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美国脚轮标准

4 TEST APPARATUS 測試儀器

This section establishes the basic design requirements for the various apparatus types used to test casters and wheels. Refer to sections 5 –8 for the testing procedures and acceptance

criteria for specific types of casters as follows:

以下所述是關於用以測試輪子的多種設備之基本設計需要。Section5-8是關於測試特殊輪子之過程及標準接受度。

Section 5 –Furniture Chair Casters 家具(椅子)用小腳輪

Section 6 –Furniture Non-Chair Casters 家具(非椅子)用小腳輪

Section 7 –Industrial Casters 工業用小腳輪

Section 8 –Institutional and Hospital Bed Casters 醫療床用小腳輪

Note that all recording instruments, weights, loads, gages, timing devices and measuring devices shall be calibrated on a regular basis.

紀錄所有的器具、重量、裝載量、尺寸時,計時儀器及測量儀器都應該要使用相同的規格。4.1 Sequence of Tests for All Ca sters

Initial Wheel Play Test (4.2) 初期輪胎運轉測試

Initial Swivel Play Test (4.3) 初期轉環運轉測試

Rollability Test (4.4) 轉動能力測試

Electrical Resistance Test (4.5) 電氣抵抗測試

Initial Wheel Brake Efficiency Test (4.6) 初期輪胎煞車效果測試

Initial Swivel Lock Efficiency Test (4.6) 初期轉環鎖定效果測試

Braking and/or Locking Device Fatigue Test (4.7) 煞車及鎖定設備疲勞檢測

Dynamic Test (4.4) 力學測試

Final Wheel Brake Efficiency Test (4.6) 最終輪胎煞車效果測試

Final Swivel Lock Efficiency Test (4.7) 最終轉環鎖定效果測試

Final Wheel Play Test (4.2) 最終輪胎運轉測試

Final Swivel Play Test (4.3) 最終轉環運轉測試

Static Test (4.8) 靜態測試

Side Load Test (4.9) 側邊裝載測試

Caster –Vertical Impact Test (4.10) 小腳輪垂直衝擊測試

Wheels –Vertical Impact Test (4.10) 輪胎垂直衝擊測試

4.2 Wheel Play Test 輪子運轉測試

This section establishes the basic requirements for an apparatus to measure wheel play at the beginning of the test sequence and at the end of the test sequence.

以下所述是關於使用設備來測量檢查輪胎運轉(開始及結束)所需要的基本設備。

4.2.1 The test fixture shall be so constructed as to rigidly fix the caster assembly in a horizontal or vertical position.

用來測試的設備需要被設計的能夠牢固的以水平或垂直的方式固定小腳輪。

4.2.2 A suitable measuring device accurate to 0.001" (0.0254 mm), shall be clamped to the fixture to record the amount of movement as the wheel is tilted from side to side.

於測試時,必須使用一個測量儀器(精準度0.0254mm)夾緊於被測試的輪子,用以記錄輪子傾斜的次數。

4.2.3 The measurement shall be taken at the farthest point from and parallel to the axle (Refer to Figure 656.)

測試時須使用距軸最遙遠的點且須與軸平行。

Figure 56: Wheel Play Test Apparatus 輪子運轉測試儀器

4.3 Swivel Play Test 轉環運轉測試

This section establishes the basic requirements for an apparatus to measure the swivel

play at the beginning of the test sequence and at the end of the test sequence.

Swivel play is the amount of vertical play between the mounting attachment and the

caster housing/rig. This measurement is converted to degrees.

以下所述是關於使用設備來測量檢查轉環運轉(開始及結束)所需要的基本設備。轉環運轉測試是有關托架及小腳輪間的垂直運轉次數。這個試驗會以不同角度作測試。

4.3.1 The apparatus consists of an amplifying bar at least 8" (200 mm) long, an indicator accurate to 0.001" (0.0254 mm) and a securing device.

這個設備是由一支至少200mm的支架,一個精準度達0.0254mm的指示器,以及一個安全裝置。

4.3.2 The caster is to be secured such that the mounting attachment is free rotating and horizontal.

小腳輪上的托架需要能夠自由的旋轉,並水平橫放。

4.3.3 Refer to Figure 57 as an example of the testing position and apparatus.

附圖57是測試的樣本。

Figure 57: Swivel Play Test Apparatus 轉環運轉測試設備

4.4 Rollability Test 滾動能力測試

This section establishes the basic requirements for an apparatus to measure the rolling

and swiveling performance of a caster at its load capacity.

以下是關於小腳輪於承載時,其滾動及轉環運轉表現測試時的基本需要。

4.4.1 The apparatus for rolling and swiveling forces shall be constructed to accommodate one or more swivel casters.

滾動及轉環運轉力量設備需要被設計能夠容納至少一個的小腳輪。

4.4.2 The test machine shall be constructed so that the test plane is horizontal and the calibrated force gage shall be applied to the caster parallel to the test plane and

positioned as close to the wheel axis as possible.

用來測試的機器需要被建造使得測試平台能夠水平橫放,測定力量的標準儀器應該要使測試平面能夠平行的貼近於小腳輪上,越近越好。

4.4.3 The test surface should be smooth steel and parallel to the mounting plane of the caster.測試的表面要是平滑的鋼鐵,且要與小腳輪的托架平面平行。

4.4.4 The test machine shall be rigid enough to prevent any deflection that would affect the accuracy of the test.

作測試的機器應該要非常堅固,使其能夠承受任何可能影響測試準確度的折損。

4.4.5 A weight equal to the load capacity is applied through dead weights or hydraulic, or pneumatic means.

應該要提供一個重量(相等於最大承載量),運用淨重的、水力的、或是空氣的方法。

4.4.6 The coefficient of friction between wheel type and surface should be discounted (Refer to Figure 58).

輪子和表面的摩擦細數應該會打些折扣。

Figure 58: Rollability Test Apparatus 滾動能力測試設備

Note: The apparatus shown is for illustration only. 顯示的設備只供說明。

4.5 Electrical Re sistance Test 電阻測試

This section establishes basic requirements of the testing apparatus used to conduct electrostatic measurements of wheels and casters.

This test measures the surface electrical resistance of a wheel and/or caster.

以下是有關用來傳導小腳輪的靜電測量設備的基本需要。這個實驗可以測出表面對輪子的電阻。

4.5.1 The wheel shall be tested while supporting a load of 25% of its load capacity. The caster to be tested shall be rolled onto a clean, dry, flat metal plate. The metal plate and the mounting plane (2.5.8) of the caster shall form the electrodes for the test. The resistance between electrodes shall be measured by any resistance measuring apparatus of a

suitable range.

這個實驗必須於輪子有最大載重的25%的載重下進行,並且於一個乾淨、乾燥、並平坦的金屬表面上做測試。測試用的電及必須由金屬板及小腳輪的托架產生。必須要安裝一個測量電阻的儀器,以測得電極間的電阻。

4.6 Wheel Brake and Swivel Lock Efficiency Test 輪胎的煞車及轉環鎖之效率測試。

This section establishes the basic requirements for the apparatus used to determine the performance of the wheel-braking and swivel-lock devices.

This test apparatus applies to casters supplied with a device that locks the rotational movement of the wheel, the swivel, or both the wheel and the swivel.

以下是有關用於決定輪胎煞車及轉環鎖的表現之裝置基本需求。這個實驗設備適用於附有能夠鎖定轉輪和輪胎轉動的裝置之小腳輪。

4.6.1 The apparatus shall provide fixtures that allow the caster to be mounted by its normal attachments.

這個設備應要提供能夠使小腳輪裝設於自己的正常附屬物之配件。

4.6.2 The apparatus shall provide a wheel contact surface that is flat and smooth.

這個設備應提供一個平坦滑順的輪胎接觸表面。

4.6.3 The apparatus shall provide a force equal to the load capacity of the caster perpendicular to the mounting plane and the test surface.

這個設備應提供與承載重量相等的力量,且要與小腳輪的托架及測試平面垂直。

4.6.4 The apparatus shall provide the capability to attach a calibrated force gage to the caster parallel to the test surface. The maximum range of the force gage must exceed 25% of

the load capacity of the caster and have 1 lbf (4.5 N), or smaller increments.這個設備應要使小腳輪能夠裝上一個力量測量儀,使其垂直於測試表面。這個力量測量儀需要一個最大的範圍,使其擁有大於最大承載量中25%之力量,以及1lbf (4.5N)或更小的增加量。

4.6.5 The test apparatus must be constructed so that the horizontal force may be applied at 90°increments and the friction inherent in the machine is discounted (Refer to Figure 59).

這個設備應該要建造成能使水平力量能應用於90°增加量,以及使機器內的內在的摩擦力打折扣。Figure 59: Wheel Brake and Swivel Lock Efficiency Test Apparatus 輪胎煞車及轉輪所的效率測試設備。

4.7 Braking and/or Locking Fatigue Test 煞車及鎖的疲勞測試。

This section establishes the basic design requirements for the apparatus used to fatigue

test braking and/or locking mechanisms for casters.

This test apparatus applies to casters supplied with a device that locks the rotational movement of the wheel, the swivel, or both the wheel and the swivel.

以下是有關於測試小腳輪煞車及鎖之機械裝置的疲勞所需的基本設計需求。這個測試設備適用於附有能夠鎖定轉輪和輪胎轉動的裝置之小腳輪。

4.7.1 The apparatus shall provide fixtures that allow the caster to be mounted by its normal attachments.

這個設備應要提供能夠使小腳輪裝設於自己的正常附屬物之配件。

4.7.2 The apparatus must cycle the braking or locking device through its entire range of motion.

這個設備必須藉由它的完整的運轉,使煞車及鎖定儀器能夠循環。

4.7.3 Test apparatus will allow continuous cycling from the braking to the non-braking position (Refer to Figure 60).測試的儀器可以由煞車及非煞車位置不斷的循環。

Figure 60: Braking and/or Locking Fatigue Test Apparatus煞車及鎖的疲勞測試設備

Note: The apparatus shown is for illustration only. 顯示的設備只供說明。

4.8 Static Test 靜電測試

This section establishes the basic requirements of the apparatus used to conduct static loading.

This test apparatus establishes the maximum load that can be carried and meet the

minimum standards set forth, with no functional impairment to the caster.

以下是有關用於引導靜電裝載的設備之基本需求。這個測試設備證實了能被搬運的最大承載量,並且合乎於之前所定的最小準則,且能使小腳輪不產生任何的功能損害。

4.8.1 The apparatus shall provide fixtures that allow the caster to be mounted by its normal attachments.

這個設備應要提供能夠使小腳輪裝設於自己的正常附屬物之配件。

4.8.2 The test surface shall be smooth steel and parallel to the mounting plane (2.

5.8) of the caster.

測試的表面要是平滑的鋼鐵,且要與小腳輪的托架平面平行。

4.8.3 The apparatus shall provide a force equal to the load capacity of the caster perpendicular to the mounting plane and the test surface. ICWM recommends the use of dead weight

for dynamic testing. If pneumatic or hydraulic loads are applied, then a normalizing factor must be used.

這個設備應提供與承載重量相等的力量,且要與小腳輪的托架及測試平面垂直。ICWM推薦使用淨重來做力的測試。如果是使用空氣的或是水力的裝載,那就必須使用一個標準化的因素。4.8.4 The test machine should be rigid enough to prevent any deflection that would affect the accuracy of the test. 作測試的機器應該要非常堅固,使其能夠承受任何可能影響測試準確度的折損。

4.8.5 Refer to the appropriate dynamic test for surface speed. The minimum obstacle crossing speed shall be equal to the surface speed.

參照適合的力學測試來測試表面的速度。最小的障礙物跨越速度應該要等同於表面速度。

4.8.6 The track configuration is optional, i.e. linear or circular (horizontal and vertical).

軌跡的結構是隨意的,換言之,可以直線的或是環行的(水平或垂直)。

4.8.7 A device that records cycles and/or time is to be incorporated in the dynamic test machine.

用於紀錄循環及時間的裝置必須和力學測試的機器結合。

Note: Refer to section(s) 6.3.1 or 7.8.1.1 for obstacle size and orientation.

參照6.3.1或7.8.1.1查詢障礙物的大小及定位。

4.9 Side Load Test 測邊裝載測試

This section establishes the basic requirements for the apparatus used to conduct a sideload test on a rigid caster.

The side load is the maximum transverse force that a rigid caster can withstand before permanent deformation is encountered.

以下是有關於固定輪邊載測試設備的基本需求。這個測邊裝載是要用到固定輪可承受的最大橫向力量(在輪胎永久變形毀壞之前)。

4.9.1 The test apparatus shall be capable of applying a compressive load parallel to the wheel axis and at the axle.

這個測試設備應該要能提供平行於輪軸的壓縮裝載。

4.9.2 The mounting fixture shall be sufficiently rigid so that its deflection, due to the load applied to the caster, can be ignored.

托架設備應該要非常堅固,使得裝載物品對小腳輪鎖造成的變形可以被忽視。

4.9.3 The load can be applied by means of dead weights or hydraulic, or pneumatic means such that a successive increase in load can be applied up to the load capacity of the

caster.

這個裝載物品可以用淨重、水力重量、或是空氣重量來產生,使其可以持續的加壓以達到輪子可以承受的最大重量。

4.9.4 A recording instrument with a range up to 1" (2

5.4 mm) travel, and accurate to 0.001" (0.0254 mm), shall be used in conjunction with compressive force.

必須使用一個紀錄的儀器(25.4mm可達移動距離,精準度達0.0254mm),來連接壓縮力。

4.10 Ca ster/Wheel –Vertical Impact Test 輪子的垂直衝擊測試

This section establishes the basic test apparatus used to conduct a vertical impact test

on casters and wheels.

This test measures the impact resistance of caster wheels.

以下是有關於輪子垂直衝擊測試所使用的基本測試設備。這個測試可測出小腳輪對衝擊的承受度。

4.10.1 A device that transmits force, usually measured in lbs. (N), to the test caster/wheel from

a free-falling weight (Refer to Figure 61 for orientation).

使用一個能夠傳送力量的裝置(通常使用lbs為計量單位),以自由落體的重量,來測試輪子對衝擊的承受力。

4.10.2 The apparatus can be any design that will allow a guided free-falling weight to drop on the supported caster/wheel.

這個設備可以任意設計,成為能夠使一個受控制的自由落體力量掉落在被支撐的小腳輪上的設備。

4.10.3 A measuring device to determine free fall distance is to be mount ed parallel to the free fall weight path (Refer to Figure 61 for orientation).

必須裝置一個測量裝置可以決定自由落體的距離,以平行的方式裝置於自由落體的路徑上。4.10.4 The mounting fixture must be rigid enough to prevent deflection during the impact test. 這個測試的托架配件必須要非常堅固,使其可以承受衝擊測試中可能產生的彎曲變形。

5 FURNITURE CHAIR CASTERS –TEST PROCEDURE AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 家具椅子之小腳輪-測試過程及標準接受度

This section applies to casters that will normally be used in home/office environments for

chair applications only. It covers categories, dimensions, and testing procedur es.

以下是關於運用於家中或是辦公室內的椅子所裝置的輪子。內容包含種類、尺寸及測試過程。

5.1 Categories 種類

Office furniture casters are classified into 5 categories based on wheel diameter:

辦公室用家具使用輪子基於直徑可分為以下五種,

1. Single wheel 2" (50 mm)

2. Single wheel 2 ?" (65 mm)

3. Single wheel 3" (75 mm)

4. Dual wheel 2" (50 mm)

5. Dual wheel 2 ?" (65 mm)

5.2 Dimensions 尺寸

Minimum dimensions for office furniture casters are as follows:

辦公室使用小腳輪最小尺寸如下:

Wheel Diameter Dimension輪子直徑尺寸

Min. Wheel (Single wheel) 2" (50 mm) diameter

Max. Wheel (Single wheel) 3" (75 mm) diameter

Min. Wheel (Dual wheel) 2" (50 mm) diameter

Max. Wheel (Dual wheel) 2 ?" (65 mm) diameter

5.3 Testing –General Requirements 測試之普遍的需要

The manufacturer shall be free to choose the design, raw materials, surface treatments, embellishments, and methods of manufacture used so long as the requirements of this standard are complied with.

製造商能夠自行決定設計方式、材質選定、表面處理方式、及裝飾方法。製造的方法皆須遵從這個標準法則。

5.3.1 All tests must be conducted with the same caster.

所有的測試皆須使用同一個輪子。

5.3.2 All tests shall be performed at ambient temperature of 68-72°F (20-22°C).

所以的測試皆須在週遭溫度20-22°C下進行。

5.3.3 No caster or part of a caster shall become detached during the test. Each caster shall be capable of carrying out its normal function at the end of the test program.

測試時,所有的零件接不可與輪子本身分離。所有的輪子在測試完成時接要能夠維持正常的功能。

5.4 Test Procedure s and Acceptance Criteria 測試過程及標準接受度

5.4.1 Must comply with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Business & Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA) Standards in that "no structural breakage or loss of serviceability" is allowed. The acceptance criteria per BIFMA 5.1 –

2000 specification state, "Structural breakage or loss of serviceability shall constitute

failure. No failure shall be allowed that in any way would cause personal injury to the occupant." Dynamic test shall be performed per ANSI/BIFMA X5.1 –1993 18.3 "Test Procedures for Durability Cycling". The following test procedures shall be used:

必須遵從ANSI及BIFMA所規範的「不可有任何的結構性破壞,或是喪失其功能性。」BIFMA於2000年時聲明:「結構破壞及失去功能性皆會導致失敗。任何可能導致人員傷亡的錯誤皆不允許發生。」力學測試進行時,必須遵照ANSI及BIFMA於1993所聲明的:「測試循環耐久度的過程。」下列的測試皆須遵守:

5.4.1.1 Attach the chair base with casters to a cycling device as shown in Figure 62. If

the casters have hard treads (greater than or equal to 90 Shore A), conduct the

test with a smooth, hard surface on the test platform. If casters have soft treads,

mount three obstacles on the test platform in accordance with the layout (Refer

to Figure 62).

連接椅子的基座和小腳輪到旋轉裝置,如圖62。如果小腳輪擁有堅硬的胎面(大於或等於90硬度計),則將實驗測試於一個平滑且堅固的測試平台上。如果小腳輪擁有柔軟的胎面,則必須放置三個阻礙物再測試平台上,使其與原本的設計一致。(見圖62)

5.4.1.2 Apply a load of 300 pounds (136 kg), including the hopper (the unit that holds the weight), to the chair base. The base and casters shall be free to rotate and

swivel.

提供一個136Kg的裝載物,包含一個hopper (能承載重量的物品)在椅子的基座。椅子的基坐必須與椅子本身能夠自由的選轉。

5.4.1.3 Adjust the length of stroke of the cycling device to ensure 30" (762 mm) of travel.

On tests for soft tread casters, this travel shall be oriented with the obstac les

(Refer to Figure 62).

調整循環裝置之敲擊的長度到能夠執行762mm的運行。如果測試的對象是軟胎面的小腳輪,則這個運行必須以障礙物為目的方向。

5.4.1.4 Operate the machine at a rate of 9 ± 1 cycles per minute. One cycle shall consist

of a forward and a backward stroke of the machine. If the casters have hard

treads, cycle the device for 100,000 cycles. If the casters have hard soft treads,

cycle the device for 36,000 cycles. Findings shall be recorded in accordance

with the acceptance level in ANSI/BIFMA 18.5.1 (Refer to Figure 62).

將機器操作於旋轉速率為9 ±1圈/每分鐘。每一圈必須包含一個前擊、一個後擊。如果輪子擁有堅硬的胎面,將此機器旋轉100,000次。如果輪子擁有柔軟的胎面,則將機器旋轉36,000次。結果必須要以一致的方式紀錄,並且是要ANSI及BIFMA能夠接受的等級。

Figure 62: Dynamic Test Apparatus for Furniture Chair Casters 家具椅子所用之輪圈坐力學測試時所使用的設備。

Mounting Hole: 17.5”(445mm)

Stroke Length: 17”(432mm) 12”(305mm) 8.25”(210mm) 30”(762mm) 5”(127mm) 10”(254mm) 12”(305mm) 2”(51mm)

0.12”(3mm) R.012”(3mm)

Load: 300 lb (136 kg)

5.4.2 Vertical Impact Test 垂直衝擊測試

A caster is rigidly mounted by its normal attachment to a test fixture such that a freefalling weight is allowed to strike the tread of the wheel(s). In the case of a twin wheel

caster, both wheels should be struck simultaneously.

Evaluate minimum standards for vertical impact strength, in-lbs. or N-m.

The caster shall have no loss of function or serviceability and show no visible signs of fracture.

將一個小腳輪牢固的架設(使用標準安裝)於一個實驗設備,使一個自由落體的重量能夠重擊輪子的胎面。如果是雙輪小腳輪,兩個輪子必須同時間的接受撞擊。

Table 1 表一

Drop Test 落下測試

Diameter Minimum Impact (in-lb) 直徑的最小衝擊

Single wheel 2" (50 mm) Soft Tread 180

Single wheel 2" (50 mm) Hard Tread 90

Single wheel 2 ?" (65 mm) Soft Tread 180

Single wheel 2 ?" (65 mm) Hard Tread 110

Single wheel 3" (75 mm) Soft Tread 210

Single wheel 3" (75 mm) Hard Tread 150

Dual wheel 2" (50 mm) Soft and Hard Tread 180

Dual wheel 2 ?" (65 mm) Soft and Hard Tread 180

5.4.3 Ca ster Retention 小腳輪的保持

At the conclusion of durability cycling, apply a 5 lbf (22-N) force to each caster in line with

the caster stem centerline. The caster shall not separate from the base as a result of the application of a 5-lbs. (2.3 kgs) load. Minimum pull out force shall be 5 lbf. (22-N) after

the caster has completed dynamic requirements in 5.4.1.

耐久性的測試結果:提供各一個5 lbf的力量給每個輪子的柱子中線,這個輪胎不能從底座被分開破壞。輪子接受力學測試之後,外拉的力量不得小於5 lbf。

5.4.4 Conductivity Te st 導電率測試

The caster shall be tested while supporting a load of 25% of its load capacity. The caster mounting plane (2.5.8) of the caster shall form the electrodes for the test. Any resistance measuring apparatus of a suitable range shall measure the resistance between

electrodes. The wheel shall be rotated and measurements taken at 5 separate points of contact; average these values.

Minimum standards of 250,000 ohms on average of 5 readings/wheel (Refer to FFC-88- C).

這個實驗必須於輪子有最大載重的25%的載重下進行。輪子的托架必須要行成測試所需要的電極。必須要安裝一個測量電阻的儀器,以測得電極間的電阻。在測試過程中,輪子必須旋轉,並且測量五個不同的接觸點,接著再取其平均值。最小的標準值為五個輪子平均250,000 ohms。Average electrical resistance shall be less than 250,000 ohms and the maximum

individual electrical resistance shall be less than 1,000,000 ohms. All conductive wheels

are to have a yellow dot permanently affixed to the wheel surface, excluding tread, to indicate conductivity.

平均的電阻應該要低於250,000 ohms,而最大的獨立電阻應該要低於1,000,000 ohms。所有的導電輪必須在輪子的表面上貼上一個黃色的原點標籤(踏板不需要)已表示它的導電性。

This test does not guarantee that the level of conductivity indicated during the testing will

be achieved in application. The manufacturer is not responsible for any change, either

loss or gain in conductivity due to, but not limited to, accumulation of dirt, wax, or foreign

materials on the wheel.

這個測試並不保證能夠成功的將實驗結果時限於實際運用上。製造商並不需要爲任何的改變負責,包括減少或增加導電率。但灰塵及蠟的堆積及使用外來的材料並不在限制範圍內。

5.5 Conformity 遵從法則

The manufacturer declares on request by a Certificate of Compliance that the casters conform to the requirements as stated in this document.

製造商必須使用證明書來聲明其製造的輪子必須符合此文件所要求的規範。

6 FURNITURE NON-CHAIR CASTERS –TEST PROCEDURE AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 家具(非椅子)之小腳輪-測試過程及標準接受度This section covers casters normally used in office/home environments not associated with seating applications. It specifies technical requirements, applicable dimensions, and testing procedures.

這一章節是有關辦公室及住家所使用的非椅子性家具所使用的小腳輪。並具體說明了技術上的需要、可應用的尺寸、及測試過程。

6.1 Non-seating office-furniture casters are classified into 10 categories based on wheel diameter:

非椅子性的辦公室家具小腳輪可依據輪的的直徑分成下列10個種類:

1. 1.18”(30 mm)

2. 1.57”(40 mm)

3. 1.77”(45 mm)

4. 2" (50 mm)

5. 2.36”(60 mm)

6. 2 ?" (65 mm)

7. 3" (75 mm)

8. 4" (100 mm)

9. 4.72”(120 mm)

10. 5" (125 mm)

6.2 Testing –General Requirements 測試之普遍的需要

6.2.1 Consistency 一致性

All tests are completed with a new caster.

全部的測試必須使用全新的小腳輪。

6.2.2 Temperature 溫度

All tests shall be performed at ambient temperature of 68-72°F (20-22°C).

所有的測試必須於週遭溫度20-22°C時進行。

6.2.3 Non-Detachable 不可分開的

No caster or part of a caster shall become detached during the test. Each caster shall be capable of carrying out its normal function at the end of the test program.

The manufacturer shall be free to choose the design, raw materials, surface treatments, embellishments, and methods of manufacture used so long as the requirements of this standard are complied with.

測試時,所有的零件接不可與輪子本身分離。所有的輪子在測試完成時接要能夠維持正常的功能。製造商能夠自行決定設計方式、材質選定、表面處理方式、及裝飾方法。製造的方法皆須遵從這個標準法則。

6.3 Test Procedure s and Acceptance Criteria 測試過程及標準接受度

6.3.1 Dynamic Test 力學測試

The running speed will be 2.0 mph (3.2 kmh).

The test apparatus shall be an endless belt or drum-type testing machine with a smooth uninterrupted running surface.

跑速須為2.0 mph。測試的設備必須為無止盡的皮帶或是圓桶狀的測試機器(要有光滑不受阻礙的表面)。

The test cycle shall be:

Run: 2 minutes minimum

Rest: 2 minutes maximum

The total elapsed run time shall be 20 hours minimum.

測試的循環必須為:

最少兩分鐘的運轉,及最多兩分鐘的休息。測試總時數不得小於20小時。

Casters with wheel diameters of 2" (50mm) and greater shall also pass over a 1/8"

(3.18mm) high obstacle for the duration of the test. The obstacle shall be 2" wide steel

with a chamfer 45°by one-half the obstacle height on running edges.

在測試中,若輪子的直徑大於或等於50mm,應該要能夠穿越一個3.18mm高的障礙物。這個障礙物必須為50mm寬的鋼鐵製品,並且在一半高度的邊緣上要有一個45°的凹槽。

Must comply with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Business &

Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA) Standards in the "no structural breakage or loss of serviceability" is allowed. At the end of the test, the caster shall be examined to determine conformance with 6.3.1 (no loss of function and/or serviceability).

必須遵從ANSI及BIFMA所規範的「不可有任何的結構性破壞,或是喪失其功能性。」在實驗結束時,輪子必須要檢查其完整性(不可有功能性的損壞)。

6.3.2 Vertical Impact Test 垂直衝擊測試

The caster is rigidly mounted by its normal attachment upside down in a test fixture such

that a free-falling weight can impact the tread perpendicular to the axis of the wheel.

The minimum vertical impact energy shall be equivalent to the load capacity of the wheel dropped 2" (50 mm).

Evaluate minimum standards for vertical impact strength, in-lbs. or N-m.

There shall be no functional impairment of the caster.

將一個小腳輪牢固的架設(使用標準安裝)於一個實驗設備,使一個自由落體的重量能夠垂直的重

擊輪子的胎面到輪軸。最小的垂直衝擊能量必須要等同於輪子落下50mm的承載量。預估垂直衝擊的最小標準力量(用lbs或N-m為單位)。不能對輪子造成任何的功能性的損壞。

6.3.3 Static Load Test 靜電裝載測試

A compressive load, equal to 4 times the load capacity of the individual caster shall be

applied through the mounting plane (2.5.8) for a period of 1 minute.

將一個相當於四倍承載量的壓縮重量裝載到一個單一輪子的托架上,並維持一分鐘。

Examine the caster for damage or permanent deformation.

檢查小腳輪有無損壞或永久性的毀壞。

Evaluate the minimum factor of safety without causing permanent deformation that

impairs the function of the caster.

估出在對輪子造成永久性的損壞前,造成輪子功能削減的最小因素。

There shall be no functional impairment of the caster.

不可以使輪子產生功能性的損壞。

6.3.4 Conductivity Te sts (if applicable) 導電性測試

This test does not guarantee that the level of conductivity indicated during the testing will

be achieved in application. The manufacturer is not responsible for any change, either

loss or gain in conductivity due to, but not limited to, accumulation of dirt, wax, or foreign materials on the wheel.

這個測試並不保證能夠成功的將實驗結果時限於實際運用上。製造商並不需要爲任何的改變負責,包括減少或增加導電率。但灰塵及蠟的堆積及外來的材料並不在限制範圍內。

6.3.4.1 The caster shall be tested while supporting a load of 25% of its load capacity.

The caster to be tested shall be rolled onto a clean, dry, flat metal plate. The

metal plate and the mounting plane (2.5.8) of the caster shall form the electrodes

for the test. The resistance between electrodes shall be measured by any

resistance measuring apparatus of a suitable range. The wheel shall be rotated

and measurements taken at 5 separate points of contact; average the values.

這個實驗必須於輪子有最大載重的25%的載重下進行,並且於一個乾淨、乾燥、並平坦的金屬表面上做測試。測試用的電及必須由金屬板及小腳輪的托架產生。必須要安裝一個測量電阻的儀器,以測得電極間的電阻。在測試過程中,輪子必須旋轉,並且測量五個不同的接觸點,接著再取其平均值。

6.3.4.2 Conductive less than 105 ohms. All conductive wheels are to have a yellow dot permanently affixed to the wheel surface, excluding tread, to indicate

conductivity.

導電性少於十的五次方ohms。所有導電性輪子必須在輪表面(胎面不用)貼上黃色小點,以表示它的導電性。

6.3.4.3 Static dissipative less than 107 ohms and more than 105 ohms.

靜電分散高於十的五次方ohms,且小於十的七次方ohms。

6.3.4.4 Insulative shall be greater than 107 ohms.

絕緣體必須能夠杜絕大於十的七次方ohms的電量。

6.3.4.5 Electrical Resistance (if applicable) 電阻測試

To establish procedure for testing and identifying electrostatic wheels/casters.

建立測試的過程及鑑定靜電小腳輪。

7 INDUSTRIAL CASTERS –TEST PROCEDURES AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 工業用小腳輪-測試過程及標準接受度

7.1 Wheel Play Test 輪子運轉測試

The objective of this test is to determine the initial wheel play (at the beginning of the test sequence) and the final wheel play (at the end of the test sequence).

這個測試的目的是要測試輪子一開始的運轉及最終的運轉。

7.1.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.1.1.1 The measurements shall be taken with the wheel, bearing, and axle assembled

in the fork.

測試的輪子必須含有軸承及軸裝配在托架上。

7.1.1.2 The fork (2.5.7) of the caster shall be rigidly fixed in a vertical position to ensure

that the fork width is maintained and movement of wheel is not impaired.

輪子的托架必須要穩固的垂直裝設。這樣一來,腳架的寬度才可以保持不變,輪子的運轉才不會受損。

7.1.1.3 The wheel shall then be manually tilted to one side then the opposite side, and

the total movement measured (Refer to Figure 63).

在來必須將輪子以手動的方式坐傾斜,由一邊至另一邊,並將移動距離做測量。

7.1.1.4 The wheel play shall not include any side movement of the wheel on the axle.

輪子的運轉不可包含輪子在軸上的任何側邊移動。

7.1.1.5 The wheel play value shall be expressed in degrees.

輪子運轉的數值必須以度數來表示。

Figure 63: Wheel Play 輪子的運轉

7.1.2 Acceptance Criteria 標準的接受度

7.1.2.1 The measured initial wheel play shall not exceed 3.5°.

輪子一開始運轉所測量得到的數值不可超過3.5°。

7.1.2.2 The measured final wheel play shall not exceed 6.5°.

輪子最終運轉所測量得到的數值不可超過6.5°。

7.2 Swivel Play Test 轉環運轉測試

The objective of this test is to determine the initial swivel play (at the beginning of test sequence) and the final swivel play (at the end of the test sequence).

這個測試的目的是要測試轉環一開始的運轉及最終的運轉。

7.2.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.2.1.1 The measurements shall be taken with the wheel, bearing, and axle assembled

in the fork (2.5.7).

測試的輪子必須含有軸承及軸裝配在托架上。

7.2.1.2 The fork (2.5.7) of the caster shall be rigidly fixed in a vertical position to ensure

that the fork width is maintained and movement of swivel is not impaired.

輪子的托架必須要穩固的垂直裝設。這樣一來,腳架的寬度才可以保持不變,轉環的運轉才不會受損。

7.2.1.3 Place alignment marks on the fixed and swi veling parts of the caster.

於小腳輪的固定轉環上貼一排標示點。

7.2.1.4 The amplifying bar shall be rigidly attached to the mounting plane (2.5.8), pass through the swivel axis, and for top plate (2.5.9) casters, be parallel to the

direction of travel.

支撐的條柱必須要牢固的緊貼於托架,並穿過轉環的軸。而小腳輪則必須平行於運行的方向。

7.2.1.5 Measure swivel play by moving the amplifying bar in a vertical plane first to the

limit of swivel play in one direction and then to the limit of swivel play in the

opposite direction (Refer to Figure 64).

將支撐的條柱於一個垂直的平台上移動,將其移動至轉環運轉極限的一邊,接著再將其移動至相反的另一邊極限。由此可測出轉環的運轉。

7.2.1.6 Record the vertical distance between swivel play extremes at a point on the amplifying bar at least 8" (200 mm) from the axis and convert to an angle in

degrees.

紀錄下轉環運轉極限,由支撐條柱到軸至少200mm的距離,接著在將其數值轉換成角度。

7.2.1.7 Make two measurements each at 90°of swivel rotation from the other. The

larger of the two values shall be taken.

將兩個轉環運轉於90°時分別做測試,取較大的一個數值作為依據。

Figure 64: Swivel Play 轉環運轉

7.2.2 Acceptance Criteria 標準接受度

7.2.2.1 The measured initial swivel play shall not exceed 3°except for light duty casters.

一開始對轉環運轉的測量不可以超過3°,除非是輕型的小腳輪。

7.2.2.2 The measured final swivel play shall not exceed 6°except for light duty casters.

對轉環運轉的最終測量不可以超過6°,除非是輕型的小腳輪。

7.2.2.3 The measured initial swivel play for light duty casters shall not exceed 6°.

對輕型小腳輪一開始的轉環運轉測量不可以超過6°。

7.2.2.4 The measured final swivel play for light duty casters shall not exceed 12°.

對輕型小腳輪的最終轉環運轉測量不可以超過12°。

7.3 Rollability Test 滾動能力測試

The objective of this test is to evaluate the rolling and swiveling performance of a caster

at the load capacity. The swiveling portion of this test does not apply to rigid casters.

這個測試的目的是測試在裝載下,小腳輪的滾動及轉動表現。在這個測試中,轉動的部分並不適

用於固定輪。

7.3.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.3.1.1 Secure the caster(s) to the test fixture.

將小腳輪鎖緊於測試儀器。

7.3.1.2 Apply the load to the test fixture so it is centered over and supported by the

caster(s).

提供測試儀器一個裝載物,使其位於中心並且可以被小腳輪支撐著。

7.3.1.3 Attach a measuring device to the test fixture to indicate the force required to

move the caster(s).

安裝一個測量裝置於測試儀器上,使其可以指示出移動輪子所需要的力量。

7.3.1.4 Orient the caster(s) so that the wheel(s) are aligned with the direction of travel.

訂定小腳輪的方向,使其於運行時可以維持一個直線。

7.3.1.5 Apply a gradual force to the fixture in line with the direction of travel while

watching the wheel(s) of the caster(s) for rotational movement. Record the peak

force (Start-rolling force) required to begin rotation of the caster(s) wheel(s).

於輪子在做轉動時,於其運行的方向一直線上,對儀器施加一個漸強的力量,並紀錄下可以使輪子開始轉動的最小力量。

7.3.1.6 Continue applying force until the caster(s) rolls freely and the measured reading stabilizes. Read the measuring device and record the force (Keep-rolling force)

required to maintain the movement of the caster(s).

持續供給小腳輪力量,直到小腳輪開始順利的轉動,且測量到的讀數穩定。將測量到的可以使輪子持續運轉的力量做記錄。

7.3.1.7 Repeat "Test Procedure" steps 7.3.1.3 through 7.3.1.6 for a minimum of three trials, averaging the results.

將7.3.1.3到7.3.1.6的測試過程做至少三次的測驗,並取其平均值。

7.3.1.8 Orient the caster(s) so that the wheel(s) are perpendicular to the direction of

travel.

將輪胎訂定方向,使其可以與運行的方向垂直。

7.3.1.9 Apply gradual force to the fixture in line with the direction of travel. Record the

peak force (Swivel force) as the caster(s) swivels to align with the direction of

travel.

於其運行的方向一直線上,對儀器施加一個漸強的力量,並紀錄下可以使輪子運行時可以維持一個直線的旋轉力量。

7.3.1.10 Repeat "Test Procedure" steps 7.3.1.8 and 7.3.1.9 for a minimum of three trials, averaging the results.

將7.3.1.8及7.3.1.9的測試過程做至少三次的測驗,並取其平均值。

7.3.2 Acceptance Criteria 標準接受度

7.3.2.1 Caster must roll and swivel smoothly.

小腳輪必須要能夠平順的滾動及轉動。

7.3.2.2 Actual values for the rolling and swivel forces are application spec ific and can be determined by the customer and the caster supplier.

滾動及轉動的實際力量是被特定運用的,並且可以被消費者及供應商決定其大小。

7.4 Electrical Re sistance Test 電阻測試

The objective of this test is to establish procedures for testing and identifying electrostatically conductive wheels and casters and to establish the maximum surface electrical

resistance of a wheel and/or caster.

這個測試的目的是在確立實驗過程,並且鑑定出導電輪,接著在找出輪子表面的最大電阻。

7.4.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.4.1.1 The tread surfaces shall be cleaned and dried by any method that removes wax

and dirt, but does not alter the tread surface.

踏板的表面必須要是乾淨的、乾燥的。可以用任何不破壞表面的方法來清理胎面上的蠟以及髒汙。

7.4.1.2 The test room shall have a mean temperature of 68-72°F (20-22°C) and a

relative humidity of less than 80%.

進行測試的房間必須要維持20-22°C,且相對溼度要低於80%。

7.4.1.3 The caster being tested must be maintained under these conditions for a

minimum of 24 hours prior to the test.

在作測試前,小腳輪必須置放在上述的環境中至少24小時。

7.4.1.4 The wheel shall be tested while supporting a load of 25% of its load capacity.

The caster to be tested shall be rolled onto a clean, dry, flat metal plate. The

metal plate and the mounting plane (2.5.8) of the caster shall form the electrodes

for the test. The resistance between electrodes shall be measured by any

resistance measuring apparatus of a suitable range. The wheel shall be rotated

and measurements taken at 5 separate points of contact, averaging the values.

這個實驗必須於輪子有最大載重的25%的載重下進行,並且於一個乾淨、乾燥、並平坦的金屬表面上做測試。測試用的電及必須由金屬板及小腳輪的托架產生。必須要安裝一個測量電阻的儀器,以測得電極間的電阻。在測試過程中,輪子必須旋轉,並且測量五個不同的接觸點,接著再取其平均值。

7.4.2 Acceptance Criteria 標準接受度

Electrical resistance categories are defined below:

電阻分類為以下數種:

7.4.2.1 Conductive less than 105 ohms. All conductive wheels are to have a yellow dot permanently affixed to the wheel surface, excluding tread, to indicate

conductivity.

導電性低於十的五次方ohms。所有導電性輪子必須在輪表面和踏板貼上黃色小點,以表示它的導電性。

7.4.2.2 Static dissipative less than 107 ohms and more than 105 ohms.

靜電分散高於十的五次方ohms,且小於十的七次方ohms。

7.4.2.3 Insulation shall be greater than 107 ohms.

絕緣體必須能夠杜絕大於十的七次方ohms的電量。

7.4.3 This test does not guarantee that the level of conductivity indicated during the testing will be achieved in application. The manufacturer is not responsible for any change, either

loss or gain in conductivity due to, but not limited to, accumulation of dirt, wax, or foreign materials on the wheel.

這個測試並不保證能夠成功的將實驗結果時限於實際運用上。製造商並不需要爲任何的改變負責,包括減少或增加導電率。但灰塵及蠟的堆積及外來的材料並不在限制範圍內。

7.5 Wheel Brake Efficiency Te st 輪子煞車效果測試

The objective of this test is to determine the performance of a wheel-braking device.

The brake designs will be tested per the following criteria: tread compression (a braking device that applies a friction force to the tread); hub compression (a braking device that applies a friction force to the hub); positive locking (a braking device that incorporates interlocking features).

這個測試的目的是要測驗輪子煞車系統的功效。這個測試使用以下的幾種標準來做測試:胎面壓縮(一個可以提供胎面摩擦力的煞車裝置);軸長壓縮(一個可以提供軸摩擦力的煞車裝置);正向鎖(一個包含連鎖裝置的煞車系統)。

7.5.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.5.1.1 Place the caster on a horizontal surface free from visible dirt.

將小腳輪放置於一個沒有灰塵的水平面上。

7.5.1.2 Apply a load equal to the load capacity of the caster to the mounting plane

(2.5.8).

於小腳輪的托架上提供一個相同於裝載量的重量。

7.5.1.3 Perform the Rollability Test. Note the start-rolling force.

進行滾動能力測試,並紀錄能使輪子開始滾動的最小力量。

7.5.1.4 Engage the brake.

踩下煞車。

7.5.1.5 Gradually apply the horizontal force (Refer to Table 2) plus the start-rolling force

from the Rollability Test in line with the running direction of the wheel.

漸漸的施加一個水平的力量,並與一開始做滾動能力測試的滾動力量結合,共同施加於與輪子滾動同方向的一直線上。

7.5.1.6 Maintain the horizontal force for 10 seconds. If during application of the horizontal force the wheel slides, change the surface to a material with a higher coefficient of friction and repeat the test.

將水平的力量維持十秒鐘。若於施加水平力量的期間,輪子產生滑動,則必須更換更高摩擦係數的表面的材質,並重複的做測試。

7.5.1.7 Repeat Test Procedure steps 7.5.1.4, 7.5.1.5, and 7.5.1.6 applying the horizontal

force in the opposite direction. With the brake engaged and applying the

horizontal force, the wheel must not roll.

將實驗步驟7.5.1.4,、7.5.1.5和7.5.1.6重複一遍,但將水平施力方向改變成相反方向。同樣的,於水平力量施加時採下煞車,輪子亦不能滾動。

7.5.2 Acceptance Criteria 標準接受度

Table 2

Minimum Brake Holding Force

Brake Design % of Load Capacity

Tread compression 7%

Hub compression 4%

Positive locking 20%

Note: Data for Table 3 based on polyurethane wheels (Consult manufacturer on data on

other tread materials).

7.6 Braking and/or Locking Device Fatigue Test 煞車及鎖定裝置的疲勞測試

This test is to determine if there is any wear and/or permanent deformation that would adversely affect the performance of a braking and/or locking device.

This test is not applicable to braking and/or locking devices based on a threaded mechanism.

這個測試的目的是要測出任何的磨損及永久性的變形有沒有可能對輪子的煞車及鎖定造成不利的影響。這個測試並不能應用於螺紋的煞車及鎖定機械裝置。

7.6.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.6.1.1 Install the brake and/or locking device into an apparatus that cycles the actuating mechanism through a full "on" and "off" cycle.

將煞車及鎖定裝置安裝於一個儀器內,使其經歷一個完整的”on”跟”off”的程序。

7.6.1.2 Brake holding power shall be checked before and after the fatigue test (refer to

Wheel Brake Efficiency Test).

疲勞測試結束時,煞車的裝置力量必須要做測試(根據輪子煞車效果測試)。

7.6.2 Acceptance Criteria 標準接受度

5,000 locking actions performed with no permanent deformation occurring that would adversely affect the performance of the locking device.

5000個鎖定的動作於不造成永久性損壞的情況下產生,會對鎖定系統造成一些不利的影響。7.7 Static Test 靜電測試

The objective of this test is to determine a minimum factor of safety and to determine the

load that the caster can support without causing permanent deformation that would

impair the function of the caster.

這個測試的目的是在測試安全所需的最小要素,並且決定小腳輪的最大承載量(在輪子永久變形且影響輪子的功能前)。

7.7.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.8.1.1 Apply a compressive load equal to 4 times the load capacity of the individual

caster through the mounting plane (2.5.8) for a period of 1 minute.

將一個相當於四倍承載量的壓縮重量裝載到一個單一輪子的托架上,並維持一分鐘。

7.8.1.2 Examine the caster for damage or permanent deformation.

檢查小腳輪是否有任何的損壞或永久性的變形。

7.7.2 Acceptance Criteria 標準接受度

The swivel and wheel bearings shall rotate freely and the parts shall be free from defects, which would impair caster function.

輪子及轉環的軸必須要能夠自由的旋轉,且其零件必須要完整,使其不會有任何功能上的損失。

7.8 Dynamic Te st 力學測試

7.8.1 Dynamic Test –Industrial Casters at or under 2.5 mph 力學測試-工業用小腳輪時速為每小時等於或低於2.5英哩。

The objective of this test is to establish operational load capacity for industrial casters at

or under 2.5 mph and to establish the maximum load that can be carried during operation

and pass the following test procedure with no functional impairment to the caster.

這個測試的目的是要測出當工業用小腳輪時速每小時等於或低於2.5英哩時,其可承受的最大承載量。以及測試出當操作時,能夠使輪胎保持完整不損壞情況下的最大承載量。

7.8.1.1 Test Procedure 測試過程

7.8.1.1.1 The running speed will be 2.0 mph (3.2 km/hr).

運轉的時速為每小時2.0英哩。

7.8.1.1.2 The obstacle height shall be:

障礙物的高度必須為:

1/8" (3.2 mm) for wheels up to and including 6" (150 mm) in

diameter.

3/16" (4.8 mm) for wheels greater than 6" (150 mm) in diameter.

7.8.1.1.3 The number of obstacles for a plate mount will be 10,000.

托架板測試障礙物的數量必須為10,000個。

7.8.1.1.4 The number of obstacles for a stem mount will be 500.

托架桿測試障礙物的數量必須為500個。

7.8.1.1.5 Remove the obstacles after 500 crossings and continue the test.

測試進行500個次之後,將障礙物移除,再繼續測試。

Note: To calculate the total test time (T in hours), use T = 2.98 times the test drum or table diameter (in feet).

進行總時間統計時,將T的數值以2.98計算,乘以測試轉輪或桌子的直徑。

7.8.1.1.6 The test cycle shall be:

測試的循環必須為:

Run: 2 minutes minimum

運轉時間最短必須為兩分鐘。