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虚拟式(11月1日)

虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用来表示说

话人所说的话不是一个事实,而是一种假设、猜测

、怀疑等(在条件从句中或让步状语从句中);一是

表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、建议等(在宾语

从句、表语从句、同位语从句)。

虚拟式仅有两个形式:

【一】be-型虚拟式(BE-Subjunctive);

【二】were-型虚拟式(WERE-Subjunctive)。

【一】be-型虚拟式的主要用法

【1】用于表示命令、决定、建议等词语之后的that-分句中。命令性虚拟语气在美国英语中用得较多。在英国英语中,它用在正式的和相当严格的法律语体中。

The employees have demanded that the manager resign.

尤其是美国英语

The employees have demanded that the manager should resign/resigns.尤其是英国英语

He ordered that all the books be sent at once.

It is essential that all the facts be examined first.

The board has given instructions that the agent fly to Boston.

She insists that he is guilty of fraud.

We insist that he be admitted to hospital immediately.

insist后面是否用虚拟语气,取决于意义。当这一动词引导的是一个间接陈述句时,就用陈述语气,但当它引导的是一个间接的命令句时,则多半用虚拟语气。suggest也有类似的用法。

I insisted (required) that he (should) change his clothes.

I insisted (asserted) that he changed his clothes.

She suggested (recommended) that I (should) be responsible for the arrangements.

She suggested (said tentatively) that I am responsible for the arrangements.

【2】用于由if ,though ,whatever ,lest ,

so long as 等引导的分句中。表示推测让步,防备等含义。If he be found guilty,John shall have the right of appeal.

上述用法现在只限于正式书面语体,在非正式语体中通常用动词陈述式或者should/may+不定式。

If the rumour is true,everything is possible.

【3】套语式虚拟语气和命令性虚拟语气一样,由动词原形构成。它主要用在独立分句中的某些固定结构中:即用于某些公式化语句中可表示祝愿、诅咒、禁止等意义。

Come what may, we will go ahead with our plan.

God save the Queen! (May God save the Queen)

Suffice it to say that we won. (Let it suffice…)

Heaven forbid that I should let my own parents suffer.

Be it noted that this offer was made in good faith.

Be that as it may, we have nothing to lose.

Long live the People’ s Republic of China!

God bless you!

Heaven damn you!

Devil take him!

So be it!

备注:套语式虚拟语气在语体上往往显得很正式而过分守旧。【二】were-型虚拟式的主要用法:

【1】常用于由if , if only , as if , as though , though 引导的条件状语和让步状语分句中,表示非真实的条件或让步。

If I were you , I should wait till next week.

If it were to rain , the game would be put off.

if only是if的强化形式,主要用于假设条件分句,表示讲话人所祈愿的事情会发生、正在发生或者早该发生:

If only you would help me next week, I would not be so nervous.

If only they were here now, we would be able to celebrate their wedding anniversary.

If only somebody had told us, we could have warned you.

条件分句有时单独使用,表示一种假设的祈愿:

If only I’d listened to my parents!

I wish I had listened to my parents.

If only he were not so timid!

If only I could make them understand my point of view!

If only I hadn’t lost it!

only if组合则多用于开放条件句。

条件分句中,有时不用一般现在时态而用现在时虚拟语气来表示开放条件:

If any vehicle be found parked on these premises without written permission, it shall be towed away at the expense of the vehicle’s owner.

If any person be found guilty, he shall have the right of appeal.

这种用法主要限于十分正式的、法律的或准法律的语境中。

我们也可以不用从属连词而用主语-功能词倒装来标明条件关系。在条件分句中,这种倒装形式用得最多的是功能词had:Had I known, I would have written before.

当分句是否定句时,not置于实义动词之前,不可用前接成分:Had I not seen it with my own eyes, I would not have believed it.

在多少带有一点文学色彩的语体中,虚拟语气的were和试探性的should也可用倒装形式:

Were it to reveal its secrets, that house would collapse in shame. Were she in charge, she would do things differently.

Should you change your mind, no one would blame you.

Should she be interested, I’ll phone her.

在另外某些含假设意义的结构中,必须用假设过去时或假设过去完成体:

It’s time you were in bed.

I wish this bus went to the university.

If only I had listened to my parents!

在其他一些也有假设意义的结构中,它们则具有随意性:

He acts as if he knew you.

It’s not as though we were poor.

Suppose we told her the truth.

Imagine your child played truant.

I’d rather we had dinner now.

一般来说,我们可以对这些句子作否定的推论,在用假设过去完成体时,否定意义更强。5表示探询式的礼貌,而不是假设的意义。

限制性关系分句和其母句,如果是指某种假设情景的话,则采用和假设条件句相同的形式:

Any person who had behaved in that way should have been dismissed.

除would之外,其他情态助动词也可用于假设条件句中,如有could, might和should。

It they would help us, we could finish early.

If we had enough money, we could buy a typewriter.

If you could type, you might save a lot of time.

I might have married her if she would have agreed.

If they had asked me, I would have had to speak.

If he had apologized, you should have done so too.

Were-虚拟语气表示假设或不真实的含义,用在由诸如if, as if, as though, though之类的连词所引导的状语分句中,也用在像wish 和suppose这样的动词后面的名词性分句中。这种虚拟语气只有were这一形式,因此打破了陈述语气动词be过去时第一人称和第三人称单数主谓一致的规则。陈述语气形式was,在不太正式的语体中可用来代替were:

If I were/was rich, I would buy you anything you wanted.

Tim always speaks quietly on the phone, as though he were/was telling a secret.

I wish the journey were/was over.

Just suppose everyone were/was to give up smoking and drinking.

在固定短语as it were(可以这么说)中,不能用was代替were。让步分句

在正式语体中,现在虚拟式在十分偶尔的情况下可用于让步分句和目的分句。

它们更经常使用的是一般现在陈述式。

Though he be the president himself, he shall hear us.

They removed the prisoner in order that he not disturb the proceedings any further.

Even if that be the official view, it cannot be accepted.

Whatever be the reasons for their action, we cannot tolerate such disloyalty.

Whether she be right or wrong, she will have my unswerving support.

让步分句主要由although或其较非正式的变体though引导。与让步分句连用的其他从属连词有:

if, even if, even though, when, whereas, while, whilst

表示目的限定分句由so that或so和in order that引导。

由lest, in case或for fear that引导的否定目的分句:

The president must reject this proposal, lest it cause strife and violence.

They left early for fear that they would meet him.

They evacuated the building in case the wall collapsed.

for fear (that) 需要一个情态助动词,但in case不需要,古体lest 需要一个情态动词或现在时虚拟语气。

Earthen mounds were being hastily erected lest an attack should be/be launched that night.

开放条件(open condition)是中性的,即该条件的实现与否悬而未决,因而由母句所述判断的真实性也无定论:

If Colin is in London, he is undoubtedly staying at the Hilton.

假设条件(hypothetical condition)则表示讲话人相信条件不会满足(将来条件),没有满足(现在条件)或未曾满足(过去条件),因而母句所述的判断可能或当然是虚假的:

If he changed his opinions, he’d be a more likeable person.

(He very probably won’t change his opinions.)

【2】常用于wish , would , rather , suppose , imagine之后的that-分句中,表示一种臆想的情况。

I wish it were spring all the year round.

I ’ d rather I were not at the site of the accident.

上述were-型虚拟式在第一、三人称单数主语之后可为was 所取代。

If it was to rain , the game would be put off.

If only I was not so nervous!

但是,在if I were you 这一分句中,通常倾向于用were ,而不用was 。另外,在某些倒装结构中只用were ,不用was 。Were I to do it (= If I were to do it ),I should rely on you.

还有,在as it were (作so to speak 解,即“宛如”、“好比”)结构中也只用were ,不用was。

He is my best friend ,my second self ,as it were.

虚拟式,传统称虚拟语气,是专门表达“假设意义”及“非事实意义”的动词形式,其表达手段多样。本文针对虚拟式教学,探讨如何在继承传统语法的基础上,用新的教学思路使学生更快更好地掌握相关知识。

一、传统英语语法在虚拟式表述和教学方面的局限性

(一)无系统语法讲解

初、高中阶段,我国选用的教材一般都无系统的语法讲解,重点放在语感习得上,靠学生大量练习来掌握相应的知识块,遇到语法问题,多由教师讲解,或学生自己查语法书。语法教学往往受师生水平、教科书及语法书适宜度等因素的制约。而教师水平、理解角度的不同,讲解的侧重点和深浅度也不同。一些教科书也对语法问题予以了归类,如高二教材上册就出现了“虚拟条件句”,但只限于练习标题,无任何解释。有的语法书,如《实用英语语法》虽讲到了虚拟式在条件句、某些从句和其他情况中的运用,但只罗列了句型,没归纳总结。教师讲授内容不一致,教科书又没有统一讲解,而语法书讲得则太乱太多。所以,学生对此知识块的掌握多是具体句子,并没有上升到理论高度,学生掌握得很不扎实。

(二)局限性

由于高考前对语法知识欠缺系统学习,大学新生的原有知识已远远不能满足学习的需要。师生都呼唤在大学进行现代语法的教学,以改变和澄清学生一些旧的过时的理念。过去没掌握好的语法知识如虚拟式等,尤其要予以充实。只有将知识理解提升到理论高度,才可能举一反三,把对知识的掌握从传统的逐句记忆变成现代的操作性强的实际掌握和运用。

二、现代英语语法对虚拟式表述的优越性和现实教学的受限性

现代英语语法是传统语法与现代语言学和语法学研究成果的结合。具体到虚拟式,它将其看作仅用于表达假设意义的动词形式,是古英语遗留下来的一点残余。现代英语语法将其归为两类:were-型和be_型。

现代教学理念要求引导学生从宏观上理解、概括旧知识,厚积更要薄发。如果说传统语法侧重厚积,则现代教学更要求升华,只有这样才能提纲挈领,便于更好地掌握运用,这给语法教学指明了方向。具体到虚拟式教学,应引导学生努力掌握虚拟式知识链的关键——动词,用动词将过去显得凌乱的知识链接起来,使学生能宏观地看待相关知识点。这就是现代语法明显优于传统语法的地方。知识的掌握是为了运用,现代英语教学使我们能通过动词这一“经脉”还原出虚拟式具体的知识“血肉”。

现代语法教学为理论的宏观掌握和具体运用提供了可行性。但在具体教学中,由于受主客观条件的限制,语法书很难在一个章节就讲清楚某知识点,尤其是一些边缘性知识,作者常为突出某一重点而将其放到别的章节。现以我校选用的《新编英语语法教程》为例,虚拟条件句不是放在第16讲的虚拟式章节中,而是放到第34讲的条件句中,还有些虚拟式讲解被放到第10讲,以充实动词的时、体、态、式讲解。另有些分句,在were-型中提到,到下一节被重复讲解等。这有助于体系完整,同时可使学生从不同方面理解便于深人研究。但就掌握虚拟式这一

语法块而言,显得星罗棋布,要花一定时间才能找到知识点,加上学生水平和时间限制,要迅速掌握就更困难了。所以,可行性的具体实施还要师生的共同努力。

三、虚拟式的教学方法

为便于学生更快地理解和掌握,笔者在教学中以动词为纲,将散落在不同章节的相关知识归类、总结,提纲挈领予以讲解,以达到事半功倍的教学效果。

(一)在传统知识基础上提炼知识

首先,从全新视角看待虚拟式,将传统的庞杂体系放在一边,让学生将所有虚拟句式依类别归人b 型和were-型两大类,这样更简洁,易掌握。但这对讲解were-型虚拟式就显得有些混杂,如对wish引导的虚拟式,《新编英语语法教程》先在第270页与某些名词性分句混讲.后又在第273页用“过去式形式表示假设意义”再次解释,学生会感觉迷惑,我们在此澄清了概念。

其次,对于be一型虚拟式,要学生记住三种类型:公式化语句、命令性that-分句和其他用法。具体说来,公式化语句表祝愿、沮咒等,遗自古语,约定俗成地动词就用原形,这种语句较少见,记住即可,不要自己去造句,如:God bless you.对于命令性that一分句,表命令、决定、建议等词后的分旬中,如decree等动词、desirable等形容词或resolution等名词后,其中that一分旬中动词用原型。如:The board has instructed that the managerquit.此外,要注意此时可与should/to+不定式互换,如:My suggestion is that Tom do/should do/to do it.这些互换体现了语言的多样性和互通性。至于其他用法,如由whatever,lest,unless,in case,etc引导,其分句中,动词用原型。非正式语体常用动词陈述式或should/may+ 不定式,如If he be found guilty,he will be punished.非正式语体为If he is found。

再次,对于were-型虚拟式,要学生掌握两种情况:特定结构和非真实条件句。特定结构即一些状语从句和名词性从句,如:It is(high/about)time(that)? ,?would rather/s00ner(that)? (than)? ,If only,?as if/though,wish(that)等。其中,hope(that)并不表示假设意义,其后动词除表示婉转时,很少用过去式。如:Ihope you are/will be/would be(婉转)right.至于非真实条件句,要求学生牢记表示过去、现在和未来的典型结构。如If..·did/were? ,?would do/be?对现在/将来(有一未来时间)的虚拟,如:If I came into a fortune(tomorrow)。1 would given up working.If?had done/been? ,?would have done/been 表示对过去的虚拟,如If we had caught the 10 o’clock train,we would have got there by lunch—time.此外,还要注意句式变形和不同句式混合用法。

(二)因材施教,指导学生完成知识的积累、提炼和运用

1.要点的掌握要因人而异。一般来说,对考三级即PRETCO(Level B)的学生要求略低,学生知道虚拟式主要有上述句型,且知道这些句型分属哪些类型即可。对考四级即CET4的学生要求较高,学生不仅要记住要点,教师还要多讲解,让学生知道要点的来由,以及一些边缘知识,如命令性that-分句中,动词原形可与should/to+不定式互换等。对考六级,即CET6的学生,要做个别辅导,我们要求学生将书看透,如were-型用过去式不仅限于一般过去式,过去将来、完成式也可,只要是过去式即可,而不是传统语法讲的had+过去分词,should+动词原形,should have+过去分词以及should/would+动词原形属于不同形式。

2.要点的运用要应境而现。知识抽象归纳便于记忆,记忆是为了使用。所以,我们要求学生能根据不同情境将抽象的知识点迅速展现,不仅在课堂练习中,而且在课后阅读时、生活言语间都要能正确使用。

对这一过程,我们也要区别对待。如对考三级的学生,做题时尤其在考题Vocabulary& Structure(15minute)这部分,遇到虚拟式,能认出并对照知识点看出类别,知道如何填上缺失部分即可。对CET4考生,虚拟式更是一大考点,我们要求学生能举一反三,看透实质。如对于虚拟条件句,不仅要知道相应公式,还要能将其与其他条件句区分。

不同公式有: