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语言学 全部习题+答案

第三章

Morphology

I. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False:

1.Morphology studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed.

2.Words are the smallest meaningful units of language.

3.Just as a phoneme is the basic unit in the study of phonology,so is a morpheme the basic unit in the study of morphology.

4.The smallest meaningful units that can be used freely all by themselves are free morphemes.

5.Bound morphemes include two types:roots and affixes.

6.Inflectional morphemes manifest various grammatical relations or grammatical categories such as number,tense,degree,and case.

7.The existing form to which a derivational affix can be added is called a stem,which can be a bound root,a free morpheme,or a derived form itself.

8.Prefixes usually modify the part of speech of the original word,not the meaning of it.

9.There are rules that govern which affix can be added to what type of stem to form a new word. Therefore,words formed according to the morphological rules are acceptable words.

10.Phonetically,the stress of a compound always falls on the first element,while the second element receives secondary stress.

II. Fill in each blank below with one word which begins with the letter given:

11.M ____ is the smallest meaningful unit of language.

12.The affix “-ish” in the word ‘boyish’ conveys a g____ meaning.

13.B___________ morphemes are those that cannot be used independently but have to be combined with other morphemes,either free or bound,to form a word.

14.Affixes are of two types:inflectional affixes and d__________ affixes.

15.D________ affixes are added to an existing form to create words.

16.A s______ is added to the end of stems to modify the meaning of the original word and it may case change its part of speech.

17.C__________ is the combination of two or sometimes more than two words to create new words.

18.The rules that govern which affix can be added to what type of stem to form a new word are called m___________ rules.

19.In terms of morphemic analysis,d_______________ can be viewed as the addition of affixes to stems to form new words.

20.A s______ can be a bound root,a free morpheme,or a derived form itself to which

a derivational affix can be added.

III. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement:

21The morpheme “vision” in the common word “television” is a(n)______.

A. bound morpheme

B. bound form

C. inflectional morpheme

D. free morpheme

22. The compound word “bookstore” is the place where books are sold. This indicates that the meaning of a compound __________.

A. is the sum total of the meaning of its components

B. can always be worked out by looking at the meanings of morphemes

C. is the same as the meaning of a free phrase

D. None of the above

23. The part of speech of the compounds is generally determined by the part of speech of __________.

A. the first element

B. the second element

C. either the first or the second element

D. both the first and the second elements

24. _______ are those that cannot be used independently but have to be combined with other morphemes,either free or bound,to form a word.

A. Free morphemes

B. Bound morphemes

C. Bound words

D. Words

25. _________ is a branch of grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed.

A. Syntax

B. Grammar

C. Morphology

D. Morpheme

26. The meaning carried by the inflectional morpheme is _______.

A. lexical

B. morphemic

C. grammatical

D. semantic

27. Bound morphemes are those that ___________.

A. have to be used independently

B. can not be combined with other morphemes

C. can either be free or bound

D. have to be combined with other morphemes

28. ____ modify the meaning of the stem,but usually do not change the part of speech of the original word.

A. Prefixes

B. Suffixes

C. Roots

D. Affixes

29. _________ are often thought to be the smallest meaningful units of language by the linguists.

A. Words

B. Morphemes

C. Phonemes

D. Sentences

30. “-s” in the word “books” is_______.

A. a derivative affix

B. a stem

C. an inflectional affix

D. a root IV. Define the following terms:

31.morphology 32.

inflectional morphology 33.

derivational morphology

34.morpheme 35.free

morpheme 36.bound morpheme

37.root 38.affix 39.prefix

40.suffix 41.derivation http://www.wendangku.net/doc/a2ccc66c0722192e4436f622.htmlpounding

V. Answer the following questions:

43.What are the main features of the English compounds?

44.Discuss the types of morphemes with examples.

Suggested Answers

I. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False.

l.T 2.F 3.T 4.T 5.T 6.T 7.T 8.F 9.F 10.T

II. Fill in each blank below with one word which begins with the letter given.

11.Morpheme 12.

grammatical

13.Bound 14.derivative

15.Derivative 16.suffix http://www.wendangku.net/doc/a2ccc66c0722192e4436f622.htmlpounding 18.

morphological

19.derivation 20.stem

III. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement.

2l.D 22.D 23.B 24.B 25.C 26.C 27.D 28.A 29.B 30.C

IV. Define the following terms.

31.Morphology:Morphology is a branch of grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed.

32.Inflectional morphology:The inflectional morphology studies the inflections

33.Derivational morphology:Derivational morphology is the study of word- formation.

34.Morpheme:It is the smallest meaningful unit of language.

35.Free morpheme:Free morphemes are the morphemes which are independent units of meaning and can be used freely all by themselves or in combination with oth-er morphemes.

36.Bound morpheme:Bound morphemes are the morphemes which cannot be used indepen-dently but have to be combined with other morphemes,either free or bound,to form a word.

37.Root:A root is often seen as part of a word;it can never stand by itself al-though it bears clear,definite meaning;it must be combined with another root or an affix to form a word.

38.Affix:Affixes are of two types:inflectional and derivational. Inflectional affixes manifest various grammatical relations or grammatical categories,while derivational affixes are added to an existing form to create a word.

39.Prefix:Prefixes occur at the begin-ning of a word. Prefixes modify the meaning of the stem,but they usually do not change the part of speech of the original word.

40.Suffix:Suffixes are added to the end of the stems;they modify the meaning of the original word and in many cases change its part of speech.

41.Derivation:Derivation is a process of word formation by which derivative affixes are added to an existing form to create a word.

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/a2ccc66c0722192e4436f622.htmlpounding:Compounding can be viewed as the combination of two or sometimes more than two words to create new words.

V. Answer the following questions.

43.What are the main features of the English compounds?

Orthographically a compound can be written as one word,two separate words with or without a hyphen in between. Syntactically,the part of speech of a compound is determined by the last element. Semantically,the meaning of a compound is idiomatic,not calcu-lable from the meanings of all its components. Phonetically,the word stress of a compound usually falls on the first element.

44.Discuss the types of morphemes with examples.

Free morphemes:They are the independent units of meaning and can be used freely all by themselves,for example,“book-” in the word “bookish”.

Bound morphemes:They are those that cannot be used independently but have to be combined with other morphemes,either free or bound,to form a word such as “-ish” in “bookish”. Bound morphemes can be subdivided into roots and affixes. A root is seen as part of a word;it can never stand by itself although it has a clear and definite meaning,such as “gene-” in the word “generate”. Affixes are of two types:inflectional and derivational. Inflectional morphemes manifest various grammatical relations or grammatical categories such as “-s” in the word “books” to indicate plurality of nouns. Derivational affixes are added to an existing form to create a word such as “mis-”in the word “misinform”. Derivational affixes can also be divided into prefixes and suffixes. Prefixes occur at the beginning of a word such as “dis- ” in the word “dislike”,while suffixes occur at the end of a word such as “-less” in the word “friendless”.

Unit I Some Preliminaries about Language

I. Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false:

1. Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language.

2. A scientific study of language is based on what the linguist thinks.

3. General linguistics is generally the study of language as a whole

4. Phonetics is different from phonology in that the latter studies the

combinations of the sounds to convey meaning in communication.

5. The study of the ways in which morphemes can be combined to form

words is called morphology.

6. Applied linguistics is the application of linguistic principles and theories to

language teaching and learning

7 Competence and performance refer respectively to a language user’s

underlying knowledge about the system of rules and the actual use of language in concrete

8 Language is a means of verbal communication. Therefore, the

communication way used by the deaf-mute is not language

9 By diachronic study we mean to study the changes and development of language

10 language change is universal, ongoing and arbitrary

11. There is universal agreement about the origin of language.

12. Pet dogs can speak human languages.

13. All human infants can speak some language.

14. By creativity we mean the creative use of language as often practiced by poets.

15. With different cultures there will be different languages.

16. Not all uses of language are meant to convey new information.

II. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the letter given:

1. Chomsky defines “competence” as the ideal user’s k__________ of

the rules of his language.

2. Langue refers to the a__________ linguistic system shared by all the

members of a speech community while the parole is the concrete use of the conventions and application of the rules.

3 The description of a language as it change through time is a ________study

4 .Language is a system of a_________ vocal symbols used for human communication.

5 .The discipline that studies the rules governing the formation of words

into permissible sentences in languages is called s________.

6 Language ,broadly speaking, is a means of _________communication

7 language has many functions. we can use language to talk about itself. This function is________

8 Theory that primitive man made involuntary vocal noises while

performing heavy work has been called the ___________theory

9 One general principle of linguistic analysis is the primacy of ___________over writing

10 D_________ is one of the design features of human language which

refers to the phenomenon that language consists of two levels: a lower

level of meaningless individual sounds and a higher level of meaningful

units.

III. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement.

1. If a linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually

use, it is said to be ______________.

A. prescriptive

B. analytic

C. descriptive

D. linguistic

2 .Which of the following is not a design feature of human language?

A. Arbitrariness

B. Displacement

C. Duality

D. Meaningfulness

3. Modern linguistics regards the written language as ____________.

A. primary

B. correct

C. secondary

D. stable

4 The function of the sentence“water boil at 100 degrees centigrade”

A interrogative

B directive

C informative

D performative

5. A historical study of language is a ____ study of language.

A. synchronic

B. diachronic

C. prescriptive

D. comparative

6 language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols for human __________.

A contact

B communication

C relation

D community

7 languages is _______

A instinctive

B non-instinctive

C static

D genetically

transmitted

8 A linguist regards the change in language and language use as _______

A unnatural

B something to be feared

C natural

D abnormal

9 which of the following words is entirely arbitrary

A tree

B crash

C typewriter

D bang

10. In modern linguistics, speech is regarded as more basic than writing,

because ___________.

A. in linguistic evolution, speech is prior to writing

B. speech plays a greater role than writing in terms of the amount of

information conveyed.

C. speech is always the way in which every native speaker acquires his mother

tongue

D. All of the above

IV. Define the following terms:

1. Linguistics

2. Phonology

3. Syntax

4 Design features 5. Psycholinguistics 6. Language 7. Phonetics 8. Morphology 9.parole

V. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible. Give examples for illustration if necessary:

1. Language is generally defined as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols

used for human communication. Explain it in detail.

2. What are the design features of human language? Illustrate them with

examples.

3. How do you understand the distinction between a synchronic study

and a diachronic study?

4. Why does modern linguistics regard the spoken form of language as

primary, not the written?

5. What are the major distinctions between langue and parole?

6. There is a well-known story in the Bible that reflects the importance of

language in human society. According to the Old Testament, mankind

spoke only one language until Nimrod began to build a tower that was to reach heaven. The Lord said, “Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. Come, let us go down, and there confuse their language, that they may not understand each other’s speech.”

ASK:

(1) What if there were no language?

(2) What if there were only one language the world over?

(3) What can we learn from this Bible story?

7. Not only are many languages dying today, many dialects are also

disappearing from the planet. For example, according to a report once circulated on the Internet, many parents discourage their children from speaking their local dialect. They would rather their children took hold of every chance to learn English, because the latter will give them an edge in future competition.

ASK:

(1) What measures do you suggest for protecting dialects as well as

languages?

(2) Do you think that someday people all over the world will speak only one

language, or someday no dialect will exist?

8. Can our pets learn human languages? Why or why not?

9. What role does body language play in language communication?

Unit I Some Preliminaries about

Language

Answer:

I.Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false:

l. T 2.F 3.T 4.T 5.T 6T 7 T 8F 9 T 10F 11. F 12.F 13.F 14. F 15. F 16. T

II. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the letter given:

1. Knowledge

2. Abstract

3. Diachronic linguistics

4. Arbitrary

5. Syntax 6 verbal

7 metalingual function 8 yo-he ho 9 speech

10 Duality

III. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement.

l. C 2.D 3.C 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.B 8.C 9.A 10.D

I V. Define the following terms:

1. Linguistics: Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of

language.

2. Phonology: The study of how sounds are put together and used in

communication is called phonology.

3. Syntax: The study of how morphemes and words are combined to form

sentences is called syntax. .

4 Design features: it referred to the defining properties of human language

that tell the difference between human language that tell the difference between human language and any system of animal communication. 5. Psycholinguistics: The study of language with reference to the workings of

mind is called psycholinguistics.

6. Language: Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for

human communication.

7. Phonetics: The study of sounds which are used in linguistic

communication is called phonetics.

8. Morphology: The study of the way in which morphemes are arranged to

form words is called morphology.

9. Parole: it referred to the actual phenomena or data of linguistics.

V. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible.

Give examples for illustration if necessary:

1. Language is generally defined as a system of arbitrary vocal

symbols used for human communication. Explain it in detail.

First of all, language is a system, because

Elements of language are com­ bined according to rules. Secondly, language is arbitrary because there is no intrinsic connection between form and meaning, or between the sign and what it stands for. Different languages have different words for the same ob­ject in the world.

This fact is a good illustration of the arbitrary nature of language. This also explains the symbolic nature of language: words are just

Symbols; they are associated with objects, actions, ideas, etc. by conven­ tion. Thirdly, language is vocal because the primary medium is sound for all languages, no matter how well developed their writing systems are. The term "human" in the definition indicates that language is possessed by human beings only and is very different from the communication systems of other living creatures. The term “communication" means that language makes it possible for its users to talk to each other and fulfill their commu­ nicative needs.

2. What are the design features of human language? Illustrate

them with examples.

1) Arbitrariness

As mentioned earlier, the arbitrary property of language means that there is no logical connection between meanings and sounds. For instance, there is no nec­ essary relationship between the word elephant and the animal it symbolizes. In addition, different sounds are used to refer to

the same object in different languages, and even within the same language, the same sound does not refer to the same thing. However, language is not entirely arbitrary. There are words which are created in the imitation of sounds by sounds, such as crash, bang in English. Besides, some compound words are also not entirely arbitrary. But the non-arbitrary words are quite limited in number. The arbitrary nature of language makes it possible for language to have an unlimited source of expressions.

2) Productivity

Language is productive or creative in that it makes possible the con­

struction and interpretation of new signals by its users. This is why they can produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences, including sentences that they have never said or heard before. They can send messages which no one else has ever sent before. Productivity is unique to human language. Most animal communication systems appear to be highly restricted with respect to the number of different signals that their users can send and receive.

3) Duality

The duality nature of language means that language is a system, which consists of two sets of structure, or two levels, one of sounds and the other of meanings. At the lower or the basic level, there is the structure of sounds, which are meaningless, discrete, individual sounds. But the sounds of language can be combined according to rules into units of meaning such as morphemes and words, which, at the higher level, can be arranged into sentences. This duality of structure or dou­ ble articulation of language enables its users to talk about anything within their knowledge. No animal communication system has duality or even comes near to possessing it.

4) Displacement

Displacement means that language can be used to refer to things which are present or not present, real or imagined matters in the past, present, or future, or in far-away places. In other words, language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker. Animal calls are mainly uttered in response to immediate changes of situation.

5) Cultural transmission

Human beings were born with the ability to acquire language, but the

details of any language are not genetically transmitted or passed down by instinct. They have to be taught and learned, but animal call systems are genetically trans­ mitted.

3. How do you understand the distinction between a synchronic study and a diachronic study?

The description of a language at some point in time is a Synchronic study;

the de­ scription of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic study. A synchronic study of language describes a language as it is at some particular point in time, while a diachronic study of language is the study of the historical development of language over a period of time.

4. Why does modern linguistics regard the spoken form of language

as primary, not the written?

First, the spoken form is prior to the writ­ ten form and most writing systems are derived from

The spoken form of lan­ guage. Second, the spoken form plays a greater role than writing in terms of the amount of information conveyed and it serves a wider range of purposes finally, the spoken form is the medium through which we acquire our mother tongue.

5. What are the major distinctions between langue and parole?

The distinct, ion between langue, and parole was made by the famous Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure early this century. Langue refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community, and parole refers to the realization of langue in actual use. Langue is the set of conventions and rules which language users all have to follow while parole is the concrete use of the conventions and the application of the rules.

Langue is abstract; it is not the language people actually use, but parole is concrete; it refers to the naturally occurring language events. Langue is relatively stable, it does not change frequently; while parole varies from person to person, and from situation to situation.

6.

(1) What if there were no language?

Omit.

(2) What if there were only one language the world over?

Omit.

(3) What can we learn from this Bible story?

Language is powerful as a tool of human communication.

7.

(1) What measures do you suggest for protecting dialects as well as languages?

Omit.

(2) Do you think that someday people all over the world will speak only one language, or someday no

dialect will exist?

Omit.

8. Can our pets learn human languages? Why or why not?

No. They are genetically not endowed with the capacity.

9. What role does body language play in language communication?

Omit.