文档库

最新最全的文档下载
当前位置:文档库 > prejudice-related

prejudice-related

Research tells us that young people are more likely to resist prejudice if they have a way of talking about it, i.e., if they understand such terms as stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and scape-goating. Common sense tells us that they will also be more likely to intervene in conflicts related to prejudice and discrimination if they have some ex-amples of how this can be done. This lesson focus-es on helping students acquire and understand the vocabulary of prejudice by building their own ex-perience with these concepts. It goes on to help students examine effective and ineffective ways to handle prejudice-related conflicts. Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to:

?define stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and scapegoating

?give examples of each

?describe how each is potentially dangerous and can contribute to conflict

?identify six conflict styles

?identify strategies for dealing with prejudice-related conflicts

A.Introduce Stereotyping

Handouts:None

1.Explain that today’s lesson focuses on stereo-

typing and prejudice. Note that as young people everyone in the class has been a victim of some kind of stereotyping.

2.Write on the board the sample sentence “All

kids . . .” (or “All teenagers . . .”). Ask students to brainstorm all the ways they have heard people complete that sentence, such as: “All kids are noisy,” “All kids break things,” “All kids are igno-rant,” etc. Write their responses on the board.3.Continue the brainstorming as long as energy is

high. When responses slow down, ask for last contributions and close the exercise.

4.Discuss the following questions with the class:

?Who do you hear say these things about young people?

?Which of these would you call positive? nega-tive?

?Are they true for all young people?

?Are they true for some young people?

?How does it feel to have people assume you are included just because you are a young

person?

5.When the discussion of the brainstorm is com-

plete, explain that all of these are examples of stereotypes. Ask students “What might be a good definition of the term stereotype?”

6.Have students form small groups of three or

four. Give each student two minutes to address the following points. Remember to signal each time two minutes is up.

?How could these stereotypes harm young people?

?Tell about a time when you were hurt by a stereotype.

?What feelings did you have?

B.Define Stereotyping, Prejudice, Discrimina-

tion, and Scapegoating

Handouts: 1.1Understanding Prejudice: Some Defi-nitions

1.Distribute handout 1.1, Understanding Prejudice:

Some Definitions

2.Present the following brief lecture/discussion. *Adapted from Conflict Resolution in the Middle School by William J. Kreidler, ? 1994 Educators for Social Respon-sibility and William J. Kreidler. Used by permission.

LESSON ONE

Understanding Stereotyping, Prejudice, and

prejudice-related

Scapegoating*

2◆Social Studies Update? Prentice-Hall, Inc.

A stereotype, as we saw, is a mental image of a group based on opinion without regard to individ-ual differences. A stereotype says that all the mem-bers of a group are the same. One problem with stereotypes is that while some members of the group, maybe even most members of the group, are like the stereotype in some ways, no member of the group is like the stereotype in all ways. As has been noted, some young people fit some of the stereotypes you named, but no one fits them all. Unfortunately, stereotypes easily lead to prejudice. Prejudice is a negative judgment or opinion formed about a group without knowledge of the facts. It is based on stereotypes. A prejudiced person assumes that all the members of a group will act a certain way. Prejudice is the first step to discrimination. Discrimination means treating people in a less favorable way simply because they are members of a particular group. Discrimination is prejudice in action. Discrimination may mean leaving people out of things (like clubs or organizations), not allowing them to have things they need (like education or housing), or simply treating other people better than the members of the group being discriminated against.

Scapegoating is projecting one’s weaknesses or faults onto others and the resulting hostile behav-ior (either actions or words) toward those individ-uals or groups. Scapegoating is usually done against people who cannot fight back.

C.Discuss How Stereotyping, Prejudice, Dis-

crimination, and Scapegoating Are Harmful H a n d o u t s: 1.2 We All Lose (one copy for each group of three to four students), and 1.3 Prejudice Situation Cards (one set for each group)

1.Divide students into small groups of three or

four. Give each group a copy of handout 1.2, We All Lose, and a set of handout 1.3, Prejudice Situa-tion Cards.

2.Have a student in the group draw one of the

cards and read it to the group. The group then fills in the first box on the handout, identifying the act involved and how it harms the people in the situation.

3.When the group is satisfied with its responses to

the first situation, a second student draws an-other card, and the process is repeated. The group keeps drawing cards until the handout is filled in completely.4.Begin a discussion by having each group share

with the class its responses to one of the situa-tions. Discuss the following:

?What are some of the ways people in these situations “lost” as a result of stereotyping,

prejudice, discrimination, or scapegoating?

?What are some ways the people who did the stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, or

scapegoating “lost”?

?What is the role of stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, or scapegoating in the con-

flicts—is it the cause of the conflict?

?Can you think of other examples where peo-ple have lost out because of stereotyping,

prejudice, discrimination, or scapegoating—

either as victims or perpetrators?

?How do you think people in these situations learned stereotypes or prejudices?

?Have you ever been the victim of stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, or scapegoating? D.Introduce Conflict Styles

Handouts: 1.4Six Ways of Handling Conflict, and 1.5Conflict-Resolution Styles Skits

1.Conflict-resolution education is about helping

students learn that they have many options and choices in conflict situations. This lesson intro-duces students to six styles of conflict resolution: Aggression, Collaboration, Compromise, Giving In, Avoiding/Delaying, and Appealing to Authori-ty. Point out to students that each of these styles has potential uses and limitations and that not all conflict styles will work in all situations.

2.Present the following short lecture/discussion:

All animals, including humans, are equipped

with two possible responses or ways of deal-

ing with conflict. One is “fight” and the other

is “flight,” or running away. When we say

“fight” we tend to think of physical fighting,

but humans have ways of fighting other than

physically.

?Some of those ways of fighting are . . . ?

Whatever form fighting takes, it is almost al-

ways a Win-Lose approach to conflict. One

person will almost always win the fight while

the other will lose. Similarly, while flight

might be physically running away, it could

take other forms as well.

? Prentice-Hall, Inc.Social Studies Update◆3

?Some forms of flight that are not physically running away are . . .?

Flight is almost always a Lose-Win approach

to conflict. One person deliberately loses so

therefore the other automatically wins.

There are times when everyone uses some

form of fight and flight. But humans have oth-

er ways of handling conflict other than fight

and flight.

3.Distribute handout 1.4, Six Ways of Handling

Conflict. Review the styles.

4.Distribute handout 1.5, Conflict-Resolution Styles

Skits, and ask volunteers to read or act out each conflict style skit. After each skit, have students identify the style they think was demonstrated.

Discuss the following:

?What would be the potential advantages to each style?

?What would be the potential disadvantages to each style?

?Which style do you think you use most often?

Does it work for you?

E.Identify Strategies for Prejudice-Related

Conflicts

H a n d o u t s: 1.6 Interrupting Prejudice Case Studies (two case studies for each group of three or four stu-dents), and 1.7 Strategies for Interrupting Prejudice. 1.Remind students that all six of the styles for

handling conflict described on handout 1.4, Six Ways of Handling Conflict s, can be used to deal with prejudice- and stereotype-related conflict.

2.Divide students into groups of three or four and

give each group a copy of handout 1.7, Strategies for Interrupting Prejudice. Explain that each group will receive two different case studies that tell of how someone dealt with or “inter-rupted” prejudice in a conflict. Some of the peo-ple were effective; some were not. The group will have about five minutes to read a case, then discuss the questions on the handout and de-cide what they think. (You may allow more time for this activity if you choose.)3.Distribute two case studies to each group. Some

groups will have the same case studies as oth-ers. You will want to consider the standards of your community in choosing which case studies to use. Allow about five minutes for each case study. As the groups work, give them time warn-ings. After five minutes, they should move on to the second case study, unless you are able to give them more time.

4.When the groups have finished, have each

group share with the class one of the case stud-ies they discussed. Discuss the following ques-tions as a class:

?What were the most ineffective ways of deal-ing with these conflicts?

?What values were at work in these conflicts?

?What role did values play in the conflicts?

?Did any of the people in these cases use con-flict productively? How?

?Have you ever been in similar situations?

What did you do?

F.Summarize the Key Points from the Lesson Handouts:N o n e

Summarize the following key points with students at the end of the lesson:

?Stereotyping can lead to prejudice, which can lead to discrimination, and scapegoating. Each of these actions harms all the people involved.?There are different styles of dealing with conflict and these fit the broad categories of Fight, Flight, Working It Out/Collaboration, and Com-promise.

?Conflict-resolution skills can help in handling prejudice-related conflicts.

4◆Social Studies Update? Prentice-Hall, Inc.

? Prentice-Hall, Inc.Worksheet ◆5

Stereotype

A mental image of a group based on opinion without re-gard to individual differences.

Prejudice

A negative judgment or opinion formed about a group without knowledge of the facts.

Discrimination

Treating people in a less favorable way because they are members of a particular group. Discrimination is prejudice in action.

Scapegoating

Projecting one’s weaknesses or faults onto others and the resulting hostile behavior (either actions or words)toward those individuals or groups.

prejudice-related

Understanding Prejudice: Some Definitions

We All Lose!

prejudice-related

prejudice-related

6◆Worksheet? Prentice-Hall, Inc.

? Prentice-Hall, Inc.Worksheet ◆7

1.Steven was hit in the eye with a softball, and to everyone’s surprise, he started to cry.

The other guys then started to snicker. Jorge felt bad for him, but laughed along with the other guys.

2.Some Latino students asked Shirley to join their group to do a math project. She thought that because their English wasn’t good, they couldn’t be very smart. She joined another group. The Latino group got an A. Shirley’s group didn’t.

3.Gabe was a great dancer. One day the physical education teacher suggested that Gabe might want to take up ballet. Gabe liked the idea, but the more he thought about it, the more he was afraid that the other guys would make fun of him. He dropped the idea,along with lots of good exercise and a possible career.

4.Joan’s family doesn’t have much money and lives in a different neighborhood from Lu

Ellen’s. When Joan invited Lu Ellen to a birthday party, Lu Ellen assumed the house would be messy and dirty. She didn’t go. Later everyone told her how nice the house was, and how good the food was.

5.Arnie’s younger sister keeps calling her friend a “wild Indian.” She shoots him again

and again with a toy gun. Arnie is bothered by this name-calling, but he doesn’t say anything.

6.Karen is having trouble in math class. She keeps going for extra help, but her grades are not improving. The teacher tells her it’s okay because girls don’t do well at math.

prejudice-related

Prejudice Situation Cards

AGGRESSION

?Physical Fighting ?Y ell

?Make the Other Person Feel Bad

COLLABORATE

?Problem-Solve Together ?Talk It Over

?Come Up with a Solution You Both Like ?Negotiate

COMPROMISE

?Everyone Gives a Little

?No One Gets Exactly What They Want

GIVE IN

?Let Them Have Their Way ?You Don’t Care That Much

?The Other Person Has All the Power

AVOID or DELAY

?Pretend Nothing’s Wrong ?Run Away

?Stay Away from the Other Person

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY

?Get an Authority to Decide or Settle the Dispute

prejudice-related

Six Ways of Handling Conflict

8◆Worksheet ? Prentice-Hall, Inc.

? Prentice-Hall, Inc.Worksheet ◆9

Theresa and Denisha in the school library:1.

Theresa:Hey, that’s my book. I reserved it last week!Denisha:Then why was it on the shelf? I got it first.

Theresa:(Walking away angrily) Okay, then. She’s so pushy! I reserved it first.2.

Denisha:I need this book for class.

Theresa:I reserved it and I need it, too. Can we work something out?Denisha:I need to have it read by Friday. When do you need it?Theresa:Let me have it first, and I’ll have it finished by Wednesday.Denisha:

I was hoping to have it a little longer, but I can live with that.

3.

Denisha:I need this book for class.

Theresa:But I reserved it! I can prove it.

Librarian:Yes, Theresa reserved it. Denisha, you can have it next week.4.

Denisha:I need this book for class.

Theresa:I reserved it, and I need it, too. Can we work something out?Denisha:I’m writing a paper, and I need it for research. It’s due Friday.

Theresa:

I have to write a book report on this book. And it’s due Friday. Do you have to use this book or could you get the information from another book?

Denisha:

Sure, if there was another book with this information.Theresa:Actually, I know of a couple. Come here, I’ll show you.

5.

Theresa:Hey, give me that book. I reserved it last week!Denisha:Too bad. I got it first.

Theresa:Give it to me. (She grabs at it and knocks Denisha’s notebook out of her hands.)

Denisha:Look what you did! What a jerk you are!Theresa:(Sarcastically) Thanks for the book.

6.

Theresa:Denisha, don’t take that book. I reserved it last week. I need it for class.Denisha:

O k a y . I was just looking at it. It looks good. Let me know when you’ve finished.

prejudice-related

Conflict-Resolution Styles Skits

Case 1

Five students were concerned about racial conflicts in their school.One of them had heard about a group of athletes that would come to school and talk with students about prejudice and racism. The stu-dents wanted to bring this group to their school. They met with the as-sistant principal and a guidance counselor and got their help in arrang-ing an assembly. They raised money for the speakers by having a bake sale and by asking some business people to help them. The athletes came and spoke to the students, and everyone was inspired by them.

Case 2

Martin saw a group of three younger students picking on a mentally disabled man in his neighborhood. The man was getting upset, and this made the children tease him all the more. It made Martin angry to see this. “Hey you kids, knock it off, or I’m going to come after you myself.”The children saw who was yelling and ran off.

Case 3

Eileen hangs out with some girls who are very popular. They often tease and laugh at Charlene, a girl in their class who doesn’t have much money. Eileen hates the way they pick on Charlene, but goes along with it because she really wants this group of girls to like her.

Case 4

Liu is new to the country and doesn’t speak much English. She has been teased by a group of boys in school. Now, whenever she sees these boys coming, she walks away quickly. She tries never to be where they are.

Case 5

Jon is at his relative’s house on Sunday afternoon. He’s sitting with all the men in his family, watching the football game. One of his uncles starts to say racist things about some of the players on the team. Jon is uncomfortable, but doesn’t know what to do. His father isn’t saying anything either. Jon thinks, “If I don’t say anything, he’ll stop. I’ll just let it go. It’s his house.”

prejudice-related

Interrupting Prejudice Case Studies

10◆Worksheet ? Prentice-Hall, Inc.

? Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Worksheet ◆11

Case 6

Ruth, who is African-American, is constantly in conflict with Isabella, a Latina girl in her grade. Ruth feels that Isabella is always putting her down and making racist comments about her. Isabella makes the com-ments in Spanish, so Ruth isn’t sure. Ruth likes to go to the Youth Cen-ter, but doesn’t feel comfortable when Isabella is there. She is tired of these conflicts, so she approaches Isabella one day. “Look,” she says,“We really get on each other’s nerves. So I’ll make a deal with you. I’ll stay out of your way for the whole school day, if you stay out of the Y outh Center.” Isabella agrees to the deal.

Case 7

One day Mario’s friend Dan started making jokes about Italians, saying they were stupid and dirty. Mario, who is Italian, didn’t say anything.But as he walked home from Dan’s house, he thought to himself, “I’m going to say something. I just need to calm down and figure out how I want to say it. Then I’m going to call him tonight.”

Case 8

Because of surgery she had on her leg, Casel walks with a brace and a cane. Before the surgery she couldn’t walk at all. Now she goes to a new school where a group of boys taunt her every day on her way to her sixth period class. She’s tried ignoring them, but they keep doing it.One day she sees one of the boys in the library, sitting by himself. She goes up to him and says, “Why do you and your friends pick on me? I never did anything to you? The boy mumbles an apology. “Will you stop?” Casel asks. The boy agrees, then leaves.

Case 9

The students in one school stick pretty much with their own racial and ethnic group. They don’t mix much, and when they do, it’s often be-cause they’re in conflict. But one of the teachers has organized a pro-ject to paint a mural on the side of the school. Eight students have been chosen to design and paint the mural. They are students from all different racial and ethnic backgrounds, and they have to make deci-sions together and work together. As a result of working on the project,they get to be friends and start hanging out together.

Interrupting Prejudice Case Studies

prejudice-related

(continued)

Strategies for Interrupting Prejudice

prejudice-related

12◆Worksheet? Prentice-Hall, Inc.

TOP相关主题