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2019年6月大学英语六级考试仔细阅读真题及详细解析(卷二)

2019年6月大学英语六级仔细阅读真题及详细解析(卷二)Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Effective Friday, Screen Actors Guild-American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (SAG-AFTRA) has declared a strike against 11 video game publishers over games that went into production after Feb. 17, 2015. The companies include some of the heavyweights of the industry, like Electronic Arts Productions, Insomniac Games, Activision and Disney.

The strike comes in light of an unsuccessful 19 months of negotiations after the existing labor contract known as the Interactive Media Agreement expired in late 2014. Overall, the strike is an effort to provide more secondary compensation along with other concerns, such as transparency upon hiring talent and on-set (制作中)safety precautions.

The video gaming industry has ballooned in recent years. The Los Angeles Times reports that the industry is in the midst of an intense increase in cash flow. In 2015, gaming produced $23.5 billion in domestic revenue.

But SAG-AFT RA says voice actors don’t receive residuals(追加酬金)for their gaming work. Instead, they receive a fixed rate, which is typically about $825 for a standard four-hour vocal session. So the voice actors are pushing for the idea of secondary compensation — a performance bonus every time a game sells 2 million copies or downloads, or reaches 2 million subscribers, with a cap at 8 million.

“It’s a very small number of games that would trigger this secondary compensation issue,” said voice actor Crispin Freeman,who’s a member of the union’s negotiating committee. “This is an important aspect of what it means to be a (从事自由职业的)performer, who isn’t regularly employed every single day working on projects.”

Another major complaint from the actors is the secrecy of the i ndustry. “I can’t imagine if there’s any other acting job in the world where you don’t know what show you’re in, when you’re hired,’’ says voice actor Keythe Farley, who chairs the SAG-AFTRA negotiating committee.

“And yet that happens every day in the video game world,” Farley told reporters during a press conference Friday. “I was a main character in Fallout 4, a character by the name of Kellogg, and I never knew that I was doing vocal recording for that game throughout the year and a half.”

Scott Witlin, the lawyer representing the video game companies, says voice actors “represent less than one tenth of 1 percent of the work that goes into making a video game.” So “even though they’re the top craftsmen in their field,” Witlin says, “if we pay them unde r a vastly different system than the people who do the 99.9 percent of the work, that’s going to create far more problems for the video game companies.”

全文翻译及命题分析

美国电视和广播艺术家联合会(saga-aftra)周五宣布,就2015年2月17日之后投产的游戏将对11家电子游戏发行公司举行罢工。这些公司包括业界的一些重量级公司,如电子艺界制作公司、失眠症游戏公司、动视暴雪和迪士尼。

此次罢工发生之前,双方进行了长达19个月的谈判,但未能成功达成共识。现有劳动合同《互动媒体协议》已于2014年底到期。总的来说,此次罢工是为了获得更多的次级补偿以及其他工人担心问题的回答,如在招聘人才和制作中的安全措施透明度。

电子游戏产业近年来发展迅速。《洛杉矶时报》报道称,该行业正处于现金流大幅增长时期。2015年,游戏行业创造了235亿美元的国内财政收入。

然而,联合会表示,配音演员并没有因为他们的游戏工作而获得追加酬金。相反,他们的薪酬是固定的,即一个标准的四小时配音时长薪酬通常约为825美元。因此,配音演员们正在努力实现次级补偿的想法——当一款游戏卖出200万份拷贝、获得200万下载量或达到200万订阅者时,工人就会获得一笔绩效奖金,上限为800万。

“只有极少数量的游戏将引发次级补偿问题,”工会谈判委员会成员、配音演员克里斯宾·弗里曼说:“这对不是每天都有活干的演员来说非常重要。”

演员们的另一个主要抱怨是这个行业缺乏透明度。谈判委员会主席、配音演员齐泽·法利说:“我不能想象世上还有别的表演工作当你被雇佣时还不知道你在哪里。”

“这样的事情在电子游戏界每天都在发生。”法利在周五的新闻发布会上对记者说: “我在《异尘馀生4》中为主角凯洛格配音,然而在那一年半的时间里我一直都不知道那款游戏的名字。”

游戏公司的代理律师斯科特·威特林说,配音演员“在电子游戏的制作人数中占比不到0.1%”。因此,“即使他们是各自领域的顶尖艺人,”威特林说,“如果我们给他们的薪酬体系与那些99.9%的工作人员截然不同,这将给电子游戏公司带来更多的问题。”

【命题分析】本篇阅读理解从题型来看,以细节题为主,以推理判断题为辅。除了49题为推理判断题,其它四题均为对细节的考察。

【内容概要】本文描述了电子游戏配音演员这一特殊群体以及他们要求获得次级补偿来提高薪资待遇的诉求。由于旧劳工合同已经过期,而新合同又长时间协商未果,美国电视和广播艺术家联合会决定向11家游戏发行公司发起罢工。配音演员工作不稳定,而他们的薪资是按时收费,无法获得追加酬金,所以他们想通过罢工来获得次级补偿。然而,他们的诉求很难得到满足,因为他们在游戏制作人员中占比极低,给他们特殊薪资待遇会给电子游戏公司带来更多问题。

【试题详解】

46.Why did SAG-AFTRA declare a strike against some video game publishers?

A)The labor contract between them had been violated.

B)Its appeal to renegotiate the contract had been rejected.

C)It had been cheated repeatedly in the 19 months of talks.

D)The negotiations between them had broken down.

【题干译文】为何美国电视和广播艺术家联合会(SAG-AFTRA)宣布对一些电子游戏发行公司发起罢工?

【选项译文】A)他们之间的劳动合同被违反了。B)其重新谈判合同的要求遭到拒绝。C)在长达19个月的谈判中,该协会一再被骗。D)他们之间的谈判破裂了。【定位信息】将题干中“SAG-AFTRA”与“video game publishers”作为向导词,结合顺序法定位,可以找到本题对应的阅读点在文章开头第一、二自然段。【答案详解】答案是D。根据第二自然段首句“The strike comes in light of an unsuccessful 19 months of negotiations...”可以了解到:此次罢工发生之前,双方进行了长达19个月的谈判,但未能成功达成共识,即谈判破裂。D选项中“broken down”与阅读点中“unsuccessful ”对应。

【干扰分析】劳工合同到期,非A选项中“被违反”;B选项中“重新谈判的要求遭到拒绝”与“19 months of negotiations”不符;文中也没有C选项中“had been cheated repeatedly”的证据。

47.What do we learn from the passage about the video gaming industry?

A)It has reaped huge profits in recent years.

B)It has become more open and transparent.

C)It has attracted many famous voice actors.

D)It has invested a lot in its domestic market.

【题干译文】从这篇文章中我们可以了解到关于电子游戏产业的什么信息?【选项译文】A)近年来,它获得了巨大的利润。B)它变得更加开放和透明。C)它吸引了许多著名的配音演员。D)它在国内市场投入了大量资金。

【定位信息】将题干中“video gaming industry”作为向导词,可以找到本题对应的阅读点在文章第三自然段。

【答案详解】答案是A。根据第三自然我们可以了解到:电子游戏产业近年来发展迅速,该行业正处于现金流大幅增长时期,于2015年创造了巨额国内财政收入。尤其是最后一句中“produced $23.5 billion in domestic revenue”与A选项中“reaped huge profits”对应。

【干扰分析】B选项中“transparent”明显与后文“the secrecy of the industry”相矛盾;C选项中“attracted many famous voice actors”在文中缺乏证据支持;D选项有一定的迷惑度,其中“invested a lot in its domestic market”与原文“produced $23.5 billion in domestic revenue”有一定的相关度,但一个讲的是投资,另一个讲的是收入,不是一码事。

48.What are the voice actors demanding?

A)More regular employment.

B)A non-discriminatory contract.

C)Extra pay based on sales revenues.

D)A limit on the maximum work hours.

【题干译文】配音演员的要求是什么?

【选项译文】A)更多的就业。B)非歧视性的合同。C)以销售收入为基础的额外工资。D)对最长工作时间的限制。

【定位信息】本题用向导词定位法不能凑效,可以结合顺序法定位,找到本题对应的阅读点为第四自然段。

【答案详解】答案是C。根据第四自然最后一句话“So the voice actors are pushing for the idea of secondary compensation...”我们可以了解到:配音演员薪酬是固定的,没有追加酬金,所以配音演员们正在努力实现次级补偿的想法。根据后文对次级补偿的解释,它是一种基于销售收入的额外奖励。

【干扰分析】显然,配音演员的主要诉求是获得次级补偿,提高收入。虽然文中提到配音演员并不总是有活干以及他们的工作时长,但A、C选项并非他们的主要诉求;原文中没有说原合同具有歧视性,所以B选项缺乏证据支持。

49.What does Keythe Farley say about voice actors?

A)They are kept in the dark about many details of their job.

B)They are discriminated against in the gaming industry.

C)They are not paid on a regular basis.

D)They are not employed full-time.

【题干译文】法利对配音演员有什么看法?

【选项译文】A)他们对自己工作的许多细节一无所知。B)他们在游戏行业受到歧视。C)他们没有固定的工资。D)他们没有全职工作。

【定位信息】本题用“Keythe Farley”作为向导词,定位到第六、七自然段。【答案详解】答案是A。这两个自然段引用了立科的话。从他的话里行间我们可以了解到:配音演员们的另一个主要抱怨是这个行业缺乏透明度。以立科本人的经历为例,他为一款游戏配音长达一年半,却一直不知道该游戏的名称。因此,他们对自己工作的许多细节一无所知。

【干扰分析】本题虽是推理判断题,但直接用人名定位,找到对应的阅读点相对容易,其它三个干扰项迷惑性较小。

50.What is the argument of lawyer Scott Witlin?

A)Voice actors should have a pay raise if they prove to be top craftsmen.

B)Changing the pay system would cause the industry more problems.

C)Voice actors are mere craftsmen, not professional performers.

D)Paying voice actors on an hourly basis is in line with the law.

【题干译文】斯科特·威特林律师的观点是什么?

【选项译文】A)配音演员如果被证明是顶尖的工匠,就应该加薪。B)改变薪酬体系会给这个行业带来更多的问题。C)配音演员只是工匠,不是专业演员。D)按小时给配音演员付费是符合法律的。

【定位信息】本题用“Scott Witlin”作为向导词,结合顺序法,定位到最后一个自然段。

【答案详解】答案是B。结合最后一自然段威特林所说的,配音演员“在游戏制作人员中占比仅为0.1%”,如果他们的薪酬体系与其他绝大部分工作人员截然不同,“这将给电子游戏公司带来更多的问题”。

【干扰分析】威特林是电子游戏发行公司的代理律师,他是反对给配音演员特殊薪资待遇的,A明显不对。“top craftsmen”在文中有提及,但威特林并没有否认配音演员是专业演员,也没有提及按小时给配音演员付费是否符合法律,所以C、D也排除。

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

Officials at the White House announced a new space policy focused on managing the increasing number of satellites that companies and governments are launching into space. Space Policy Directive-3 lays out general guidelines for the United States to

mitigate (缓解)the effects of space debris and track and manage traffic in space.

This policy sets the stage for the Department of Commerce to take over the management of traffic in space. The department will make sure that newly launched satellites don’t use radio frequencies that would interfere with existing satellites, and schedule when such new satellites can be launched. This only applies to American space activities, but the hope is that it will help standardize a set of norms in the dawning commercial spaceflight industry throughout the world.

Space, especially the space directly around our planet, is getting more crowded as more governments and companies launch satellites. One impetus for the policy is that companies are already starting to build massive constellations(星座)comprising hundreds or thousands of satellites with many moving parts among them. With so much stuff in space, and a limited area around our planet, the government wants to reduce the chances of a collision. Two or more satellites slamming into each other could create many more out-of-control bits that would pose even more hazards to the growing collection of satellites in space.

And it’s not like this hasn’t happened before. In 2009 an old Russian craft slammed into a communications satellite, creating a cloud of hundreds of pieces of debris and putting other hardware at risk. Journalist Sarah Scoles reports that NASA currently tracks about 24,000 objects in space, and in 2016 the Air Force had to issue 3,995,874 warnings to satellite owners alerting them to a potential nearby threat from another satellite or bit of debris.

That’s why this new policy also includes directions to update the current U.S. Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, which already require any entity that launches a satellite or spacecraft to vigorously analyze the likelihood that any of their actions, from an unexpected failure or normal operations, will create more space debris. It includes accounting for any piece of debris they plan to release over 5mm that might stay in orbit for 25 years or more. It might seem surprising to think about an item staying in space for that long,but the oldest satellite still in orbit—Vanguard 1—turned 60 in 2018.

Agencies and companies throughout the world are working on developing technology that would dispose of or capture space debris before it causes serious damage. But for now, the U.S. government is more focused on preventing new debris from forming than taking the trash out of orbit.

全文翻译及命题分析

白宫官员宣布了一项新的太空政策,重点管理各公司和政府向太空发射的越来越多的卫星。“第3号航天政策指令”为美国缓解空间碎片影响以及对空间交通跟踪和管理制定了一般准则。

这项政策为商务部接管空间交通管理奠定了基础。商务部将确保新发射的卫星不会使用干扰现有卫星的无线电频率,并计划新卫星的发射时间。该政策只适用于美国的航天活动,但它让世界各地正在兴起的商业航天工业建立一套规范看到了希望。

随着越来越多的政府和公司发射卫星,太空,尤其是地球周围的近地空间,变得越来越拥挤。该政策的一个推动因素是,各公司已经开始搭建由数百或数千

颗卫星组成的大型星座,而卫星有许多移动部件。太空中有这么多东西,而地球周围的区域又有限,所以政府想要减少碰撞的机会。两颗或两颗以上的卫星相撞可能会产生更多失控的碎片,对太空中不断增加的卫星群构成更大的威胁。

这在以前并非没有发生过。2009年,一艘老旧的俄罗斯飞船撞上了一颗通讯卫星,形成了由数百块碎片组成的云团,给其他卫星带来了风险。记者萨拉·斯科尔斯报道称,美国宇航局目前在太空中跟踪约2.4万个物体,2016年,美国空军不得不向卫星拥有者发出3995874个警告,提醒他们附近可能有来自另一颗卫星或碎片的威胁。

这就是为什么新政策还包括对当前《美国政府轨道碎片减缓标准做法》进行修订的原因。现行《标准做法》已经要求任何发射卫星或航天器的实体,都要认真分析他们的由于意外故障或正常操作行为可能产生更多太空碎片的可能性。这包括说明他们计划释放的任何超过5毫米的碎片,这些碎片可能在轨道上停留25年或更长时间。设想一个物体在太空呆那么久似乎令人惊讶,但最古老的在轨卫星——先锋1号——在2018年已年满60岁。

世界各地的机构和公司都在致力于开发一种技术,可以在太空碎片造成严重破坏之前对其进行处理或捕获。但就目前而言,美国政府更关注的是防止新的碎片形成,而不是将垃圾清除出轨道。

【命题分析】本篇阅读理解5题均为对细节的考察,定位明确,难度适中。【内容概要】本文介绍了美国一项新的太空政策——“第3号航天政策指令”。随着太空中的人造地球卫星数量越来越多,它们释放的碎片也越来越多,近地太空变得越来越拥挤。卫星有相撞的危险,而太空碎片也会对卫星构成威胁。在这一背景下,美国政府出台了这一新的太空政策。

【试题详解】

51.What is the purpose of the new U.S. space policy?

A)To lay out general guidelines for space exploration.

B)To encourage companies to join in space programs.

C)To make the best use of satellites in space.

D)To improve traffic conditions in space.

【题干译文】美国新太空政策的目的是什么?

【选项译文】A)制定空间探索的一般指导方针。B)鼓励各公司参与太空计划。

C)充分利用在轨卫星。D)改善太空交通环境。

【定位信息】将题干中“new U.S. space policy”作为向导词,结合顺序法,定位到本文章开头第一自然段。

【答案详解】答案是A。根据第一自然段第二句“Space Policy Directive-3 lays out general guidelines for the United States to mitigate the effects of space debris and track and manage traffic in space”,我们可以了解到:“第3号航天政策指令”为美国缓解空间碎片影响以及对空间交通跟踪和管理制定了一般准则,与A选项吻合。

【干扰分析】本题定位明确,B、C选项较容易排除。D选项具有一定的迷惑性,结合新太空政策的具体内容,该政策更关注的是防止新的碎片形成,而不是将垃圾碎片清除出轨道,所以可以排除D。

52.What is the Department of Commerce expected to do under the new policy?

A)Reduce debris in space.

B)Monitor satellite operations.

C)Regulate the launching of new satellites.

D)Update satellite communications technology.

【题干译文】商务部在新政策下预期会做什么?

【选项译文】A)减少空间碎片。B)监视卫星运行。C)规范新卫星发射。D)升级卫星通信技术。

【定位信息】将题干中“Department of Commerce”作为向导词,可以定位到文章第二自然段。

【答案详解】答案是C。根据第二自然段第二句“The department will make sure that newly launched satellites don’t use radio frequencies that would interfere with existing satellites, and schedule when such new satellites can be launched”,意思是:商务部将确保新发射的卫星不会使用干扰现有卫星的无线电频率,并计划新卫星的发射时间。简而言之,商务部在新政策下主要规范新卫星发射。

【干扰分析】本题定位明确,找到对应的阅读点,答案也就有了。A选项与美国对待碎片重在预防而非对其进行捕获的态度不符。下文有提到美国对众多近地空间物体进行监视追踪,但其对象主要是碎片,以防碎片撞击卫星,所以B选项也可以排除。D选项在文中没有提到,干扰性较小。

53.What does the U.S. government hope to do with the new space policy?

A)Set international standards for the space flight industry.

B)TMonopolize space industry by developing a set of norms.

C)Facilitate commercial space flights throughout the world.

D)Promote international collaboration in space exploration.

【题干译文】商务部在新政策下预期会做什么?

【选项译文】A)减少空间碎片。B)监视卫星运行。C)规范新卫星发射。D)升级卫星通信技术。

【定位信息】将题干中“Department of Commerce”作为向导词,可以定位到文章第二自然段。

【答案详解】答案是C。根据第二自然段第二句“The department will make sure that newly launched satellites don’t use ra dio frequencies that would interfere with existing satellites, and schedule when such new satellites can be launched”,意思是:商务部将确保新发射的卫星不会使用干扰现有卫星的无线电频率,并计划新卫星的发射时间。简而言之,商务部在新政策下主要规范新卫星发射。

【干扰分析】本题定位明确,找到对应的阅读点,答案也就有了。A选项与美国对待碎片重在预防而非对其进行捕获的态度不符。下文有提到美国对众多近地空间物体进行监视追踪,但其对象主要是碎片,以防碎片撞击卫星,所以B选项也可以排除。D选项在文中没有提到,干扰性较小。

54.What is a space vehicle launching entity required to do according to the current U.S. Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices?

A)Give an estimate of how long its debris will stay in space.

B)Account for the debris it has released into space at any time.

C)Provide a detailed plan for managing the space debris it creates.

D)Make a thorough analysis of any possible addition to space debris.

【题干译文】根据现行《美国政府轨道碎片减缓标准做法》,太空飞行器发射实

体需要做什么?

【选项译文】A)预估它的碎片在太空停留的时长。B)随时对它释放到太空的碎片进行说明。C)提供一份管理空间碎片的详细计划。D)对任何可能增加的空间碎片进行彻底分析。

【定位信息】将题干中“launching entity”和“U.S. Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices”作为向导词,可以定位到文章倒数第二自然段。【答案详解】答案是D。根据倒数第二自然段前两句,我们可以了解到:现行《美国政府轨道碎片减缓标准做法》已经要求任何发射卫星或航天器的实体,都要认真分析它们可能产生更多太空碎片的可能性,以及说明他们计划释放的任何超过5毫米的碎片,这些碎片可能在轨道上停留25年或更长时间。

【干扰分析】A、B选项有一定迷惑性,但仔细比较该选项与对应的阅读点,还是能找出较大出入:碎片在轨停留25年或更长时间已是结论,不需要提前预估,另外需要说明的碎片是超过5毫米的碎片,不是释放的所有碎片。D选项在文中没有提及。

55.What are space agencies and companies aiming to do at present?

A)Recycle used space vehicles before they turn into debris.

B)Develop technology to address the space debris problem.

C)Limit the amount of debris entering space.

D)Cooperate closely to retrieve space debris.

【题干译文】航天机构和各公司目前要实现的目标是什么?

【选项译文】A)在旧飞行器成为碎片之前,对它们进行回收。B)开发解决空间碎片问题的技术。C)限制进入空间的碎片数量。D)紧密合作,回收空间碎片。【定位信息】将题干中“space agencies”和“companies”作为向导词,可以定位到文章最后一自然段。也结合顺序法,作为本篇阅读理解最后一题,其对应的阅读点往往在文章结尾或靠后的位置。

【答案详解】答案是B。根据最后一自然段第一句“Agencies and companies throughout the world are working on developing technology...”,我们可以理解到:世界各地的机构和公司都在致力于开发一种技术,可以在太空碎片造成严重破坏之前对其进行处理或捕获。因此,航天机构和各公司的目标是开发解决空间碎片问题的技术。

【干扰分析】最后一自然段将航天机构及各公司与美国政府对待空间碎片问题的不同态度进行对比:前者以技术开发为目标,后者以防范、预防为主。B、C选项较容易排除,D选项有一定迷惑性,但该选项中“cooperate closely”在文中没有依据。