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高等学校研究生英语系列教材 综合教程(上)熊海虹_B篇课文翻译第二单元

Unit 2 READING MORE

"Light, refined, learned and noble, harmonious and orderly, clear and logical, the cooking

of France is, in some strange manner, intimately linked to the genius of her greatest men."

--Marcel Rouff, French journalist and writer

A CUISINE CRISIS

1 What could be more French than an outdoor market on a sunny Sunday morning? The

air is filled with vital scents from the herbs and fruits and vegetables piled high in the

greengrocers' creative geometrics. A whiff of the Atlantic blows off the oysters on the

fishmongers' bed of ice. Wild game--hare, venison, boar--hangs from the butchers'

racks, sausages and cheeses are laid out to savor and smell.

有什么比晴朗的星期日早晨的一个户外市场更具法国特色?空气中弥漫着香草和水果散发出的气味,而且这些水果被水果商摆成各种有创意的图形。鱼贩的冰床上的牡蛎透露着一点点大西洋的痕迹。在肉贩的货架上挂出了一些野味:野兔、鹿肉和野猪,而一些香肠和奶酪的摆出使这个小摊更具一番风味。

2 This, you think, is the very essence of France, until you read those little signs that tell

you the tomatoes (which are really pretty tasteless) come from Moroccan hothouses,

the grapes from South Africa, kiwis from Chile and the haricot from Kenya. You can't

be sure where that boar bit the dust.

直到你读到那些小标识,即西红柿(相当无味的)产自摩洛哥的温室,葡萄酒产自南非,猕猴桃产自智利,扁豆产自肯尼亚。你认为这才是法国的精髓所在。

3 The congenial quaintness of the street market, in fact, draws directly on globalization.

Emile Zola once called "the belly of Paris", the rich, ripe, smelly center of the wholesale

food business, long since moved out of downtown to a cargo hub near Qrly airport.

Quite literally, that is now where a lot of French cooking begins--and, increasingly,

where the era of great French cuisine as something truly unique and exclusive to

France is slowly coming to an end.

街市上那些彼此相宜的稀奇古怪的事事实上是全球化的结果。这个富裕的、成熟的、难闻的被埃米尔.左拉称为“巴黎的肚子”的大型食品批发中心是很久以

前从市中心搬到奥利机场附近的。毫不夸张的说,这里是现在很多法国烹饪的开

始的地方,而且渐渐地伟大的法国烹饪时代(一些真正独具特色并专属法国的事物)就要结束了

4 For generations, the French have prided themselves on their distinctiveness. Nothing

has stood for France's sense of exceptionalism more famously than its cooking. Gallic

talent, taste and techniques have been exported all over the world. And therein lies part

to the problem. From the Napa Valley to the Thames and Tokyo, non-French cooks

have cracked the codes of the best French cuisine. Meanwhile, what was mediocre

elsewhere--albeit cheap and popular--has been imported. The result: Many tourists--

as well as the French themselves--no longer see what's so special about French

cooking.

4 长久以来,法国人一直为他们的与众不同感到骄傲。而能代表法国超凡特色、最负盛

名的就要数她的烹饪艺术了。高卢人的才智、品味和技术已经传播到世界各地,然而,一些问题也随之产生。从纳帕谷到泰晤士河再到东京,非法裔的厨师们破解了最上乘法式烹饪的秘笈。与此同时,其他地方一些尽管又便宜又流行但却不怎么上档次的烹制法也传入了法国。结果就是,很多游客——甚至法国人自己——都已经看不出法国烹饪有任何的特别之处了。

5 The decline goes well beyond recent surveys that show growing complaints about mediocre quality and high prices--no small concern in a country where tourisme gastronomique earned 18 billion euros in 2002, a quarter of all tourist revenues. More

and more restaurateurs say that government tax and economic policies are limiting

their profits, and thereby hurting their capacity to invest and hire more staff. They have become ensnarled in the red tape for which France is infamous--not to mention edicts

from Brussels that affect everything from sales taxes to the bacteria in the Brie.

5 最近的调查显示越来越多的人抱怨饭莱质量平平,价格昂贵,而法国烹饪的衰落还不

止于此。这在法国可不足个小问题,要知道2002年美食旅游为法国创收180亿欧元,占到全部旅游收入的1/4。越来越多的餐馆老板反映政府的税收和经济政策限制了他们的利润,也就影响了他们投资和雇佣更多人手的能力。束缚他们手脚的是令法国不那么光彩的繁琐拖拉的公事程序,更不要说那些来自欧盟的规定,从销售税到布里乳酪里含细菌的指标统统都在严格的掌控之中。

6 Not coincidentally, it was the French who taught the world that water has many very different, very marketable tastes. At the annual agricultural fair in Paris this spring,

visitors not only enjoyed sipping wines, but olive oils--one a little nutty, another quite

fruity, some of them, one is tempted to say, just a little impudent. Even table salt has

its distinctions, with fleur de sel, the thin layer collected on the surface of salt basins in

the Bordeaux region, now much appreciated. "France is one of those countries where

people can leave the table full and still be talking about food," jokes chef Yannick

Alleno, 35, who brought a new star to the restaurant of the Hotel Meurice this year. His

favorite specialty: sea bass sewn with golden threads.

6 绝非巧合的是,正是法国人教会全世界,水有多种迥异的口味,这些味道都可以卖个

好价钱。今年春天在巴黎一年一度的农业展销会上,游客们不仅可以细饮美酒,还可以品尝橄榄油。有的橄榄油稍带坚果的味道,有的水果味很重,还有一些,你会忍不

住说,味道还真有点冲。即使是餐桌上的食盐也有很多花样。一种名叫“盐之花”的盐现在很受欢迎,它是从波尔多地区盐场表层采来的薄层盐。 35岁的厨师亚尼克,阿勒诺开玩笑说:“在有些国家人们酒足饭饱离开餐桌后仍会接着谈论食物,法国就是其中之一。”亚尼克今年刚刚为莫里斯饭店的餐厅等级增加了一颗星。他的绝活是金线鲈鱼。

7

高等学校研究生英语系列教材 综合教程(上)熊海虹_B篇课文翻译第二单元

often spell s business disaster. Starred chefs

try to maintain the high standards that made their names.

7 然而法国烹饪真正令人啼笑皆非的是,至少在法国,烹饪艺术上的成功往往带来生意

高等学校研究生英语系列教材 综合教程(上)熊海虹_B篇课文翻译第二单元

上的灾难。星级厨师们为了保持他们得以成名的高标准,一般都会

8 Consider the value-added taxes that were "harmonized" all over Europe during

the 1990s. They benefit fast-food chains, since the tax on takeaway is only 5.5%

percent, while they penalize sit-down restaurants, whether humble bistro s or haute

cuisine, which pay 19.6%. When President Jacques Chirac ran for re-election in

2002, he promised to reduce the tax, but such is the nature of the new Europe that

all 25 countries will have to approve the measure for it to take effect--in 2006. The government is instituting other complicated tax breaks and stopgap measures in the meantime to try to calm the restive restaurateurs and in hopes of creating employment.

But (a starred chef) Daguin is deeply skeptical. "If the French were under the same

fiscal regime as the United States, we'd be able to create twice as many jobs," he says.

8 我们看看上个世纪90年代在整个欧洲被“统一”后的增值税。该税有利于快餐连锁

店,因为对外卖的征税只有5.5%,而传统餐馆则遭殃了,不管足低俗的小酒馆还是高

雅的餐厅都要交付19.6%的增值税。希拉克总统2002年竞选连任时曾保证要降低税率,但要使这一措施在2006年生效,必须得到欧盟所有25个成员国的同意。有什么办法呢,这就是新欧洲啊。政府现在正采取其他一些复杂的减税措施和权宜之计试图安抚焦躁不安的餐馆老板,并希望借此创造更多的就业机会。但是星级厨师达甘却对此深表怀疑,“要是法国人可以享受美国的财税制度,我们就能创造两倍的就业岗位了。

9 Strict labor laws restricting hiring, firing and temp-work also figure in the equation.

"Our business is a succession of high-stress times and quiet times," says Denis Meliet,

a former rugby player and a passionate restaurateur from Toulouse. When it comes

to employment, "the problem in France is that we have no flexibility whatsoever.

When we're busy it would be good if, like in England, we could hire a couple of extra

employees to help out." But the law makes that difficult.

9 另外,严格限制雇工、裁员和招临时工的劳动法也拖了后腿。“我们的生意忙一阵闲

一阵的,”来自图卢兹的德尼·梅列说道。德尼曾经是橄榄球运动员,现在则一门心思扑在他的饭馆上。当谈到就业问题时,他说:“法国的问题在于根本没有灵活性。如果在活多的时候能雇一些帮手来救急,就像在英国那样,那就好了。”但是法国的法

律很难允许这样做。

10 Even when government regulations appear specially formulated to support the culture

of cuisine, they often "go astray". The EU's Common Agricultural Policy, for instance,

is supposed to benefit small farmers, keep them on the land--and thus, you'd think,

nurture the terroir that gives French cooking its soul, and France much of its national

identity. But activist Brigitte Allain of the Confederation Paysanne, a farmer herself,

says the CAP, in fact, does just the reverse--favors quantity over quality. "In this

system," she says, "farmers are merely providers of staples whose sole requirement

(in order to receive generous EU subsidies) is to deliver the goods according to the

rules." "If our cuisine has prestige," says Allain, "it's because we have chefs who are

interested in good products. And we have good products because we still have a type

of agriculture that we call peasant agriculture9 alongside the factory farms. Notice I say

'still', because this agriculture may not last that long."

10 即便是一些看似专为扶持烹饪文化的政府规定,实施起来也往往事与愿违。例如,欧

盟的共同农业政策本该着眼于小农场主的利益,鼓励他们坚守阵地,从而悉心培育赋予法国烹饪灵魂和激发法国人国家认同感的土地。但是,法国农民联合会的活动家布丽吉特·阿兰认为,实际上,共同农业政策适得其反,因为它看重的是数量而非质量。

布丽吉特本人就是农民。她认为,“在这样的体制下,农民只不过是粮食的供应者,因为,(为了能得到欧盟慷慨的补贴)他们唯一要做的只是按照规定提交产品o”而那些规定对于质量和口味没有要求。“如果我们的烹饪能享誉全球,那是因为我们的厨师青睐优等货。我们有优等货,因为除了‘工厂农庄’,我们仍然有一种我们称之为‘小农农业’的农业形式。但注意我说的‘仍然’,因为这种农业可能维持不了多久了。”

1l As France's great chefs worry about staying in the avant-garde~~, with their gold threads and miraculous meringues, many small farmers and restaurateurs seem to be fighting

a rearguard action just to survive.

11 当法国的大厨们在担心能否凭借金线和蛋白夹心的烹饪手艺来保住法国菜在世界烹饪

中的领先地位时,许多小农场主和餐馆老板正在为生计而殊死拼搏。

12.The problems afflicting French cuisine are emblematic of those that plague the

economy as a whole. Like French cuisine, the French economy still holds the

occasional surprise: last week the government announced that economic growth for

2004 should be higher than expected. But the basic problems of bureaucracy, taxes and

social reluctance to change remain a burden for everyone. "At all levels--political,

social, cultural or biological--cooking is at the forefront of the great choices that we

have to make as a society," says Raymond Blanc, born in the Jura region of France and

chef of the two-star hotel restaurant Manoir aux Quat'Saisons.

12 造成法式烹饪衰落的原因同样也是造成法国经济整体不振的原因。如同法式烹饪,法

国经济仍时不时有惊人表现:上周法国政府宣布2004年经济增长将超出预期。然而官僚主义、税收以及不思变革的社会心理等问题是所有人都甩不掉的包袱。雷蒙·勃朗出生于法国汝拉地区,现为四季庄园两星级餐厅的厨师。他认为:“无论在什么层次——政治、社会、文化或者生物——烹调都是我们作为法国人这个社会整体必然做

出的首选。

13 Blanc believes France is still ahead of the rest of the world in the richness of its

cuisine, but for how long? "It's as if France stopped caring about its regions and what

gives them diversity," he says. France's problem isn't the lack of creativity, but rather

a political environment that stymies initiative. If you're choked by bureaucracy and

taxes, as so much of France is, "there's not much you can do," be adds. "I can open a

business in England in five days. In France it would take three months."

13 勃朗相信,就烹饪艺术的丰富性而言,法国仍处于世界领先地位,但还能维持多久呢?

他感慨道:“法国好像已不再注重不同地区的差别和它们各自的特色了。”法国的问题并不是缺乏创造性,而是它那种会扼杀主观能动性的政治环境。如果你被官僚层和税收制度压得透不过气来,而这样的情况法国到处都是,“你是没有什么办法的,”勃朗补充道,“在英国五天之内我的公司就可开张,但在法国这得需要三个月。”

Notes

1. Emile Zola was an influential French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism, an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France.

2. Napa Valley, located in California, USA, is famous for its wine, featuring more than three hundred wineries and grows many different grape varieties.

3. The phrase "tourisme gastronomique" is an expression in French, equivalent to "gourmet (有美食佳酿的) tourism" in English which relates to holidays focused on a region or country's cuisine.

4. Brussels is where the headquarters of EU (the European Union) is located. Here it is used to refer to EU.

5. The phrase "fleur de sel" means "flower of salt" in English. It is a hand-harvested sea salt collected by workers who scrape only the top layer of salt before it sinks to the bottom of large salt pans.

6. Bordeaux is a port city in southwest France, famous for wines.

7. Value-added tax, also known as Goods and Services Tax (G.S.T), Single Business Tax or Turnover Tax is applied to every operation that creates value in some countries.

8. The phrase "haute cuisine" refers to the cooking of the grand restaurants and hotels of the Western world. It is characterized by elaborate preparation and presentation; meals of small, often very rich

courses; extensive wine cellars; and large, hierarchical and efficiently run service staff.

9. Peasant agriculture is small family run farming different from large commercial farm factories.

It is characterised by distinctiveness and quality while farm factory production is

characterised

by mass production due to wide applications of machinery and high tech methods.

10. Here, "staying in the avant-garde" means being or remaining in the forefront of all that is new (in

cooking).