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毕业设计外文翻译----投资项目管理的新模式

A New Management Model of Governmental Investment Projects in China

CM is a construction model in which owners commit their project to construction manager to take charge of the whole management,including feasibility research,designing,procedure,construction,operation and so on.CM project manager has the right to pick up contractors and architects under the limitation of the contract.

In China,Agent construction system is called Turnkey,and is a management model of engineering construction by means of consigning the project to specialized engineering management organization that is calledagent owner,who is familiar to laws,regulations,and construction procurements.Agent owners are responsible for the control of investment management and construction of the project.After the project has been finished,agent owners will turn the project over to owners.In China,agentconstruction system specially applies in the area of governmental investment project.

In the past.project construction adopted the conventional management models,such as part A—part B contract,headquarters,and infrastructure departmentand so on.These project management models brought about manydeficiencies,such as non—professional management,overspending investment budget,and corruption phenomena,etc.But agent construction system can overcome these shortcomings. Agent construction system embodies the principle of fair,open and just for investors,deputy and user.It nails their rights and obligations down with contracts;the project is operated in the light of biding,contract,and supervision.Deputies can easily control the investment and scale of project.Moreover,agent construction system"can guarantee the quality of design and construction,and decrease the project cost,for deputies accumulate lots of experience in professional technology and management in practice for a long time.In short,because of the separation of construction,management and use,agent construction system makes for implementing the goal of financial mechanism,laws and market.It can stimulate deputies to control investment and improve quality.Furthermore,the specialized team has guaranteed the specialized levels of project construction and management.This agent construction system,a new management model of engineering construction,is adapted to governmental investment project in China.With deepening of the reform,it is necessary that agent construction system is gradually popular in China.

2.Reviews on Experimental Practice ofAgent Construction System

Among practical experiments of agent construction system,Shanghai an d Shenzhen are typical of experimental cities.

In 1999,Shanghai PuDong Consultant Company was committed by Shanghai Planning Commission and wholly took charge of construct Shanghai fiscal project.It is the beginning of agent construction system in Shanghai.In December 2001,Shangha i municipality issued “suggestions on promoting the experience about reform of construction management system of governmental investment projects.”The issue focused on separating the function of govemental investment from investment management.It can radically change government furnctions.In addition,It is helpful to set up the own ers’status of investment and promote the

foundationofengineeringmanagementmarket.Aftertheissue comissentobeing,the owners’statusofinvestmentfor governmental investment project has been established.Under agent construction model,engineering management firms that act as agent owners accept the commissionofgovernment and manage the governmental investment projects. There are more than 20 provinces or cities to use agent construction system to constructiongovernmental investment projects or public projects.In April 1998,Shanxi province founded a general construction management office to act for the owner of non-profit important project invested by government.Beijing issued“Management methods of age nt construction model for govermental investment project in Beijing”on March 1,2004.

According to the situation,two groups of agent construction model have been formed.One is the Shenzhen model that the appointed organization takes on the owner and manager of project,which refers to Hongkong mode1.Another is the Shanghai model,which adopts active measures,cultivates many engineering management firms,and properly separates the function of owner from project management.

3.Analysis oil the Problems Existing in the Course of Practice of Agent Construction Model

3.1 The Kind,Qualification,Operation of Deputy Need to Be Clarified.First,the kind of deputy af fects the foundation of agent construction model’s regulations.As far as the present situation is concerned,there are three types of deputies,namely enterprise,public institution,government body.That different places adopt different types causes a confused situation and does harm to the operation of agent construction

mode1.Second,the qualification of deputies is different and needs to perfect again.Third,the operation mode is different.Some are that the deputies under owners’commission employ funds,and build and manage the project all over the whole process;Some are that the joint departments established by owners and deputies construct and manage,and then appropriate funds.Finally,agent scope is too narrow.Agent construction model is limited to the public welfare project invested or dominated by government.

3.2 Agent Construction Model lacks of Uniform Regulation

First,deputies as the erectors and administrators of project needed to check budgets and ratify funds.Thus original financial application,compilation of budget,and appropriation of funds should harmonize between user and agency and renew regulation.Second,the host of financial management and accounting accounts is not clear.In the agent model,the project works in earlier stage maybe are finished by agencies;At one time,user purchases chief equipment by itself.Because user and agent both use funds,the problems come into being:who is the host of accounting,who should take charge of financial management,and who complete final accounts. Third,the standard of agencies’com issions hasn’t uniform regulation.Different places adopt different standards.Some determ ine the agencies’com issions according to contractors’administrative expens es;some adopt costs adding axes and proper profits;

3.3 Agencies Are Weak and a Fair Agency Market Hasn’t Been Formed

First,as a whole,the quality of agencies isn’t high.Many agencies transit from

original construction units,engineering consulting firms,engineering supervisor firms,engineering procurement firms,so their economic strengths,stafs’quality,internal governance and so on can’t reach the request.Second,the number of agencies is not large.In fact,only when many agencies join it,a fair,effective agency market may be founded.But in our country,the number of qualified agencies is little and can’t meet the demand of market competition.

4 .The Perfection of Regulation of Agent Construction System

Govermment department should summarize the experimental experiences and set down the regulations to direct the operation of agent model in the kind,qualification,operation type,responsibilities,project scope,agent mode of agencies and so on.4.1 Type of Agent Organizations

From the trend of development,the main type of agencies is enterprise.As far as status quo is concerned,government bodies in China are so overstarfed that fiscal burden is too heavy.So the policy has been implemented in order to simplify the government departments and reduce the staftrimmer.If the type of agencies is government body or public institute,it deviates the policy of the govermment and aggravates the fiscal burden.Thus the chief type of agencies should be enterprises who self-operate and self-take on profits or loss.

4.2 Qualification of Agent Firms

Agencies must be qualified engineering management firms and generally have some basic conditions as follows.First,they own the qualification of a level.Second,they have more than One year experience of engineering management,and have taken on the total management of a project which financial amount is over 100

million RMB.Third,engineering management firms demand more registered capitals if they take on the larger investment projects.Fourth,the chief and technical principals should own higher qualification,the experiences and the capabilities of conduct,harmony,organization;or take charge of a project invested over 100 million RMB.Fifth,they have designated a numbers of professional certificates,including higher engineer,higher economist,registered cost engineer,registered structure engineer,registered supervision engineer and agency qualification.Further more,they have the capabilities of checking design,auditing budgets,supervisingengineering quality andsafety.

4.3 Execution ofAgent Works

By now,the level of agencies is low on the whole.Most agencies can’t meet the required qualification,lack practical experiences of total management and conduction.In addition,we lack of laws and regulations about agent model,and the depth of external surveillance isn’t enough.Thus,we may adopt two kinds of ways in executing agent projects.One kind is dividing the project into two parts:sitepreparing works are consigned an agency to manage;construction works are consigned and other agency.Another kind is that total works are consigned an agency who has higher qualified engineering management firm to do.We should enhance the strength of engineering firm and promote the latter kind.

4. 4 Scope of Agent Project

At present,the scope of agent project is narrower and only is limited to public

welfare projects invested by government.So we need enlarge the scope of agent projects.Agent model is based on the theory ofprincipal agent,restricts the behaviors of correlative attendees according to contracts,and makes their rights equal to the responsibilities.In fact,agent model only is a mode of engineering management. Many projects can utilize it,not only the non-profits governmental investment project.It is prescribed for ordinary non operation project to adopt

agent model in “management methods of agent model for governmental investment project in Beijing”.

中国的政府一种投资项目管理的新模式

CM是业主向项目经理承诺到施工现场采取整体管理工作一个建筑模型,包括可行性研究,设计,程序,施工,运营等。CM中的项目经理有权根据合同的限制来管理承包商和建筑师。

在中国,代建制称为交钥匙,是由委托的专业工程项目管理组织来完成,就是所谓的代理业主,它要熟悉法律,法规和工程采购和工程建设管理模式。代理业主要向投资管理和项目建设控制负责。项目建成完成后,代理业主把项目移交给业主。在中国,代理建设系统特别适用于对政府投资项目的领域。在过去,工程建设采用了传统的管理模式,如甲乙方合同,总部和基础设施部门等等。这些项目的管理模式带来了许多缺陷,如非专业工程管理,投资预算超支和腐败现象等等,但是代建制可以克服这些缺点。

代建制对于投资者,代理机构和用户来说,体现了公平,公开和公正的原则。它根据合同规定了各自的权利和义务与合同,项目的运作的招标要符合合同的约定和监督。代表们可以很容易地控制投资和项目规模。此外,代建制“可以保证的设计和施工的质量,降低工程成本,在很长时间内为代表们积累了专业技术和管理方面的经验。总之,由于施工分离,管理的使用,代理建设的制度,实现了金融机制,法律和市场的目标。它可以刺激代表们控制投资和提高质量。此外,各专门小组已经保证了项目建设和管理的专业化水平。该代理建设制度是一个工程建设管理的新模式,它是适应于中国政府投资项目。随着改革的深化,它是必要的,代建制在中国正逐渐流行。

2.重新看待代建制试点工作

代建制之中,上海和深圳的实际实验是试点城市的典型。

1999年,上海计委完全注意到上海财政建设项目由上海浦东咨询公司计划收费。

这是上海建设系统中代理人的开始。2001年12月,上海市全面发出了“关于促进有关政府投资建设项目管理体制改革经验的建议。”这就分开了从投资管理的重点是政府投资职能的问题。它可以从根本上转变政府职能。此外,它有利于建筑业主投资的地位,夯实了工程管理的市场基础。问题存在之后,业主对政府投资项目的投资地位已经确立。

在代建制模式下,工程项目管理公司作为代理人业主接受政府委托和管理政府投资项目的行为。有20多个省市使用了代理建设制度,其中包括政府投资建设项目或公共工程项目。

1998年4月,山西省成立了一个综合性的建设管理办公室,为非营利政府投资业主行为的重要项目负责。在2004年3月1日,北京发表“北京市政府投资项目建设模式中的代理管理办法”。

根据这种情况,两组的代理建设模式已经形成。一个是深圳模式,即指定组织采取的拥有人及项目经理,这是指香港模式。另一个是上海模式,采用积极措施,培育许多工程管理公司,并妥善分开项目管理中的所有者职能。

3.代理建设模型实践过程中存在问题分析

3.1分类,资格,运营需要弄清首先,这种影响了代建制模式的法规

根基。至于目前的情况而言,有三种类型的代表,即企业,事业单位和政府机构。不同地方有不同的类型,这样会导致混乱局面,并危害到代建制模式1的操作。第二,代表资格是不同的,需要再完善。第三,运作模式是不同的。有些代表们是业主委员会用资金聘来的,在建设和管理整个过程中; 有些人,通过业主成立了联合部门负责建设和管理,并获得适当的资金。最后,代理范围过于狭窄.代理建设模式仅限于由政府投资或主导的公益事业工程项目。

3.2代建制模式缺乏统一规定

首先,作为建设者代表,需要去检查和批准预算资金的项目管理。因此,原来的财务应用,预算编制和拨款应协调机构,用户,更新的监管之间的关系。第二,财务管理和会计帐目主要部分尚不清楚。在代理模式中,该项目工程很可能在早期阶段就被代理机构完成; 有一段时间,用户购买主要的设备本身。由于用户和代理都使用资金,问题就应运而生了:谁是会计主办,谁应该负责财务管理内容,谁来完成决算。第三,各机构的佣金标准还没有统一的规定。不同地方采取不同的标准。一些各机构委员会决策是根据承包商的行政开支的; 有的采取增加成本和适当的利润;

3.3机构薄弱,公平代理市场尚未形成

首先,总的来说,各机构的质量还不高。许多机构内容是从原来的施工单位,工程顾问公司工程控制公司,工程采购的公司移植过来的,所以他们的经济实力,整体质量,内部管理等方面还不能达到要求。第二,一些机构的规模不是很大。事实上,只有当许多机构加入

里边后,以公平,有效的代理机构市场才可能成立。但在我们国家,合格机构数量少,不能满足市场竞争的需要。

4. 对代建制规制的完善

政府部门应该总结经验,确定规定实验的可直接进行实物模型的代理经营,资格,经营型,责任,项目的范围,代理机构模式等等。

4.1代理组织类型

从发展的趋势来看,各机构的企业类型已经形成。就目前现状而言,在中国政府机构太繁琐了以至于财政负担过重了。因此,这个政策已经实施,以简化和减少政府部门的程序。如果这种机构类型成为了政府机构或公共机构,它就偏离了政府的政策,加重了财政负担。因此,各机构主要类型应该是加强企业的自我经营,自我承担利润或损失的能力。

4.2代理公司的资质

机构必须是合格的工程管理公司条件,一般有如下一些基本条件。首先,他们得拥有一定的资格水平。其次,他们得有一年以上的工程管理经验,并已采取了一项工程计划,财务管理总金额要超过100万元人民币。第三,工程管理公司需要注册更多资本,如果他们想要在规模较大的投资项目。第四,行政和技术资质应该拥有更高的资格,经验和行为,和谐,组织的能力; 或者负责参与投资超过1亿人民币的项目。第五,他们拥有已指定的专业证书,包括更高的工程师,高级经济师,注册造价工程师,注册结构工程师,注册监理工程师,代理资格。进一步,他们拥有设计的检

查,审计预算的能力,监督工程质量和安全能力。

4.3代理执行工程

截至目前,各机构的整体水平低。大多数机构不能满足所需的资格,缺乏全面管理和传导的一些实践经验。此外,我们还缺乏法律和有关规定委托代理模型,以及外部监督的深度不够。因此,我们可以采取两种方式来执行机构的项目。一种被分成两个部分项目:网站工程的准备工作是委托一个机构来管理的; 建设工程是由其他机构委托的。另一种是总工程委托一个具有较高的合格的工程管理公司代理机构来做的。我们应该加强工程制度来用后一种类型。

4.4项目的代理范围

目前,项目的代理范围窄,只限于由政府投资的公益性项目。因此,我们必须扩大代理项目的范围。代理模式是基于委托代理理论,限制了相关参加者按照合同的行为,行使自己的权利和平等的责任。事实上,代理模型不仅是对工程管理模式适用。许多项目可以利用它,不仅是非利润政府投资项目。这是规定的项目,一般采用非操作在北京市政府投资项目代建制模式的“代理模型管理方法”。