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读后续写和概要写作

新高考英语作文新题型——概要写作,怎样科学备考?

概要写作题型特点

概要写作(summary),《牛津高阶英语词典》(第8 版)对它的定义如下:“A summary is a brief statement that gives only the main points of something not the details”。也就是要求考生在整体把握原文的前提下,用自己简洁、精练的语言,对原文的主旨大意进行高度的浓缩,写出一篇语义连贯的短文,也可称之为摘要。这一题型一方面考查学生通过阅读获取文章主旨大意和关键词的能力,另一方面也考查学生的写作能力即用简洁的语言概括文章重要信息的能力以及对文章整体结构的把握能力。因此,概要写作是基于阅读理解和书面表达的,是二者的有机结合体,是阅读理解和书面表达的沟通桥梁。

从《考试说明》上对概要写作的评分原则以及各档次的给分范围和要求的规定中,我们可以发现概要写作有以下特点:

客观性:概要写作其实是一种客观的复述,在正确理解原文的基础上,用自己的语言忠实地再现作者的思想,写作内容要全面,既不能漏掉任何要点,也不能随意增加内容;写作时要尽可能避免使用原文中的字句。考生应通过释义的方式,用自己的语言呈现原文主要内容。需要注意的是,考生不能对原文进行解释和评论,也不能掺杂任何个人想法,或做出任何评判,因此不能出现“I believe”, “I think”等字句。

简洁性:简洁是概要写作的一个显着特点。概要写作是一种对原文“浓缩”后产生的新语篇,通过删除原文中的细节减少例证,简化描述内容以及去除重复来实现语言的简洁性,但是简洁的同时还要做到意义的完整。

连贯性:概要写作并不是写提纲那样只是要点的罗列。写概要时,必须在各要点之间增加一些体现逻辑的关系词,使概要衔接紧密、脉络清晰。写出的概要读起来要完整连贯、独立成篇。

分析把握评分原则

《考试说明》中关于概要的评分原则中第一条:本题总分为25分,按5个档次给分;评分时,先根据所写概要的内容和语言初步确定其所属档次,然后以该档次的要求衡量、确定或调整档次,最后给分。其中最高档次第五档(21-25分)的给分描述如下:理解准确,涵盖全部要点;能准确使用相应的语法结构和词汇;有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,使所完成的概要结构紧凑;完全使用自己的语言。

根据以上的评分原则,我们该如何正确把握概要写作呢?下面以《考试说明》中概要写作的样题为例:阅读下面短文,然后用60个单词左右概括短文的要点。?

Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt.

In the early 16th century, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was thought to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out.

Though the belief in the advantage of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18th century. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War Ⅱ. Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea; clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far?

Attitudes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays. Many first-time parents nervously try to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease. On the contrary, Mary Ruebush, an American immunologist (免疫学家), encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system. And the latter position is gaining some reason.

首先通过阅读我们知道文章一共有4段,它按照时间的顺序、总-分的方式来陈述人们在不同时期对于“dirt”的不同观点,即Attitudes towards dirt have been changing over time。文章第一段的第二句是全文的主旨,

第二、三、四段都是在不同时期人们对于“dirt”的不同看法,基本可以确定attitudes、dirt和time为全文的关键词。其中第二段是讲在16世纪,欧洲一些国家特别是英法两国中的皇室贵族们对于“dirt”的态度;第三段是讲在18世纪时,人们对于“dirt”态度发生的变化;第四段则是讲述现在人们虽然仍对“dirt”持有不同的观点,但是却有越来越多的人认为playing in the dirt help people build a strong immune system。通过梳理整合这些要点,可以得出文章的概要。

浙江省英语教研员葛炳芳老师在关于新高考读后续写和概要写作的指导性讲座中,分享了自己写的样题的概要范文:

Attitudes towards dirt have been changing over time. In the 16th century, people believed that dirt on the skin helped protect against disease. Since the 18th century, however, people have developed the belief that cleaning away dirt can prevent disease. Today, although attitudes to dirt still differ sharply, more and more people choose to believe that playing in the dirt can help build up a strong immune.(60 words)

对照上述评分原则,可以发现此范文:(1)精确地表达了文本所有4个要点,并且对文本的内容进行了归纳、提炼和整合;(2)准确地使用了相应的语法结构和词汇,例如在表达“持有某种观点”这一意思的时候,选用了三个不同的表达方法“believe”,“develop the belief”,“choose to believe”,避免了重复;(3)上下文之间用了恰当的连接词“however”,“although”等,使行文紧凑浑然一体;(4)对文中的要点运用语义转换,完全使用自己的语言来表达;例如要点1用Attitudes towards dirt have been changing代替原文第一段的第二句话there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt;要点2用protect against disease 代替block out against;要点3中用prevent disease代替is good for health;要点4用today代替nowadays,用sharply代替hugely,用more and more people choose to believe 代替gaining some ground;(5)全文60词,非常符合词数要求。

四大写作步骤

概要写作是一项复杂的思维任务,要从一篇350词以内的短文中提炼出60词左右的内容概要,必须要掌握一定的方法,它要求写作者具有很高的阅读和重组技巧。因此,其写作过程也较为复杂,考生可以按照以下四个步骤进行:

Step 1 通读全文理解文本大意

概要写作是一种“阅读+写作”的复合性任务,是有效并真实测试考生语言综合运用能力的项目。第一遍通读全文,理解文本大意,可以帮助考生从宏观上把握文本的行文逻辑、篇章结构和主旨,为写作奠定基础。

Step 2 细读文本理清信息主次

概要写作的一个重要功能就是测试考生对所获信息进行整理、加工与概括的能力及策略。文章的重要内容是为了表明作者的写作目的或论证作者观点而使用的具体论据,具有高度的概括性,属于概要写作中的必要信息。而细节往往起到突出或强调等作用。写作时要把握文章的主次,分析原文的内容和结构。简明扼要地表述出文章的主要内容并注意结构上的先后顺序,同时要避免出现遗漏或胡乱增添要点的现象。

Step 3 梳理整合灵活表达要点

要点全面是评分的重要方面,在概要写作时只有把每段的大意都包括在内才能确保要点的全面。但是,要点全面不是把每段的段落大意简单地相加,而是需要我们对要表达的内容进行梳理,在梳理的基础上进行整合。为了避免使用原文句子,考生需要灵活采用同义词或近义词进行替换,用不同的句式进行转换。此外,为了用自己的语言写出准确连贯的概要,还需要对相关要点进行灵活调整,并用丰富的语言、灵活的句式进行表达。

Step 4 检查修改确定写作终稿

概要写作要求结构完整合理、语言表达规范。学生对要点进行梳理整合后,按顺序组合在一起就成了初稿。按照概要写作的评分标准,在文章完成之后还需要对其进行适当检查修改,这样才能成为终稿。除了检查要点是否齐全、观点是否与原文一致、各要点的衔接与过渡是否自然、词数是否符合要求这些重要的点以外,考生还需要注意书写规范、字迹工整、卷面整洁。

给教师的两点备考建议

纵观学生的习作,主要有三类问题:运用太多细节的内容而不是概括语言;没有包含文章的所有要点;没有完全用自己的语言来表达。针对这三个问题,在平时的教学中,教师要有的放矢地对学生进行训练和培养。

提高学生提取文章要点的能力

概要写作是基于原文理解对所读内容进行简要概述的过程。因此,扎实的阅读理解能力是基础,读懂、读透原文是第一要务,在这个过程中阅读策略是有力的保证。因此,教师要培养学生区分主要观点、事实与一般支撑性事实的技能,从而能概括出文本的主旨、要点和次要点,在写作时知道哪些是主要的,要保留,哪些是不太重要的,可以忽略;要培养学生辨识文段主旨及其发展脉络的能力,从而把握文本的整体框架,写作时能做到层次分明、条理清楚;要培养学生识别文体特征的能力,知道不同文体的不同谋篇布局、遣词造句等特征,从而能更好地理解文本并根据其特征写出与之相匹配的概要。

提取文章要点、次要点及关键词或词组的方法主要有两种:取舍法,即在原文上用下划线标出重点内容、关键词句,划掉与中心大意不紧密的内容;列提纲法,即按原文的层次结构,将文章的中心大意、要点、次要点都用自己的语言逐一列出,以便组织概要。

培养学生灵活释义转述的能力

概要写作要求学生在表达时完全使用自己的语言,而学生在习作中往往不能做到这一点,究其原因在于语言基础薄弱,词汇积累不够以及句法知识掌握不全面。夯实学生语言基础首先要扩大学生的词汇量,让学生了解这些词的用法,同时要培养学生的释义转述能力。学生要想通顺地释义句子,首先必须对原句有透彻的理解,然后用自己熟悉的词汇、句型加以表达。概要写作的释义转述方法我们可以从以下5个方面来对学生进行训练:改变语序;转化词性;反义表达;同义词语代替;改变句子结构。只有当学生在平时积累并学会了熟练使用这些释义转换能力,才能在考场上游刃有余地发挥。同时,在日常翻译练习中,教师也可有意识地引导学生一句多译,增强语言运用的灵活性;也可以让学生多练习句型转换这种题型。

新高考英语作文新题型——读后续写,如何有效复习?

读后续写是新高考英语科目中的新题型,很多同学仍不太熟悉。今天,浙考微君邀请资深阅卷老师从2016年10月英语首考的真题切入,教大家如何复习。

首考真题回放

第二节读后续写

阅读下面短文,根据所给情节进行续写,使之构成一个完整的故事。

One weekend in July, Jane and her husband, Tom, had driven three hours to camp overnight by a lake in the forest. Unfortunately ,on the way an unpleasant subject came up and they started to quarrel .By the time they reached the lake ,Jane was so angry that she said to Tom,“I’m going to find a better spot for us to camp” and walked away.

With no path to follow ,Jane just walked on for quite a long time .After she had climbed to a high place ,she turned around ,hoping to see the lake .To her surprise ,she saw nothing but forest and ,far beyond ,a snowcapped mountain top .She suddenly realized that she was lost.

“Tom! ”she cried. “Help! ”

No reply .If only she had not left her mobile phone in that bag with Tom .Jane kept moving ,but the farther she walked ,the more confused she became .As night was beginning to fall ,Jane was so tired that she had to stop for the night .Lying awake in the dark ,Jane wanted very much to be with Tom and her family .She wanted to hold him and tell him how much she loved him.

Jane rose at the break of day, hungry and thirsty. She could hear water trickling(滴落)somewhere at a distance. Quickly she followed the sound to a stream. To her great joy, she also saw some berry bushes. She drank and ate a few berries. Never in her life had she tasted anything better. Feeling stronger now, Jane began to walk along the stream and hope it would lead her to the lake.

As she picked her way carefully along the stream, Jane heard a helicopter. Is that for me? Unfortunately, the trees made it impossible for people to see her from above. A few minutes later, another helicopter flew overhead. Jane took off her yellow blouse, thinking that she should go to an open area and flag them if they came back again.

But no more helicopters came and it was getting dark again.__________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

读后续写和概要写作

It was daybreak when Jane woke up. Weak as she was, she struggled to her feet, continuing searching for assistance. To her great joy, a helicopter was flying overhead again and again. Eager and excited, she flagged

her yellow blouse and spared no effort to yell so as to attract others’ attention. Fortunately, she was e ventually noticed and brought into the helicopter. There, she saw her husband, a man staring at her, wearing an expression of relief. As tightly as possible, she hugged him and was too thrilled to say anything. Besides, they agreed never to quarrel again, determining to live the life to the fullest.

【点评】

该篇作文在逻辑、语言方面做到了平衡、全面、出色。

首先,在逻辑上,该篇文章做到了合理合情:起初,主人公身陷森林,内心充满了悔恨,在面对困难时焦虑、畏惧;之后,主人公努力求生,最终获救,并且领悟到了一定的人生道理。纵观整个故事,情节发展不仅符合两段给出的开头所限定的情景要求,而且还设置了一定的悬念,增强了故事的可读性。

在语言上,这篇文章并没有一味采用大词、难词,而是在高中词汇范围内精挑细选,活用了许多小词,增加了许多阅读趣味。例如,文章第一句“an absolute darkness ruled the forest”中,“rule”一词就使用了拟人的修辞手法,让森林阴森黑暗的一面展露无遗,同时描绘出主人公身处绝境的紧迫性。在“Eager and excited, she flagged her yellow blouse...”一句中,直接将情绪形容词放在句首,使用了非谓语动词的语法,表达精练。

此外,“There, she saw her husband, a man staring at her, wearing an expression of relief.”一句中,使用了几个短句,却包含了两处非谓语动词语法,同时活用了“wear”一词,把两个人相见时的场景生动地描绘了出来。

总体来说,这篇文章反映出该考生课外阅读较多,平时应有较多练笔。

范例二

But no more helicopters came and it was getting dark again. Clusters of stars decorated the vast sky, weakly shining in the moon-eclipsed darkness. Rages and apprehension calmed down and exhaustions came

dominating Jane as she hopelessly fell down into the soft grass. The transparent stream sounded amusing and was no longer as infuriated as the stream of her mind hours ago. She thought about Tom, memories flooding out as she closed her eyes and recalled the kindness of him. Regretfully, she fell asleep, flower singing adhering to her ears (flowers’ singing adhering to her ears).

It was daybreak when Jane woke up. Sunshine embraced the forest plain, reflecting to bloom her yellow

blouse to be an attractive “flower”. In her sleepy eyes, a helicopter was right in the sky. Wild with joy, she jumped up, grabbing the blouse and flourishing it while crying. The helicopter spotted her and began to land on the grass.

“It’s Tom! I know he will, he will come!” A pair of astounded hand reached Jane’s cheek. “Where did you go? If something happened to you, I’ll always have it on my conscience.” They hugged more tightly. “I’m sorry.” Jane said.

【点评】

这篇文章最大的特色就是语言能力非常突出。

首先,全文使用了非常多的高级词汇,如“cluster, rage, dominate, infuriated”等等。这些词汇不仅准确地描绘出人物的动作,而且对环境描写也更为生动。不过,其词汇的使用也有一些只求大、不注意词义搭配自然程度的嫌疑,甚至有误用,如“adhere, flourish, astound”等。在修辞方面,文章多处使用拟人修辞手法,如“Clusters of stars decorated the vast sky, weakly shining in the moon-eclipsed darkness.”以及“Sunshine embraced the forest plain.”两句中,两个动词“decorate”,“embrace”使用了拟人。在语法上,全文主要使用非谓语动词,力求用最精练的语言表达出最生动的画面。

值得一提的是,文章虽然没有使用许多句式,但却从没给读者句子重复、单调的感觉,究其原因,是作者巧妙地给每句话设置了不同的主语。另外,本文每句话采用的写作切入角度也值得研究。例如,第一段中,作者从远景(stars, sky)到近景(stream),再到细节特写(ears),勾勒出了故事发生的不同场景,让故事显得有血有肉,情节丰满,这也成为了文章逻辑上的出彩点。

范例三

But no more helicopters came and it was getting dark again. Desperate and hopeless, Jane knelt down, tears streaming down her face. Never in her wildest dream had she thought that she would run into such serious trouble. However, she had no alternative but pace back and forth in the forest. It suddenly occurred to her that she had a family

读后续写和概要写作

读后续写和概要写作