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cathode materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

cathode materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

cathode materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

journal homepage: http://www.wendangku.net/doc/8c8b27b73186bceb19e8bbb5.html /locate/nanoenergy

Available online at http://www.wendangku.net/doc/8c8b27b73186bceb19e8bbb5.html

OPINION

Cathode materials for next generation

lithium ion batteries

Jiantie Xu a,b,Shixue Dou b,n,Huakun Liu b,Liming Dai a,nn

a Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering,School of Engineering,

Case Western Reserve University,Cleveland,OH44106,USA

b Institute for Superconducting and Electroni

c Materials,University of Wollongong,Wollongong,

NSW2522,Australia

Received22May2013;accepted23May2013

Available online28June2013

KEYWORDS

Greenhouse gas emis-

sions;

Energy conversion and

storage;

Cathode materials;

Lithium ion batteries;

Electric vehicles

Abstract

The recent progress and future development of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries have

been critically reviewed in this article.We have given some critical opinions and rational ideas

regarding the development of cathode materials to dramatically reduce the cost and increase

the efficiency of future lithium ion batteries,which will revolutionize the way for transporta-

tion and affect many aspects of our lives.

&2013Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.

The world energy consumption,along with CO2emission,

has been increasing exponentially during the past50years

or so.As we become more aware of greenhouse gas

emissions(GHG,such as CO2and CH4)and their detrimental

effects on our planet,it has become more important than

ever to develop clean and renewable energy systems,such

as solar cells,fuel cells,batteries,and wind power gen-

erators.Being powered largely by burning fossil fuels,

transportation vehicles,including automobiles,ships,air-

planes,and spacecrafts,are among the primarily sources for

the GHG[1].The inevitably increasing fuel shortage,along

with the public awareness of‘greenhouse’effects,has

made it highly desirable to develop electric vehicles(EVs,

hybrid electric vehicles(HEVs)and/or plug-in hybrid elec-

tric vehicles(PHEVs)),instead of fossil fuel vehicles,with a

low GHG emission.However,commercial applications of EVs

will not be realized if advanced energy storage systems with

an efficient energy saving and emission reduction cannot be

successfully developed[2].

With no moving parts or noise and virtually without any

pollution,batteries can convert chemical energy directly

into electricity.They require little upkeep for potential

large-scale applications.Among the entire battery family,

several battery types,including lead acid(LA)batteries,

nickel metal hydride(NiMH)batteries,and lithium ion

batteries(LIBs),have great potential for EV applications.

Although the current vehicle market is dominated by LA and

NiMH batteries,the LIBs have received intensive research

and development focus because of their high energy density,

long cycle life,and superior environmental friendliness[3]. 2211-2855/$-see front matter&2013Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.

cathode materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/8c8b27b73186bceb19e8bbb5.html /10.1016/j.nanoen.2013.05.013

n Corresponding author.

nn Corresponding author.Tel.:+12163684176;

fax:+12163684204.

E-mail addresses:shi_dou@uow.edu.au(S.Dou),

liming.dai@case.edu(L.Dai).

Nano Energy(2013)2,439–442