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选修8 —名词性从句

主语从句

Step1:找出下列各句的主语

1. You are a student

2. A tree has fallen across the road.

3. Smoking is bad for you.

4. To find your way can be a problem.

Step 2:找出下列各句的主语。

1.That she was chosen made us very happy.

2.Who will go to the concert is not known.

3.Whether she will come or not is still a question.

4.Why dinosaurs died out remains a puzzle.

5.How they will solve the serious problem today has not been decided.

6.What surprised me most was that the little girl could play the violin so well.

7.It’s strange that he knows nothing about it.

8.It is a pity that she has made such a mistake.

9.It is said that President Hu Jingtao will visit our school next week.

[小结归纳]主语从句的引导词有

Step3:用适当的词填空,使句子意思完整。

1. ______ he didn’t attend the meeting yesterday wasn’t quite clear.

2. The Foreign Minister said, “It is our hope ______ the two sides will work towards peace.”

3. ______ comes to the party will receive a present.

4. It’s reported ______ three people were killed in the accident and five were hurt badly.

5. ______ he solved the problem successfully interested all of us.

6. We usually think ______ we can’t get seems better than what we have.

7. It is a fact ______ English is being accepted as an international language.

Step4: 翻译下列句子

1.Whether he can finish the task successfully is uncertain.

2.It is necessary that everybody has a dictionary.

3.Who killed the scientist is still( remains) a puzzle.

4.Whatever you said may do harm to others.

5.It is probable that he has forgotten our appointment today.

宾语从句(The Object Clause)

(一)定义及结构

1.宾语从句的概念:宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语

2.句子结构:主句+连词(引导词)+ 宾语从句

3.如:I know him . (简单句)

主语谓语宾语

I know who he is . (复杂句)

主语谓语连词从句主语从句谓语

主句从句

4.引导词

连接词:that; whether,if;

连接代词:who; whom; whose ; which; what ; whatever; whoever等

连接副词:when; where; why; how

(二)宾语从句的引导词

1. 当宾语从句是陈述句时(包括肯定句和否定句),连词由that引导,因为that 在从句中不作任何成分,也没有任何具体意思,因此在口语或非正式文体中常省略

Lin Tao feels (that) his own team is even better.

在主句为动词be加某些形容词(如sorry, sure, afraid, glad,ashamed,proud,pleased,satisfied,confident等)作表语时,后面所跟的省略that的从句也可算是宾语从句。

I’m sorry (that) I don’t know.

2. 当宾语从句是一般疑问句时,由连词whether或if引导(口语中常用if),因为if/whether翻译成:“是否”,具有一定的意义,所以不能省略;如果从句中有

or或or not,则只能用whether不能用if

Lily wanted to know if /whether her grandma liked the handbag.

I don't know whether she will come or not.

当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时,由连接代词(what, who, whom, which, whose)或连接副词(when, where, how, why)引导,因为连接代词或连接副词在从句中担任一定的句子成分,具有一定的意义,所以不可以省略

I don’t know why he looks so sad.

I asked him where I could borrow so much money.

Do you know what time the plane leaves?

Pay attention to:

带how的词组也都可以引导宾语从句

Could you tell us how much it costs to fly to Hainan?

Could you tell us how often you go abroad for a holiday?

Could you tell us how long the meeting will last?

4.“it”作形式宾语

“it”作形式宾语,代替宾语从句。这是为了保持句子结构平衡。

She took it for granted that her son would study medicine. 她想当然地认为她儿子

会学医的。

She has made it clear that she wasn’t responsible for the accident. 她澄清了她不对

这个事故负责。

We think it important that everyone should obey the traffic regulation. 我们认为人人遵守交通规则是非常重要的。

即学即练

1. The young man asked _____ it's summer or winter.

A. either

B. that

C. weather

D. whether

2. We don't know ______ they did it.

A. how

B. who

C. what

D. which

3. The teacher asks us ____ Jim can come back on time.

A. that

B. if

C. when

D. what time

4. I wonder _______ he is crying now.

A. that

B. why

C. how

D. when

5.

The chairman thought ___ necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting .(05全国)

A. that

B. it

C. this

D. him

(三) 宾语从句的时态

1. 如果主句是现在的时态(包括一般现在时,现在进行时,现在完成时),从句的时态可根据实际情况而定,(包括一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,现在完成时等)

I know he lives here.

I know he lived here ten years ago.

I have heard that he will come tomorrow.

2.如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时),那么从句的时态一定要用相对应的过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)

I knew who lived here.

I saw she was talking with her mother.

He asked whether his father would come back tomorrow.

He said that he had seen it.

3.当从句是客观真理,定义,公理,定理时用一般现在时。

The teacher said that the sun travels around the earth.

即学即练

1.He asked me _______.

A. where did Mr. Green live C. where Mr. Green lived

B. where Mr. Green lives D. where did Mr. Green lived

2. When I was very young, my teacher told me__________.

A. the earth went around the sun C. the earth goes around the sun

B. the earth was going around the sun D. the earth had gone around the sun

3.---Could you tell me__________? ---Yes, he__________ to USA.

A. where he is; has gone C. where is he; has been

B. where he was; has gone D. where was he; has been

(四)宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

当宾语从句的引导词是who, which, what, when, where, how, why 等表疑问时,

不能按正常语序安排,经常将这类引导词置于句首

Pay attention to:

1.could / would是委婉语气,而不是过去式,因此宾语从句的时态根据实际情

况用不同时态。

Could you please tell me where we show our tickets?

Could you tell us which gate we have to go to?

Would you like to know when he will come back?

2.如果主句的谓语动词是ask时,连词不可能是that;如果主句的谓语动词是

say时,连词用that

She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk.

He said (that) he was going to take care of the child.

3.如果从句中含有or或or not时,只能用whether而不用if

Could you tell me whether that’s a fast train or not?

Do you know whether he is right or not?

I don’t care whether he’ll stay here or not.

4.连词if 和when 在不同从句中的区别:

Do you know if ______back next week? If he ______ back, please let me know. C A. he comes , will come B. will he come , comes

C. he will come , comes

D. he will come , will come

选修8 —名词性从句

1. I don’t know when he _________ (come).

2. I can’t wait here any more. When he _______ (come), please let me know.

3.Would you please ask him (call)me ?

5.连词+宾语从句连词+to do

I don’t know what I shall do next.

I don’t know what to do next.

She didn’t decide which one she would choose.

She didn’t decide which one to choose.

Please tell me whom you’ll give the letter to.

Please tell me whom to give the letter to.

表语从句

(一)定义

1.定义:在复合句中做系动词的表语的从句叫做表语从句。

2.引导词:

连接词:that; whether ; as if ; as though

连接代词:who; whom; whose ; which; what

连接副词:when; where; why; how ; because

(二)表语从句引导词注意事项

1.that引导表语从句时不能省

2.if不能引导表语从句

3.除that外的所有引导词都有自己的意义

4.除that, whether外的所有引导词都须在从句中充当相应的成分

连接词用法:

1)that在表语从句中既不充当成分,又没有意义。

The fact is that he hasn’t recovered from illness yet.

2)whether在表语从句中表“是否” ,但不充当句子的成分。

What the doctor really doubts is whether my mother will recover from the serious disease soon.

3)what在表语从句中充当主语、宾语或表语表示“什么,什么样子,或所…的(人或事)”.

The question is what caused the accident.

That mountain is no longer what it used to be.

What he told you was what had been discussed at the meeting.

4)who在表语从句中充当主语、宾语或表语表示“谁”.

The problem is who could do the work

My trouble is who (whom) I can turn to.

5)which在引导表语从句时,常充当定语, 表语表示“其中哪一个”。

I read about it in some book or another, but what I don’t know which (book) it is.

6)由as if ,as though引导表语从句,表示好像。句子中的系动词常用look, appear, seem等。

It looks as if it is going to rain.

The young man with long hair looks as if he were a girl.

7)当主句的主语为reason, 或者是由wh y引导的从句时,与它们相关的表语从句用that来引导,而不能由because引导; because 引导表语从句时只能用于It/That/This is /was because…句型中.

The reason why I was late was that I missed the train.

I was late. It/That/This was because I missed the train.

8) 当表语从句中主语、宾语、表语具备,但是还是要表示疑问含义,可以判断句子中缺少状语,常常用相应的特殊疑问词引导,有why, when, where, how等This is how he did it.

That is why the brothers wanted to make a bet.

That’s why we’ve give n you the letter.

即学即练

1.________he really means is ________he disagrees with us.

A. What … that

B. That … what

C. What …what

D. That … what

2. The energy is ________ makes the cells able to do their work.

A. that

B. which

C. what

D. such

3. See the flags on top of the building? That was ______ we did this morning. (06 全国)

A. when

B. which

C. where

D. what

4. She looked _________ she were ten years younger.

A. that

B. like

C. as

D. as though

5. What I want to know is ______ he likes the gift given by us.

A. that

B. if

C. whether

D.不填

6. The reason why he failed is ________he was too careless.

A. because

B. that

C. for

D. because of

(三)表语从句的总结性句型

1.)The +名词(problem, truth, fact, etc) be +that 从句

The fact is that he is never late for school.

He didn’t read last month. The reason is that he didn’t have spare time.

The reason why he didn’t read much last month is that he didn’t have spa re time. 2. )This /That is +从句(where/how/why/because.....)

That is where he worked before moving to Beijing.

He failed the exam last week. That is because he fell ill.

He fell ill last week. That is why he failed the exam last week.

3.)主语从句be+ 表语从句

What I know is that he is honest and responsible.

同位语从句

一、概念

所谓同位语,是指跟在某些名词的后面,对前者做进一步的解释、说明、补充和概括,但不对前者起修饰作用的一种句子成分。

Step 1: 找出下列句子中的同位语

1. The youngest boy, Peter, refused to accept the money.

2 That’s her habit, reading in bed.

3. Your suggestion, to strike while the iron is hot, seemed a good idea.

4. Yesterday I met Tom, a friend of my brother's.

Step 2:划出下列句子中的同位语从句

1.The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at home is often discussed.

2. We are not looking into the question whether he is worth trusting.

3. The question whether to confess or not troubled the girl.

4. The news that our team has won the game was true.

5. I have no idea where I should go.

6. I have no idea how I can get to the railway station.

7. The suggestion that she should stay in the room is good.

[小结归纳]主语从句的引导词有:

一、同位语从句相当于名词,属于名词性从句,它是对前面名词内容的具体表述,它们之间的关系是同位关系。

二、同位语从句常跟在news, fact, promise, idea, word, message, hope, truth, answer, proposal, suggestion, order, information 等少数名词之后,而一般名词之后都可跟定语从句。

Step 3.巩固练习

1. The fact she works hard is well known to us all.

2. He often asked me the question the work was worth doing.

3. The news I have passed the exam is true.

4. The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school.

5. He didn't give the answer the question why he was late.

6. There is a question where we should go.

7. The fact that he failed in the exam made his parents very angry.

8. I have no idea when he was killed.