to say that their career and employment prospects were uppermost in their minds in deciding to go to university. About one-fifth of this group gave "to enable me to get a good job" as their main reason for choosing HE. And 37 percent said that a degree was "part of my career plan".

A young person coming from a non-professional household where finances are stretched may find the idea of learning for its own sake to be a luxury. This explains the explosion in vocational courses.

At Portsmouth University, first-year student Kim Burnett, 19, says that she specifically chose her degree in health research management and psychology to get a secure, well-paid job. Harriet Edge, 20, studying medicine at Manchester University, also wanted job security. Her parents lacked college degrees, though the fact that her uncle is a doctor appears to have influenced her choice.

"Medicine is one of those fields where it's pretty likely you'll get a job at the end. That's a big plus, as the debt levels after five years of study are going to be frightening," she says. Many experts believe that this situation affects those with no family tradition of higher education far more keenly. The fact that 26 percent of respondents said that they needed more advice implies that some students may end up feeling that their higher education investment was not worthwhile.

For those with graduate parents, this lack of guidance may, the researchers suggest, be less of a problem. " But, for those without the advantages, lack of access to career guidance before applying for higher education leaves them exposed to making poorer choices," the survey concludes.

51. The main idea of the passage is that_________.

A. parents' experiences are more important for their children's education

B. parents' careers are vitally important for their children's degrees

C. students' approach to higher education correlates with their parents' educational experience

D. students' career and employment prospects are decided by their parents

52. "HE" in the 4th paragraph probably refers to __________.

A. health education

B. higher employment

C. Harriet Edge

D. higher education

53. A young person coming from a non-professional household ____________.

A. is less likely to get financial aid to go to university

B. is more likely to choose vocational education

C. may think learning for pleasure is a good idea

D. may choose to study for a professional degree

54. In which of the following aspects do Kim Burnett and Harriet Edge have in common?

A. They both chose their majors because of their family influence.

B. They are both the first-year students in university.

C. Both of their parents lack college degrees.

D. Both of them chose degrees for job security.

55. It is implied that ____________.

A. the cost of a degree in medicine is very high

B. higher education investment in medicine is not worthwhile

C. a student without family medical tradition is less likely to choose medicine

D. medicine is a field where every degree-holder can get a job

56.Those with graduate parents may _________.

A. make poorer choices when choosing their majors

B. make better choices when applying for higher education

C. not need career guidance before graduation

D. have no problems in applying for a college

Passage Two

Last month, the public address system at Earl's Court subway station in London was ordered to get the noise down. Passengers, it seems, had had enough of being told the blindingly obvious: "Stand back or the train will run you over." "Don't lean on the doors." "Stand back from the opening doors." "Do this." "Don't do that."

Bossiness is not just aural. It is also written. As a commuter, I'm continually bombarded by notices on car walls. "Please take your feet off the seat." "Please turn down your personal stereo." And when I drive past the local primary, a sign flashes: "School. Slow down!"

The presumption behind these signs is that Britons must have everything spelled out because we are tow, uncivilized people who were raised by wolves.

Britain didn't use to be so bossy. When I was a boy, for instance, the local cinema put a warning on screen before we settled down to watch. "Don't," it said, "make noises." In those days, long before mobile phones, it was the only bossiness we saw in the cinema. Since then, bossiness has become more commonplace. Television, that strongest guide to public morals and lifestyles in this country, is alive with dominant people. On screen, we see health experts holding some poor woman's breasts and demanding that she get in shape. Cooking programs tell us not to think of leaving toast crumbs on the kitchen table.

There is no point in blaming TV for this new bossiness. We want to be bossed. We have behaved badly and now we yearn to feel the whip to correct us. On July 1, smoking will be banned in public places in England. My local government told churches in the area last week that no-smoking posters must be prominently displayed by church entrances.

I love this: the governments are bossing people to make them more bossy. They are insisting that priests tell their congregations (教区的教民) what to do.

My local government isn't the only source of bossiness. I find it everywhere. But the rise in bossiness does not seem to have been accompanied by a rise in socially well-adjusted behavior. In fact, the opposite. Perhaps this is because, if you feel as though you are treated with contempt, you will respond with the same.

57. The case at Earl's Court subway station shows that _________.

A. it is very noisy in public places

B. it is necessary to warn the passengers of their safety

C. people have realized the importance of public order

D. people have been tired of being bossed

58. It is presumed that bossiness is everywhere because Britons__________.

A. need to be bossed to behave themselves

B. want to be reminded of how to behave well

C. must have everything spelled out

D. are raised in uncivilized society

59. It is suggested in the passage that____________.

A. now Britons behave much better than they did in the past

B. in the past Britons behaved much better than they do now

C. the dominant people on screen should be blamed for the new bossiness

D. television has misguided the public morals and lifestyles in Britain

60. According to the passage, which of the following statemens is true?

A. Television should play a role in enhancing public morals.

B. The local government has got involved in the church activities.

C. The governments want to make themselves more authoritative by bossing people.

D. The rise in bossiness has helped the improvement of people's behavior.

61. The author writes this passage in a _________.

A. funny tone

B. criticizing tone

C. friendly tone

D. radical tone

62. What is the appropriate title of this passage?

A. British People Have Had Enough Bossiness Around

B. British People Want to Be Bossed

C. Bossiness in Great Britain: Its Past and Present

D. Bossiness in Great Britain Should Be Ignored

Passage Three

It began as just another research project, in this case to examine the effects of various drugs on patients with a severe mood disorder. Using an advanced brain scanning technology--the clumsily named echo-planar magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (磁共振光谱成像) procedure, or EP-MRSI--researchers at Boston's McLean Hospital scanned the medicated and un-medicated brains of 30 people with bipolar disorder in order to detect possible new treatments for the more than 2 million American adults who suffer from the disease.

But something unexpected happened. A patient who had been so depressed that she could barely speak became ebullient after the 45-minute brain scan. Then a second patient, who seemed incapable of even a smile, emerged actually telling jokes. Then another and another. Was this some coincidence? Aimee Parow, the technician who made these observations didn't think so. She mentioned the patients' striking mood shifts to her boss and together they completely refocused the study: to see if the electromagnetic fields might actually have a curative effect on depressive mood.

As it turns out, they did. As reported last month in the American Journal of Psychiatry, 23 of the 30 people who were part of the study reported feeling significantly less depressed after the scan. The most dramatic improvements were among those who were taking no medication. The researchers are cautious. Says Bruce Cohen, McLean's president and psychiatrist i n chief: “I want to emphasize that we are not saying this is the answer but this is a completely different approach in trying to help the brain than anything that was done before."

It's a completely different approach because of the way the magnetism is applied to the brain. But it's an example of new research on an old idea: that the brain is an electromagnetic organ and that brain disorders might result from disorder in magnetic function. The idea has huge appeal to psychiatrists and patients alike, since for many people the side effects of psychiatric (精神的) drugs are almost as difficult to manage as the disease itself. And 30 percent of the nearly 18.8 million people who suffer from depression do not respond to any of the antidepressants available now. People with other severe mental disorders might benefit as well. And while no one fully understands exactly why or how the brain responds as it does to electrical currents and magnetic waves, fascinating new

research is offering some possible explanations.

63. The first paragraph describes a project aimed at finding ____________.

A. who has bipolar disorder

B. what improves people's moods

C. whether magnetic scanning is a treatment

D. how some patients respond to some drugs

64. What does the passage say about bipolar disorder?

A.It mainly affects males.

B. It may cause drug addiction.

C. It is a mental problem.

D.It is hard to detect.

65. The word "ebullient" in Paragraph 2 can be best replaced by________.

A. considerate

B. quiet

C. excited

D. sorrowful

66. The researchers' attitude toward the new finding can be described as_________.

A. confused

B. amused

C. careful

D. skeptical

67. The new finding is significant because it shows that electromagnetic fields may

A.treat mental disorders

B. cause mental disorders

C. increase the effectiveness of some drugs

D. reduce the effectiveness of some drugs

68. The passage mainly_________.

A. reports a discovery

B. challenges a discovery

C. explains the problems with a discovery

D. describes the backgound of a discovery

Passage Four

My kids tell me that I am "so 20th century", which troubles me. A person likes to feel that he is "with it", as we used to say in the 20th century.

So I have been thinking how I might change myself into a true 21st-century man. Clearly, in my advanced state of age I would be foolish to attempt some wild leap into the contemporary fashion. And anyway, my distinctive taste attracts much favourable comment.

But if my clothing is too characteristic to change, perhaps I should do something about my lifestyle. So last week I took myself to the NEC for the Smart Home Show which is "the exhibition dedicated to all the latest trends in smart home technology".

It was a shock. How could I have lived for half a century without a fingerprint-operated front door? ("Never lock yourself out of your home again!") Or vacuum cleaners that suck dust straight into a dustbin, via a system of pipes in your house walls? (All you have to do is rebuild your entire home.) Or automatic garden sprinklers which are so smart that they turn themselves off when it starts to rain? Of course, you could just look out of the window, observe that it's raining and turn them off yourself, but that would be so 20th century.

Besides, those were just the simpler things. For the true smart-home owner, a plasma (等离子) TV fireplace is a must. At first glance it's just an electric fire with a mantelpiece,but press your remote and a giant TV screen rises from the mantelpiece. "Thieves won't even know it's there," a spokesman claimed. Just as well. At £5,280,it would be a pity to have it broken. But the real revolution has happened in the bathroom. Never again need you feel cut off from world events as you go about your washing. Forget the mirrors that turn into TV screens. They're old hat. The buzz in bathrooms now is all about heated towel-racks that turn into TVs.

Enough! I was convinced: I want a smart home. There's only one problem: The cost. You are looking at £18,000 to £25,000 for an average home. Hmm. I won't be entering the 21st century just yet, then.

69. To be "21st century", the author decided to___________.

A. move to a new house

B. change the way he lived

C. improve his dressing style

D. talk in the most trendy fashion

70. The author's comment on the vacuum cleaner implies that___________.

A. he believed that it was useless

B. he wanted to purchase one himself

C. he hated to cause inconvenience

D. he thought that it was not worth the effort

71. What is the most revolutionary smart home technology according to the author?

A. The plasma TV fireplace.

B. The automatic garden sprinkler.

C. Mirrors that turn into TV screens.

D. Heated towel-racks that turn into TVs.

72. The Smart Home Show__________.

A. seemed too good to be true

B. was a true eye-opener for the author

C. left a negative impression on the author

D. appealed less to the middle- and old-aged

73. What does the author think of buying the smart home products?

A. He was interested, but found them too expensive.

B. He was fascinated, and determined to buy them.

C. He wasn't attracted, and wouldn't buy them.

D. He wasn't sure, so he would rather wait and see.

74. Which of the following words could best describe the author's tone?

A. Overstated.

B. Objective.

C. Ironic.

D. Passionate.

Passage Five

Never before has flying been so controversial. In the space of two years, the environmental damage done by planes has gone from being something quietly discussed by scientists and committed environmentalists, to a headline-grabbing issue no one can ignore.

Even those who fly once or twice a year on holiday can't help but feel a growing sense of guilt, while those opting for trips by car, train or ferry have a self-righteous spring in their steps.

Now, however, the backlash is beginning. The tourism and aviation industries are mobilizing, and pointing out some awkward facts. Did you know that some ferries emit far more carbon dioxide than some planes'? That driving can release twice as much carbon as flying? A new report from Balpa, the pilot's union, even claims that planes can be better than train.

While there are the campaigners who plot their camp at Heathrow to protest the air travel, in Kenya plans are being drawn up for a very different camp. Looking out from a cliff over the deserts of Samburuland is a stunning hotel, the O1 Malo Eco-Lodge. Revenue from the small number of visiting tourists has allowed the 5,000 acres around it to be transformed from over-grazed cattle ranch to a conservation site. More impressive still is the O1 Malo eye project. Up to 80 per cent of adults in the area suffer sight loss, so the O1 Malo Trust runs regular surgical camps, bringing doctors from the UK to treat them. In January, the camp gave 102 people back their sight. "It's very simple--all of our visitors fly here," said Julia Francombe, the founder. "If they stopped coming, it would kill us."

One thing on which all sides agree is that aviation is booming, so it becomes crucial to develop new and less polluting aircraft. Airbus's claim that it can save the world with the A380 may be far-fetched, but its "gentle giant" plane is far more efficient and quieter than those of 20 years ago.

Some environmentalists, however, scorn these advances, saying such measures are a "delusion." "The aviation industry is likely to vastly overstate the gains that can be made from technological improvements but sadly a climate friendly plane isn't on the horizon," says Emily Armistead of Greenpeace.

So the question is: who do you believe?

75. Pollution caused by planes used to _____________.

A. be heatedly debated in the scientific community

B. be a controversial issue no one could ignore

C. draw little attention among the general public

D. divert people's attention from more important issues

76. Compared with people who fly, those who choose cars or trains for travel_________.

A. feel equally guilty of causing environmental damages

B. seem to care more about the environment than about time

C. believe that they are doing the right thing for the environment

D. are more troubled by the latest facts on environmental pollution

77. The camps in Kenya are mentioned to_________.

A. demonstrate the necessity of flying

B. emphasize the problems of flying

C. persuade people to turn to flying

D. present the two sides of flying

78. Emily Armistead suggests that the aviation industry___________.

A. has not made great efforts to develop environmentally friendly planes

B. cannot come up with environmentally friendly planes in the near future

C. should not use environmentally friendly planes to solve their problems

D. will not save the world even with environmentally friendly planes

79. What is the author's position on air travel?

A. Air travel should be avoided if possible.

B. Air travel is not as problematic as people believe.

C. It is too early to say that air travel has caused damages.

D. It is hard to decide whether we should continue air travel

80. The best title for the passage is “___________”.

A. Should We Stop Flying?

B. When Can We Stop Flying?

C. What Will Happen If We Stop Flying?

D. Will Stopping Flying Make a Difference?

PART V TRANSLATION (30 minutes, 20 points)

Section A (15 minutes, 10 points)

British previous colonial policies led to the spread of English across the world. This wide use of English has been reinforced by the sweeping influence of the U.S.. However, the dominance of English as an international language is considered both a blessing and a curse. For one thing, it has accelerated the extinction of some languages. People have been wondering about the possibility of creating a global language which might hold promises for an end to language-caused troubles and conflicts. Unfortunately, attempts to harmonize world languages have met with little success as a result of the reluctance of native speakers of a particular language to adopt another language as their mother tongue. To discard one's native language is to have the distinct features of his nation erased. Section B (15 minutes, 10 points)

根据最新统计,67%的美国人能上网,该比例是中国的6倍。尽管互联网作用巨大,但许多问题远远没有解决,如:病毒侵入和信息安全。即使这些问题最终有可能得到解决,也需要艰辛的努力和多年时间。

PART VI WRITING ( 30 minutes, 10 points )

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition of no less than 150 words under the title of "Should outsiders be allowed to study in university classrooms?" Your composition should be based on the information given below:

Nowadays many universities ban outsiders to study in their classrooms. They send security personnel to guard each entrance to the classroom buildings. Only students and teachers may enter. Do you think universities should allow outsiders to study in their classrooms? Give at least two reasons to support your ideas.

参考答案

Part II V ocabulary

21.D 22.B 23.A 24.B 25.C 26.A 27.B 28.A 29.D 30.C 31.A 32.D 33.C 34.C 35.B 36.B 37.A 38.D 39.B 40.D

Part III Cloze test

41.A 42.D 43.B 44.C 45.B 46.D 47.A 48.C 49.A 50.D

Part IV Reading Comprehension

51.C 52.D 53.B 54.D 55.A 56.B

57.D 58.A 59.B 60.C 61.B 62.A

63.D 64.C 65.C 66.C 67.A 68.A

69.B 70.D 71.D 72.B 73.A 74.C

75.C 76.C 77.A 78.B 79.D 80.A

Part V Translation

Section A

英国先前奉行的殖民政策导致了英语在全球的普及。美国无所不在的影响又加剧了英语的广泛使用。但是,英语作为国际语言的霸主(统治)地位既是福(好事),也是祸(坏事)。只举其一,它加速了一些语言的灭绝。人们一直在想是否有可能创造一种世界(全球)语言,从而有望结束那些语言引起的麻烦和冲突。令人遗憾的是,使世界语言一致的尝试(企图) 收效甚微,原因是某一语言的本族语者不愿意把另一语言当作自己的母语。放弃自己的母语就等于失去自己民族的基本特征。

Section B

According to the latest statistics, 67 percent of the U.S. population have access to the Internet, a percentage six times that of China (as large as China's). Despite the influential (huge) role of the Internet, many problems (issues) are far from settled (solved), such as the invasion (attack) of viruses and information security. Even if it is possible to find final (eventual) solutions, it will take painstaking efforts and many years.