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托福100句长难句

1.Totally without light and subjected to intense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth’s surface,the deep—ocean bottom is a hostile environment to humans,in some ways as forbidding and remote as the void of outer space.

(定语后置in some ways…)

由于完全没有光,而且承受着比在地球表面大数百倍的极大压力,深海底部对人类而言是一个充满敌意的环境,在某些方面就像外层空间一样险恶和遥远。

Totally without light and subjected to intense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth’s surface 原因状语

the deep—ocean bottom is a hostile environment to humans 主句

in some ways as forbidding and remote as the void of outer space 后置定语,修饰a hostile environment to humans

整个句子结构是:

原因状语+主句+后置定语

这是一个主句前后分别有状语和定语的修饰成分,但是不是复合句。句子的核心意思是深海对于人类而言是一个充满敌意的环境。

2.Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War is the country's impressive population growth.

(倒装结构Basic to any understanding…is…)

要理解二战之后20年中的加拿大,就必须了解该国惊人的人口增长。

该句的正常语序是The country's impressive population growth is basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War.

本句是一个简单句,只不过使用了倒装,谓语动词是is.

3.As a result,claims that eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or cures disease or provides other benefits to health have become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore.

(同位语从句claims that…)

本句的主句结构是claims have become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore. 那些观点广为人知,并成为一些民间说法的基础。

同位语从句是that eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or cures disease or provides other benefits to health:只食用绿色食品就能防治疾病或增进健康

本句的机构是主句内部嵌套一个同位语从句,

结果,那些认为只食用绿色食品就能防治疾病或增进健康的观点广为人知,并成为一些民间说法的基础。

4.There are numerous unsubstantiated reports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones,that fertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs,that untreated grains are better than fumigated grains and the like.

(并列同位语从句reports that…,that…,that…)

关于天然维生素优于人造维生素,受精蛋比未受精蛋的营养价值更高,未经熏蒸消毒处理的谷物比经过处理的好等等报道屡见不鲜,但都没有得到证实。

5·The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that reconstruction had to be undertaken also in the North,though less spectacularly.

(同位语从句fact that…)

南方极为严重的困境使北方同样需要开始重建(尽管不像南方那么引人注目)这一事实显得不太重要。

6·The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl.(宾语从句what we now know as)

现在可以获得这些环绕几乎每个大城市边缘地区的土地,这一可能性激发了一场房地产开发的热潮并造成了我们现在称为城区无计划扩展的现象。

7.But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.

(of结构作定语:of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs…)

但这些因素并不能解释这个有趣的问题:为何在一个特定的地点会如此集中地出现即将临产的怀孕鱼龙群。

8.Amid rumors that there were prehistoric mammoths wandering around the unknown region and that somewhere in its wilds was a mountain of rock salt 80 by 50 miles in extent,the two captains set out.

(同位语从句rumors that…)

当时有一些传言,说有史前的猛犸在这一陌生的区域活动,而且在这一区域的某个地方有一座巨大的盐石山,其面积达80英里长50英里宽。就在这些传言中,两位上尉出发了。

9. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord,and the harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group,a supremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of the eighteenth century.

(同位语a supremacy)

17世纪时,管风琴,敲弦琴和拨弦琴成为键盘类乐器的主要成员,这种至高无上的地位一直由它们保持,直到18世纪末被钢琴所取代。

10.A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame and steel wire of the finest quality,finally produced an instrument capable of myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound,from a liquid,singing tone to a sharp, percussive brilliance.

(介词结构from…to…作定语)

持续到19世纪的一系列机械上的改进,包括引入踏板以维持音调或使其柔和,改善金架,以及使用最佳牲能的钢丝,最终产生了一种具备无数音调效果的乐器——这些效果涵盖了从最精致的和声到几乎全部

的管弦乐音响,从明快流畅的吟唱音调到尖锐的打击乐器的恢弘气氛。

11.The largest, later named Pueblo Bonito(Pretty Town)by the Spanish, rose in five terraced stories,contained more than 800 rooms,and could have housed a population of 1,000 or more.

(虚拟语气)

最大的一座后来被西班牙人称为Pueblo Bonito(美丽的城镇),是一个五层梯式楼,有800多问房子,能够容纳1 000人以上。

12.Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”,the film has never been,in the full sense of the word, silent.

(倒装accustomed though we are…=though we are accustomed…)

虽然我们习惯于将1927年以前的电影叫做“无声电影”,但是就“无声’’这个词的完整意义上说,电影从未真正的无声过。

13.For a number of years the selection of music for each film program rested entirely in the hands of the conductor or leader of the orchestra,and very often the principal qualification for holding such a position was not skill or taste so much as the ownership of a large personal library of musical pieces.

(特殊结构not…SO much as…——与其说…不如说…)

在好些年内,为各部影片选择配乐的权力完全掌握在乐队指挥或队长手中,而通常担任这种职位的资格与其说是技巧或鉴赏品位,不如说是个人拥有音乐作品的丰富收藏。

14·Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity,the number of species in a particular ecosystem,to the health of the Earth and human well-being.

(倒装coincident with concerns…has been…=…has been coincident with concerns…)

在对物种和动物栖息地加速消失表示关注的同时,人们也越来越认识到生物多样化,即一个特定生态系统中物种的数量对地球的健康以及人类幸福的重要性。

15.The fact that half of the known species are thought to inhabit the world's rain forests does not seem surprising,considering the huge numbers of insects that comprise the bulk of the species.(同位语从句fact that…;定语从句that comprise the bulk…)

考虑到组成大部分物种的昆虫的巨大数量,认为半数的已知物种栖息在世界的雨林中这一事实看起来并不令人吃惊。

16.To appreciate fully the diversity and abundance of life in the sea,it helps to think small.(特殊结构it he lps to…做…有帮助) 要充分认识海洋生命的多样性和丰富性,从小的角度思考有帮助。

1 7.Science is built with facts just as a house is built with bricks,but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.

(特殊结构not any more than像…一样不…)

科学建立在事实上,就像房子用砖砌成一样。但收集的事实不能被叫做科学,就像一堆砖不能被称为房子一样。

18.The variation between the hemispheres corresponds to which side of the body is used to perform specific activities.

(从句which side…is used…作corresponds to的宾语

两个半球之间的不同与身体的哪一部分用于进行特定的活动是对应的。

19.In a period characterized by the abandonment of so much of the realistic tradition by authors such as John Barth,Donald Barthelme,and Thomas Pynchon, Joyce Carol Oates has seemed at times determinedly

old-fashioned in her insistence on the essentially mimetic quality of her fiction.

(特殊结构characterized by…——以…为特征)

尽管处于一个以抛弃大量现实主义传统(以作家约翰·巴思、唐纳德·巴塞尔姆和托马斯.品钦为代表)为特征的时代,乔伊斯·卡罗尔·欧茨因为坚持自己小说本质上模仿的特点,有时候看起来是一个坚定的守旧派。

20.If it were not for this faculty,they would devour all the food available in short time and would probably starve themselves out of existence.

(虚拟语气)

如果不是具有这种能力,它们就会在短时间内吞掉所有能得到的食物,而且很可能会因饿死而灭绝。

21.Individualism is weakly developed in folk cultures,as are social classes.

(倒装as are social classes) 个人主义和社会阶层在民间文化群体中的发展十分薄弱。

22.People in the United States in the nineteenth century were haunted by the prospect that unprecedented change in the nation's economy would bring social chaos.

(同位语从句prospect that…)

19世纪的美国人因为害怕国家经济中史无前例的变化会带来社会混乱这一前景而提心吊胆。

23.Accompanying that growth was a structural change that featured increasing economic diversification and a gradual shift in the nation's labor force from agriculture to manufacturing and other nonagricultural pursuits.

(倒装Accompanying that growth was a structural change that…=A structural change…was accompanying that growth)

伴随着这一增长的是一个结构变化,它以经济的不断多样化和国家劳动力从农业到制造业和其他非农业职业的逐渐转化为特征。

24.As the roles men and women played in society became more rigidly defined, so did the roles they played in the home.

(倒装so did…)

随着男人和女人在社会中扮演的角色被限定的更加严格,他们在家中的角色也是如此。

25. Surrounding the column are three sepals and three petals, sometimes easily recognizable as such, often distorted into gorgeous, weird, but always functional shapes.(sepal花萼,萼片petal花瓣)

(倒装Surrounding the column are...)

围绕着蕊住的是三个萼片和三个花瓣,有时候很容易辨认出来,但经常被扭成华丽、奇特但总是有用的形状。

26. With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second Word War and the economic boom that followed it, young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression.

(倒装than had their predecessors 比较结构的第二部分)

随着二战带来的持续繁荣以及随之而来的经济增长,年轻人比大萧条中的同龄人结婚成家更早,而且养育的家庭比他们的前辈更大。

27. The railroad could be and was a despoiler of nature; furthermore, in its manifestation of speed and noise, it might be a despoiler of human nature as well. (despoiler掠夺者manifestation表现,表明)

(关联结构could be and was)

铁路可以,事实上也是自然的掠夺者;而且,在其速度和噪音的表现上也可能是人性的掠夺者。

28. In the railroad’s prime years, between 1890 and 1920, there were a few individuals in the United States, most of them with solid railroading experience behind them, who made a profession of writing about

railroading----works offering the ambience of stations, yards, and locomotive cabs. (prime黄金时期railroading铁路建设和经营locomotive cab机车,火车头)

(同位语most of them;定语从句who made a profession of writing)

在1890年到1920年间铁路的黄金时期,美国有几个人(他们大多有丰富的铁路经验)以写铁路题材为职业----作品围绕车站、停车场和机车。

29. On the other hand, when it comes to substantive----particularly behavioral-information, crows are less well known than many comparably common species and, for that matter, not a few quite uncommon ones: the endangered California condor, to cite one obvious example.(condor秃鹫)

(特殊结构for that matter)

在另一方面,当涉及实质性的,特别是行为方面的信息时,乌鸦就不如许多比较而言很普通的鸟类那样为人所知;而且,也不如许多很不寻常的鸟类,举一个明显的例子,如像濒危的加利福尼亚大秃鹫那样为人所知。

30. Keen observers and quick learners, they are astute about the intentions of other creatures, including researchers, and adept at avoiding them.(keen敏锐的astute精明的,敏锐的)

(并列同位语keen observers and quick learners)

乌鸦是敏锐的观察家和快捷的学习者,它们对其他生物(包括研究人员)的意图感觉非常敏锐,并且善于多开它们。

31.These researchers have sought to demonstrate that their work can be a valuable tool not only of science but also of history, providing fresh insights into the daily lives of ordinary people whose existences might not otherwise be so well documented.

(宾语从句demonstrate that...;特殊结构otherwise)

这些研究人员已经力图证实它们的工作不仅可以成为科学而且还是历

史的宝贵工具,为了解普通人的日常生活提供新的观点,否则这些普通人的生存状态不可能被记载的这么好。

32.Legend has it that sometime toward the end of the Civil

War(1861--1865)a government train carrying oxen traveling through the

northern plains of eastern Wyoming was caught in a snowstorm and had to be abandoned.

(特殊结构Legend has it that…=There is a legend that…)

传说在内战(1861--1865)快结束的某个时候,一列载着牛群的政府的火车在穿过怀俄明州东部的北部平原时遇到了暴风雪,因此不得不被遗弃。

33.It is a lifelong process,a process that starts long before the start of school and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life.

(并列同位语a process that…,and one that…)

教育是一个终生的过程,早在人们上学之前就开始了。它应成为人的一生中不可缺少的一部分。

34.Life's transition from the sea to the land was perhaps as much of an evolutionary challenge as was the genesis of life.

(特殊结构as much…as;倒装as was the genesis of life) 生命从海洋到陆地的过渡可能是一个像生命起源那样的进化挑战。

35.In agriculture,the transformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators,the cotton presses,the warehouses,and the commodity exchanges that seemed to so many of the nation's farmers the visible sign of a vast conspiracy against them.

(特殊结构marked by;定语从句that seemed…the visible sign…)

在农业上,这一变化的标志是谷物升降机、皮棉打包机厂、货栈和商品交换的出现,对全国的众多农民来说它们是反对农民的大阴谋的明显标志。

36.And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building.

(where引导定语从句;what引导的从句作presided over的宾语)

仍然有像金属制造厂一类的工厂,在那里个体承包商管理在同一幢楼里的本质上是手工艺品所有人的工场。

37.But as the number of wage earners in manufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4 million in 1920.the number of

huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia burgeoned,as did the size of the average plant.

(倒装结构as did…)

但随着制造业中挣工资的人数从1880年的270万上升到1900年的450万到1920年的840万,像费城的包德温机车工厂这样的大型工厂的数量也大幅增加,同时普通工厂的规模也剧增。

38.What we today call American folk art was,indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday “folks” who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds.and especially for portraits.

(what引导的从句作主语;介词结构(art)of,by,and for…——…所有、所创和所享的(艺术)) 我们今天所称的美国民间艺术确实是被普通民众所有、所创和所享的艺术。随着日渐繁荣和不断增加的空闲,这些民众为各种艺术,尤其是肖像艺术创造了一个市场。

39.But in the heyday of portrait painting--from the late eighteenth century until the 1850’s—anyone with a modicum of artistic ability could become a limner as such a portraitist was called.

(as引导方式状语从句)

但是在肖像画的全盛期——从18世纪晚期一直到19世纪50年代——任何一个稍有艺术能力的人都能够成为一个绘画者(人们当时就是这样称呼一个肖像画家的)。

40.The sculptural legacy that the new United States inherited from its colonial predecessors was far from a rich one,and in fact,in 1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands of artisans and craftspeople.

(并列句;特殊结构far from) 新生的美国从其殖民地时期的先辈那里继承的雕塑遗产远远谈不上丰富,而且,实际上在

41.0n the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired,Americans turned to foreign sculptors,as in the 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina,commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pitt.

(句子主干是Americans turned to foreign sculptors;两个when都引导定语从句:occasion when…,1770's when…;as(in the 1770's)的意思是“正如”)