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Researchers are reporting the first treatment to speed recovery from severe brain injuries caused by falls and car crashes: a cheap flu medicine--amantadine, whose side benefits were discovered by accident decades ago.

Severely injured patients in the United States, Denmark and Germany who were given amantadine got better faster than those who received another medicine. After four weeks, more people in the flu drug group could give reliable yes-and-no answers, follow commands or use a spoon or hairbrush--things that none of them could do at the start. Far fewer patients who got amantadine remained in a vegetative state, 17 percent versus 32 percent.

“This drug moved the needle in terms of speeding patient recovery, and that’s not been shown before,” said neuropsychologist(神经心理学家) Joseph Giacino of Boston’s Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, co-leader of study. He added:“It really does provide hope for a population that is viewed in many places as hopeless.”

Many doctors began using amantadine for brain injures years ago, but until now there’s never been a big study to show that it works. The results of the federally(联邦地) funded study appear in Thursday’s New England Journal of Medicine.

A neuropsychologist(神经心理学家) who wasn’t involved in the research called it an important step. But many questions remain, including whether people less severely injured would benefit, and whether amantadine actually improves patients’ long-term outcome or just speeds up their recovery.

Each year, an estimated 1.7 million American suffer a brain injury. With no proven treatment to rely on, doctors have used a variety of medicines approved for other disease in the hopes that they would help brain injury patients. Those decisions are based on “guesses and logic rather than data” said Dr. John Whyte, of the Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute in suburban Philadelphia. He led the study along with Giacino.

Amantadine, an inexpensive medicine, was approved for the flu in the mid-1960s. The first hint that it might have other uses came a few years later when it appeared to improve Parkinson’s symptoms in nursing home patients. It was found to have an effect on the brain’s doparmine system(多巴胺系统), whose function include movement and alertness, and it was later approved for Parkinson’s.

It’s now commonly used for brain injuries, and the researchers felt it was important to find out “whether we’re treating patients with a useful drug, a harmful drug or a useless drug,” Whyte said.

74. According to Paragraph 1, the patients in a vegetative state may be those who ______.

A. Can follow simple orders

B. Recover faster than expected

C. Can’t breathe on their own

D. Show no sign of brain activities

75. According to the passage, Amantadine is a medicine that ______.

A. Is useful for flu only

B. Is aimed to improve memory

C. Speeds up brain injury recovery

D. Benefits patients’ brain injuries in the long run

76. The aim of the study led by Giacino and Whyte is to ______.

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A. Get enough fund from the federal government

B. Prove the effect of Amantadine on brain injuries

C. Publish its results in New England Journal of Medicine

D. Provide hope for patients considered hopeless in the past

77. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage ?

A. Old Drug,Proven Side Benefit

B. Medical Study, New Discovery

C. Severe Brain Injury, Quick Recovery

D. Different Treatment, Obvious Effect

Section C

Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.

Defenders of the French language are angered by plans to introduce courses taught in English at public universities, arguing that France must protect itself against the risk of losing its cultural identity.

The French Parliament recently started to debate the issue as part of a bill on a broader reform of higher education, but all attention has focused on an article that would lift a 19-year ban on English as a teaching language at public universities.

The French government backs the change, which it says would help to attract foreign students and help French graduates compete in a global economy as the country struggles to regain competitiveness. More French students fearing poor job prospects at home, where youth unemployment is nearly 25 percent, are studying and working abroad. One of their destinations is London, which now has become the sixth largest French population in the world.

However, opponents of the law, including professors, lawmakers and the French language supervision body Academic France, say the community of other French-speaking peoples must be defended and that the change would be a betrayal of other French-speaking nations."If France gives other French-speaking countries the wrong signal by leading an assault against the language, that would be a very, very regrettable thing indeed," said Claude Hagege, a language scientist.

France has long defended its culture at home and abroad. In 1994, the so-called " Toubon Law" made the use of French mandatory in all TV broadcasts, meaning all foreign-language programs are dubbed, while radio stations must play at least 40 percent of French music for most of the day.

Business leaders criticize France's low ranking for English proficiency(熟练度)- it placed 23rd in a 2012 global ranking published by education company Education First - even though the use of English has grown, notably in academic circles.

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崇明八一路校区Higher Education Minister Genevieve Fioraso said offering English would increase the appeal of French universities at a time when they are falling further behind in international rankings. In a 2011-2012 survey by Britain's Times newspaper, the highest-ranked French university is in 59th position. Private business schools where English is taught rank higher.

(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)

78. What does “the change” in Paragraph 3 refer to ?

79. Some people are against the change because they think it would_____________________.

80. According to “Toubon Law” , what is a must for TV stations in France?

81. Genevieve Fioraso thinks the release of the bill may help French universities __________.


I. Translation

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

1. 我可以向你保证目前一切都在掌握之中。(assure)

2. 你认为人类定居另一颗行星的梦想会实现吗?(come true)

3. 面对这样突如其来的灾难,这个国家完全措手不及。(unprepared)

4. 没有证据证明受过良好教育的孩子将来就一定会成为非常成功的人。(proof)

5. 智能手机(smartphone)不仅让你了解世界上发生的事情,而且可以让你随时随地上网购物。(not only)

II. Guided Writing

Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.




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74. D 75. C 76. B 77. A

78. Allowing using English as a teaching language at public universities.

79. be a betrayal of other French-speaking nations/make France lose its cultural identity

80. Using French in all TV broadcasts / The use of French in all TV broadcasts.

81. attract more students/be more appealing/rank higher in international rankings


I. Translation(共22分)

1. I can assure you that everything is under control at present. (2+2)

2. Do you think the dream of human beings’ settling on another planet/the dream that man will settle on another planet will come true. (2+2)

3. The country is completely unprepared to face the unexpected disaster

Facing the sudden disaster,the country is totally unprepared. (2+2)

4. There is no proof that children with good education/children who receive good education/ well-educated children can surely be/ are certain to be very successful people in the future.


5. Not only do smartphones inform you of what is happening in the world, but also they enable you to do online shopping anytime and anywhere . (1+1+1+1+1)

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