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阅读理解(4)词义猜测

阅读理解专练——词义猜测

肖飞

I.教学内容: 词义猜测题解题方法

II.教学目标:通过这堂课,学生能用所学到的方法,掌握词义猜测题的要领2014年高考大纲中关于阅读理解的要求要求考生读懂熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简短文字材料,例如公告、说明、广告以及书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章。考生以下能力:

1、理解主旨要义;

2、理解文中具体信息;

3、根据上下文推断生词的词义;

4、作出简单判断和理解;

5、理解文章的基本结构;

6、理解作者的意图和态度。

Part 1 自主探究

题目类型:对生词的猜测;对句义的猜测

一.词义猜测题常用的提问方式有:

1. The word “…” refers to / probably means / could best be replaced by _______.

2. The word “…” is most likely to mean ______.

3. What do you think the expression “…” stands for?

4. The underlined word “…” means ______

二.猜测词义的方法:构词法;语境法

1.Word Formation 构词法:

英语单词大多是由词根、词头(前缀)和词尾(后缀)所组成。词根是单词最基本的部分,表达单词的基本含义。在词根前或后加上前缀或后缀,可以用来引申或转变原词的意义。只要我们掌握了各种词根、词头和词尾的基本含义,那么就可以很容易猜测出由其构成的新词的含义了。

中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有:

super- (超) mini- (极小的, 微小的) micro-(极微小的)

re- (再,反复)mis-(误,恶)im-(不)

un-(不,非)in-(不,非)non-(不,非)

-able(能…的)-less(不,无)-wards (向)

Can you guess the meaning of the black words?

①Mary, of course you are overweight. You eat too much junk food. Even worse , you excercise infrequently.

②“Even when a man is said to be a best friend,” Rubin writes, “the two share little about their innermost feelings.”

③ With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence.

Word-formation (复合法,转化法,派生法)

1. It’s true that lighthouse were built in out-of-the-way place.

2. When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life?

3. When he reached the place with his army, he found an impassable river in front of him.

2.语境法:

(1).定义描述(2).同义反义(3).因果关系

(4).举例归纳(5).生活常识(6).上下推断

(1.)定义描述

木匠动物学家牧人夜班

① A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter.

②His uncle is a zoologist, an expert who does research on animals.

③The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.

④We are on the night shift --- from midnight to 8 a.m. --- this week.

灌溉有牙齿的

⑤ In some countries where there is very little rain, the farmers have to irrigate, or water, their fields.

⑥All whales fall into two groups, those with teeth and those without, Dolphins belong to odontoceti, that is to say, they are toothed whales.

小结:定义或释义关系常由定语从句或be called,be known as, be defined as等词汇或破折

号来表示;或由is, that is (to say), in other words,to put it another way引出一些具体的解释性的短语放在生词后做它的同位语,用逗号隔开,构成同位关系。

(2.)同义词

推迟圆胖的

①The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that was in effect last year.

②Mother was tall, fat and middle-aged. My aunt was an old woman, almost as plump as mother, and much shorter.

反义词

污秽的节约的

①Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby.

②John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things, his wife, however, is very thrifty.

混乱不同意天生的无辜的

③In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil.

④If you agree, write “ yes”; if you dissent,write “no”.

⑤Some human actions are learned, but quite a few other actions are innate.

⑥Although a large number of people considered him to have stolen the money, I was sure that he was innocent of the theft.

小结:由and或or,like ,as …as, the same as等连接的两个词构成同义关系;

表转折关系的词常有如but, while, however, instead of , rather than , unlike, yet, otherwise, though ,on the contrary等。

Example:“Unlike vitamin C, leadership skills can’t be easily swallowed down. They must be carefully cultivated.”

The underlined word roughly means ____.

A. encouraged

B. compared

C. examined

D. developed

(3)、因果关系

弹性的混浊的

①Rubber can be made to stretch more than nine times its normal length because it is very elastic.

②The river is so turbid that it is impossible to see the bottom even when it is shallow.

复制品精明的修剪

③Since I could not afford to purchase the original painting, I bought a replica. An inexperienced eye could not tell the difference.

④He’s such a shrewd businessman that he loses no money in any trade.

⑤She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long.

小结:常用关联词(如because,as,since,for,so,thus,as a result,so, so … that, such … that therefore等)表示前因后果。

Example:The homeless people may have become jobless and then been unable to pay their rent and so no longer have a roof over their heads.

“ a roof over their heads” most probably means ______.

A. a cap

B. a car

C. a home

D. a covering

(4.)举例归纳法

装置家禽

①Cars must have certain safety devices such as seat belt, headlights, and good brakes.

②On the farm they mainly raise poultry, such as chickens, ducks and geese, for their eggs and meat.

家电民俗

③The new couple bought a lot of household appliances , such as washing machine, fridge and microwave oven ect.

④Difined most broadly, folklore includes all the customes, belief and tradition that people have handed dowm from generation to generation.

小结:常用such as, like,for example, for instance等引出例子,可根据例子隶属的类别归纳出总称词即词义。

(5.)生活经验, 生活常识, 逻辑推理

麻药波纹膨胀冷缩

①When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anaesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him.

②When you throw a stone into still water of a lake, you will watch a ripple spread in rings on the surface of water.

③Metal expands when heated and contracts when cooled.

症状易挥发的颤抖

④One of symptoms caused by the peculiar illness is a high fever.

⑤Because this chemical liquid is highly volatile, we must keep it in a bottle which has a tight lid.

⑥In the strong wind, the beggar shivered with the terrible cold.

小结:根据自身的直接或间接的经验,或运用自己已有的常识将生词推测出来。因此平时多了解英美国家的风俗习惯,宗教信仰,社会生活等,可以帮助加深对文章的理解,遇到生词,猜测词义的能力自然就提高了。

(6.)上下推断

①Example:Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming.

The phrase “ mopping up” in the paragraph means______.

A. cleaning up

B. taking in

C. wiping out

D. giving out

②What does “in the public eye” mean?

Tips: in public在公众场合the public大众eye眼睛

Mr. Zhang often appears in public.

But he is not famous—he is not in the public eye.

③The ashes of the Great Wall are falling down. I think the Great wall is now like an 80 years old man. In some places it is still standing, but really unless there is some good medicine, most of it won’t be standing in the next fifty or one hundred years.

A. If people don’t take medicine, the Great Wall will fall down.

B. The Great Wall is like an 80 year-old man, who needs medical care.

C. We must take some measures to protect the Great Wall , or most of the Great Wall will break down in 50 or 100 years

D. The Great Wall is falling down, and it will disappear in the future.

④All great players have a lot in common, but that doesn’t explain why they are great. Hundreds of boys play football in Brazilian streets, but only one became Pele. The greatest players are born with unique quality that sets apart from all the others.

A. Pele is the greatest soccer player

B. The greatest players are born with some unique quality

C. Pele’s birthday se ts him apart from all the others

D. The success of a soccer player has everything to do with the family background

小结:所谓“词不离句,句不离章“讲的就是对于词语或句子的正确理解依赖于一定的情景。所以在猜测生词词义或句意时,一定要认真读懂与生词密切相关的前后句子,对词或句子进行合情合理的推测,排除肤浅的表义,选择蕴含在其中的深意。

Part two 合作探究

1. There are some glaciers moving down the mountain valleys. A glacier is a river of ice.

A. 雪山

B. 树枝

C. 冰河

D. 冰

2. He is a resolut e man. Once he made up his mind to do something, he won’t give it up halfway.

A. weak

B. firm

C. kind

D. clever

3. Mr. Brown is now working at Princeton University far away from home. For this reason he has to rent a room near the office where he works.

A. 租用

B. 借出

C. 购买

D. 参观

4. The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer.

A. work

B. study

C. name

D. interest

5. The old woman has a strange habit to keep over 100 cats in her house. Her

neighbor all call her an eccentric lady.

A. 爱猫的

B. 古怪的

C. 闲不住

D. 动物保护主义者

6. In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth.

A. 便士

B. 温饱

C. 非常贫困

D. 虚弱

7.The award should be enough to cover her tuition fees.

A.覆盖B.走完C.看完D.够付

8.It is really a bad news that after his father died last year his mother develops a terrible disease this year!How sad he is now!A.染上B.发展C.冲洗D.开发9.The agreement must stand.

A.坐落B.忍受C.仍然有效D.站立

Part three 实战演练

Passage 1

Tens of thousands of baby penguins face starvation after two giant icebergs broke off the Antarctic ice sheet and blocked their parents’ road to the feeding areas. Adeline and emperor penguins nesting on the Ross island rookeries are now forced to walk long distances over the icebergs to obtain food for their chicks, born during the November-December breeding season.

What does the underlined word “obtain” probably mean?

A. eat

B. get

C. sell

D. buy

Passage 2

A man’s position among the black-tent people depends on his ancestors, relatives, and fellow tribesmen. If they are honored, he is also honored. If they are disgraced, he too is disgraced. Therefore one carefully guards the honor of his family, his lineage(宗系), and his tribe.

The word “disgrace” means _________ in this text.

A. honor

B. endanger

C. proud

D. shame

Passage 3

The ruler had been so cruel and dishonest that after the revolution he was banished. A few members of the Senate(参议院) opposed this decision, but the majority voted that the ruler should leave the country for ever.

The underlined word “banished” mean_______.

A. killed by stoning

B. sent away

C. imprisoned

D. punished by whipping Passage 4

My first job was to drive the oxen that ploughed the cane fields. I would walk behind an ox, guiding him with a broomstick. For $ 1 a day, I worked eight hours straight, with no food breaks. It was very tedious work, but it prepared me for life and taught me many lasting lessons. Because the plantation owners were always watching us, I had to be on time every day and work as hard as I could.

What does the underlined word “tedious” probably mean?

A.interesting

B. tiresome

C. relaxing

D. Challenging

Passage 5

Although he often had the chance, Mr. Brown was never able to steal money from a customer.

This would endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future.

The word “jeopardize” means _____ in this text.

A. protect

B. endanger

C. continue

D. stop

Passage 6

After a four-year relationship with a major fortune 100 company beginning as a sales trainee and ending as a regional sales manager, I left the company at the height of my career. Many people were astounded that I would leave after earning a six-figure income. And they asked why I would risk everything for a dream.

The underlined word“astounded” means ____.

A. very sad

B. very sorry

C. very pleased

D. greatly surprised

Passage 7

But it’s a two-way street. I just heard about a thousand Shenzhen office workers who have gone to Bangalore to train in software. Meanwhile, all the Indian IT majors are setting up a strong presence in China.

What does the writer mean by “it’s a two –way street”?

A. China and India have different traffic rules.

B. Tea trade works wonders in both India and China

C. Chinese products are popular in both China and India

D. The exchanges between India and China benefit both

Passage 8

He caught a bad cold. For two days he was ____by his mother. As he rested more, his defense strengthened and I began to feel the pressure.

A. protected B.nursed C. scolded D.affected

Part four:

学后反思:______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________