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谓语的各种形式

谓语的各种形式

谓语是说明主语的状态或行为动作。

1.简单谓语: 由一个动词或动词短语构成的谓语。

2.复合谓语:

(1)由情态动词、be动词或其它助动词加动词原形或动词的其它形式构成。

Eg. I can speak French. (复)They are playing basketball now. (复)

(2)由系动词加表语构成。Eg . We are volunteers. (复)

下面总结了各种时态的谓语结构(其中包括被动语态的谓语结构),请牢记:

Ⅰ一般现在时

(1) is / am / are (简)

(2)动词原形(V原)(简)

(3)动词的第三人称单数(V-s/es) (简)

(4)情态动词原形can、must、may、have to 、has to 等)+动词原形(复)

(5) 情态动词原形can、must、may、have to 、has to 等)+be(复)

(6)there is / are (简)

被动谓语结构:

(2) &(3) is/am/are +p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(4) 情态动词原形(can、must、may、have to 、has to 等)+ be + p.p (过去分词v-ed 或P103-P105第三列) (复)

Ⅱ一般过去时

(1) was/were (简)

(2)动词过去式(v-ed 或P103-P105第二列)(简)

(3)情态动词过去式(could 、must、might、had to 等)+ 动词原形(复)

(4)情态动词过去式(could 、must、might、had to 等)+be(复)

(5) there was/were(复)

被动语态:

(2) was/were + p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(3) 情态动词过去式(could 、must、might、had to 等)+ be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed 或P103-P105第三列) (复)

Ⅲ现在完成时

(1)has/have + been (2) has/have + p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

被动语态:

(2) has/have + been+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

Ⅳ过去完成时

(1) had + been (2) had +p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

被动语态

(2) had + been+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

Ⅴ一般将来时

1、(1) will/shall+be(复)(2) will/shall + V原(复)

2、(3) is/am/are going to +be (复)(4) is/am/are going to + V原(复)

3、(5)is/am/are to be(复)(6) is/am/are to +V原(复)

4、(7) is/am/are about to +be(复)(8) is/am/are about to +V原(复)

5、用一般现在时的6种谓语形式表将来:①所有的时间状语从句和条件状语从句用一般现在时态表将来,构成“主将从现”。②按时刻表、计划表、日程表等安排将要发生

的动作,要用一般现在时表将来。

6、现在进行时表示不久以后或立刻马上就要发生的动作。①表“位置移动”和“停留”的动词常用进行时表将来:come, return, go, leave, start, set off, set out, arrive ,get to, reach, fly, drive, travel 等。②现代英语中,有一种趋势:几乎所有动词都可以用现在进行时表将来,但必须在句中有明确的将来时间标志或在上下文中有将来的情景暗示。常见的动词有:do, buy, have, meet, publish, take, play, run out 等。

被动语态:

(2) will + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(4) is/am/are going to + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(6) is/am/are to + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(8) is/am/are about to + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

Ⅵ过去将来时

(1) would/should+be(复)(2) would/should + V原(复)

(3) was/were going to +be(复)(4) was/were going to + V原(复)

(5) was/were to be(复)(6) was/were to +V原(复)

(7) was/were about to +be(复)(8) was/were about to +V原(复)

被动语态:

(2) would/should + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(4) was/were going to + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(6) was/were to + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

(8) was/were about to + be+ p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

Ⅶ现在进行时

is/am/are +V-ing(复)

被动语态:

Is/am/are +being + p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)

Ⅷ过去进行时

was/were +V-ing(复)

被动语态:was/were+being + p.p (过去分词v-ed或P103-P105第三列) (复)Ⅸ现在完成进行时

has/have+been+V-ing(复)( 此时态无被动语态)

Ⅹ过去完成进行时

had+been+V-ing(复)( 此时态无被动语态)

There be + sb / sth + ( p.phrase) 的变体:

1. There lie + sb / sth +( p.phrase)

2. There stand + sb / sth +( p.phrase)

3. There live + sb / sth +( p.phrase)

4. There exist +sb / sth +(p.phrase)

5. There be bound to be +sb / sth +(p.phrase)

6. There be said to be +sb / sth +(p.phrase)

7. There happen to be + sb / sth +(p.phrase)

8. There seem to be + sb / sth +(p.phrase)

9. There must be + sb / sth +(p.phrase)

10. There go + sb / sth +(p.phrase)

11. There come + sb / sth +(p.phrase)