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自考高级英语。串讲。冲刺ing


高级英语
高级英语学习宗旨
高级英语学习的重点已从基本的英语语音,词汇,语法的掌握上升到:
一、 阅读理解及词汇应用:能够区分、应用同、近义词;很好地理解文章的主题与内容。
二、 提高英语的表达能力:学员应能用英语解释英语难句,进行有一定难度的英汉互译,用英语对文章内容进行归纳,并对文章进行简要的分析、评论。
高级英语学习方法
学习时应该注意下列一些方面:
首先,牢记教材是根本。以前,教材单调,教辅条件简陋,照样培养出学贯东西的语言大师来。现在英语读物多了,时尚的学习工具多了,英语并没有变得容易学了。究其原因是人们的心态变了,变得浮躁了。对什么都这山望着那山高,今天这个时髦得学习方法,明天那本最新教材。殊不知一切方法都建立在一定的基础上的,一个人的兴趣、悟性、修行没有到达那个层面,再美好的东西跟你也是无缘。而且从高级英语考试大纲规定来看,以教材为本这一思想也是显而易见的,试卷中60%分值的题目都是根据教材中课文内容设计的。
也许有人会说,这岂不是说要死读书不成。我们学习英语不是要提高交际能力,提高听、说能力吗?试问没有一定词汇量的积累,一定的句法结构,一定的语法水平,你如何张嘴,如何听懂别人说的话。不要用任何借口放弃(或说逃避)对教材学习应该付出的那份心血和艰辛。
其次,要培养自己对教材中三十二篇课文的兴趣和热爱。这些课文不但是帮助我们学好英文语言知识,而且帮助我们学到很多为人处世的道理。
从“Rock Superstars: What Do They Tell Us About Ourselves and Our Society”,我们知道:摇滚乐是‘一种社会心理的表现’; ‘Rock is the music of teenage rebellion’; ‘By a man’s heroes ye shall know him.‘
从“The Trouble with Television”, 我们可以看出电视对社会和文化的负面影响:人们的注意力下降,读写能力出现危机等。
从 “On Human Nature and Politics” , 我们知道从事政治活动的人有四个动机,那就是:占有欲,竞争欲,虚荣心及权利欲。
(这里只举三篇课文为例)
通过精读、熟记这些课文,我们不但可以扩大词汇量、掌握许多句型结构,而且在与他人交谈时不再是只会一点‘乒乓英语’ —— 几个来回,‘短平快’就说不下去了,而是能够使自己说的话既有深度,又有广度,同时有能通过《高级英语》自学考试。以后,我们谈到摇滚不只会说‘闹心’,谈到电视只会说‘费时’,谈到国际政治只会说‘虚伪’,而是可以做到探讨每一个话题的多个方面。这

样一举多得的事何乐而不为呢?
考试要求与应试方法
命题是自学考试的核心,是实现专业考试计划规定的专业标准的关键。因此了解命题的原则与要求、题型、试卷的难易度等,对考生学习是很有帮助的。
现在我们一块来看一下高级英语自学考试大纲[详见《高级英语》下册第335页],通过高级英语的考试要求,结合以往的试题及课后练习,我们提出一些学习方法及应试指导
一、 高级英语考试命题原则
高级英语考试命题原则如下:
1. 高级英语试卷总结构和所占分数比例
每份试卷包括两大部分,第一部分考核教材内容,占总分的60%左右;第二部分是水平考试,使用教材以外的一篇短文,占总分的40%.
2. 高级英语考试项目的技能结构
每份高级英语试卷中考读、写、译三种技能。“读”包括内容理解和词汇掌握:“写”为回答就课文所提的问题:“译”为英译中和中译英。
3. 高级英语考试题目的难度结构
与课程内容有关的题目占60%左右,水平考试的题目占40%左右,其中易占20%左右,较易占30%左右,较难占30%左右,难占20%左右。
二、注意基本功,提高运用语言的能力
语言基本功包括语言知识和语言能力两个方面。正确处理语言知识和语言能力是一个十分重要的问题。《综合英语》的具体任务就是传授语音、语法、词汇、篇章结构、语言功能等知识,培养听说读写译的语言技能。因此,我们学习《综合英语》教材时,就不能把它当作单纯的阅读来对待。《综合英语》的重点应放在口笔头应用能力的训练上。在复习《综合英语》教材时,考生必须正确处理学习语汇、语法和课文的关系。
记忆生词可能是考生的最大困难,不下苦功夫就过不了词汇关。考生可以专门背诵生词,但不能只靠背单词表来记单词,因为孤立地记生词很容易遗忘,即使记住也不会用。要把专门背诵生词和学习课文结合起来,并以学习课文为主。此外,还应掌握一些构词知识,并且在记忆单词时运用这些知识,这对记忆派生词和合成词十分有用。
词的用法涉及语义、语法、修辞等许多方面。学习英语词的用法主要指的是学习某些常用词的基本词义和搭配,这也要和学习课文结合起来。
语法是用词造句的规则,掌握了语法才能正确的理解和运用语言。学习语法首先要弄清语法项目的概念,即了解它的构成形式、意义、功能和在语法体系中的地位。但仅仅理解是不够的,还要记住重要的变化规则和使用规则,并能运用它们。
因此,在复习备考时,考生应把三者的学习结合起来并且

以课文为主来组织自己的学习。
《综合英语》的考核内容包括语言、词汇和语法,但考试的重点是运用语音、词汇和语法的能力,而不是单纯的语音知识。
《综合英语》(一)曾有一道考题要求考生用国际音标注出下列单词中划线字母中字母组织的读音。划线字母或字母组合,多数是在通常情况下该字母或字母组合的发音,也有个别是在不规则情况下的发音或个别词中的发音。因此,考生在复习读音时,不仅要注意在规则情况下字母及字母组合的读音规则,也应注意在不规则情况下或少数词中发音(包括外来词)。
《综合英语》的词汇考核是词或词组在一定上下文中的词义、用法及搭配。例如:选择题:
1.What is the most ( ) way of heating this building in winter?
A. economic B. economical C. economized D. economy
正确答案:B
2.The fax is perhaps the most useful machine to be ( ) since the telephone.
A. make B. discovered D. created D. invented
正确答案:D
3.It\'s getting late. We must be ( )。
A. in the way B. to our way C. on our way D. by the way
正确答案:C
4.They have agreed to do their utmost to ( ) inflation.
A. bring about B. bring forward C. bring up D. bring down
正确答案:D
同样,语法的考核重点也是在一定上下文下运用语法的能力、而不是单纯的考知识。例如:选择题:
1.John had his leg ( ) while paying football.
A. break B. broke C. broken D. breaking
正确答案:C
2.Only by hard work ( ) to accomplish this great task.
A. we will be able B. will we be able C. be able will we D. able will we be
正确答案:B
3.That ( ) the case, we have to make some changes in our plan.
A. is B. was C. has been D. being
正确答案:D
4.( ) be pushed and pulled the drawer, it refused to open.
A. However hard B. How hard C. However hardly D. How hardly
正确答案:A
三、正确处理指定的正式教材和辅导教材的关系
复习备考时,考生应把主要精力放在指定教材上,不要花很多时间去做各种汇编。现在市场上试题汇编泛滥,给一些学习者造成错觉,以为单纯通过做题就可以掌握教材的内容,顺利地通过考试。这是一种误解,因为知识的系统积累和技能的系统培养是任何东西动不能替代的。不要去做那种舍本求末的事情。
当然,在学好指定教材的基础上,适当地参加自学辅导材料,做一些与考试题型相同的试题,对熟悉考试内容、题型与难易度是有一定好处的。但应注意的是,挑选质量较高的辅导材料

,同时不要轻信所谓的“内幕消息”,以免误导。


二、 高级英语试题类型
试题分为两个大部分:A 考核课程内容
B 水平考试,重点为阅读理解能力。
( 注:下列题型作为参考,每次试卷中只选用其中几种。考核课程内容的五类;水平考试的四类。)
A. 高级英语考核教材内容
1. 完形练习
考核学生对课文内容的掌握,从课文句子或段落中抽去一个词或词组,学生需从试卷提供的词或词组中选择与课文一样的填入空中。例如:
(2003年考题)
The following paragraphs are taken from the textbooks, followed by a list of words or expressions marked A to X. Choose the one that best completes each of the sentences and write the corresponding letter on your answer sheet. One word or expression for each blank only. (12 points, 0.5 point each)
● Rumors 1 quickly that I was a FBI agent. I was 2 because I was not 3___ to return. Some people said I was either a federal agent or a 4 , for no 5 man, they said, returns to Watts by 6 .
● Television 7 on advertising to an even greater 8 than newspapers, and since advertising is big business, advertising is by 9 Republican. Yet nowhere in network newscasts or network commentaries on current events have I 10 the intense partisanship, the often rabid 11 that colors the editorial 12 of the majority of newspapers in this country.
● The chances had 13 to one in eight when the 14 clerk drew the second slip. He 15 his throat and 16 his pince-nez as though he had to make sure he was not 17 . “Ah, Monsieur Voisin,” he said with a 18 undecided smile, “May I join you?”
● Some people believe that the time of death is 19 by God and that no man should ___20 the clock back on another. 21 if a patient‘s philosophical views embrace __ 22 , it is not clear why the religious 23 of others should intrude 24___ his death.
A. reasonable B. put C. bias D. choice
E. nature F. yet G. mistaken H. lives
I. thin J. encountered K. euthanasia L. fool
M. spread N. objections O. pages P. extent
Q. elderly R. suspect S. cleared T. narrowed
U. put on V. on W. supposed X. appointed
该题正如考核要求规定,是要检查学员对课文的熟悉程度。假如考生对所学教材了然于心的话,该题做起来当然如探囊取物。这也就是我们为什么在学习高级英语方法时,特别强调要牢记教材课文的原因之一。
由于完型填空题不但测试考生使用词汇和语法结构的能力,同时又测试考生对短文篇章的理解,它是对考生综合运用语言能力的测试,所以考生在考试时确实遇到了困难(最好不要在这样的考题上出麻烦),我们也有一些办法可以采取。完型填空题的一般解题技巧是:
解题技

巧:
1. 通读该段文章。首先了解材料内容,做到心中有底。
2. 找相关信息。通读之后,从第一个空格开始依次完成。
3. 根据语感,快速试填充一遍。
4. 然后逐题推敲。
5. 根据上下文确定词义。使所选词的词义符合上下文逻辑意思的需要;尤其关注实词。
6. 根据句子结构确定词形。使所选词的形式符合所在句语法结构上的要求;重点关注虚词。
7. 着眼整体、注意关键词。如:but, however, even so… 说明后面的意思与前面的相反或对照,所选的词可能与前面某个词互为反义词。
8. 抓住关键句型,作直观判断。比如常考的句型有:定语从句中缺少引导词;比较从句中漏了than;其它从句中的表示语法结构关系词例如so…that;hardly…when 等是否遗漏。
9. 注意常用词语搭配,关注词语间的互为提示。
10. 然后通篇审核。
具体到自学考试高级英语考题,我们可以借鉴上面的技巧,重点做到如下:
1、 把所给的词或短语按照词性分类:动词、名词、介词、副词、形容词等;
2、 对所给段落中的句子进行分析,确定所空缺的地方需要什么词性的词;
3、 然后再根据上下文意义、结构,确定答案。
我们以第三小段[选自《高级英语》上册第十课第142页]为例:
● The chances had 13 to one in eight when the 14 clerk drew the second slip. He 15 his throat and 16 his pince-nez as though he had to make sure he was not 17 . “Ah, Monsieur Voisin,” he said with a 18 undecided smile, “May I join you?”
通过分析得知:13、15、16处应该填动词;14,17,18处则须用形容词。这样一来,每一个填空处需要排除的选项就少多了。然后根据一些固定搭配可以进一步区分选项。如: 13处是一个固定搭配 ‘clear one’s throat‘; 在14处,假如考生认识这个词 ’pince-nez‘ [ ’p:nsnei ]是 ‘夹鼻眼镜’,就能很快想到动词短语 ‘put on’ (戴上)。17处前面有一个短语 ‘make sure’(确信),人们通常是确信事情一切正常,没有错误, 所以该处选择 ‘mistaken’ 也就合情合理。
当然这一切分析是要建立在很好的英语基础之上,更何况这样的词 ‘pince-nez’对于不熟悉课文的人来说是很难认识,所以纯粹依赖技巧、分析并非很可靠,况且很费时。另外,一个很好的基础从何而来?还得要心里装的东西多,而熟记一些文章是很好充实自己的办法。
其它几个段落分别选自:第一小段[选自《高级英语》下册第九课第143页]
第二小段[选自《高级英语》下册第三课第39页]
第四小段[选自《高级英语》上册第四课第49页]
答案:

Key
1. M 2. R 3. W 4. L
5. A 6. D 7. H 8. P
9. E 10. J 11. C 12. O
13. T 14. Q 15. S 16. U
17. G 18. I 19. X 20. B
21. F 22. K 23. N 24. V
2. 用英语回答有关课程内容的问题
考核学生对课程内容的和理解程度,以及一定的用英语笔头表述的能力。提出的是有关课文大意、背景、故事内容、人物等和理解课文有关问题。
1. How does the author, J.B. Priestley, think of the matter of sleep? When he is sleepless, what will he do? [选自《高级英语》上册第十一课]
Answer: The author thinks that sleep is just like a coy mistress who is much given to a teasing inconsistency and forever demanding to be wooed. In other words, to him, sleep always plays with him, and torments him but seldom lets him have it.
He often lies in bed, passing hours in sleeplessness. The more he wants to fall asleep, the more sleepless he becomes. However, as soon as he intends to write an essay, he feels an overpowering desire for sleep.
The author believes that artificial ways of inducing sleep are countless, but none of them works for him. Therefore, when he can‘t fall asleep at night, he has a dialogue with an imaginary friend until he either laughs or falls asleep.
2. How did American young people look at the adult world in general according to the text “Four Choices for Young People”? What did they do about it?
Answer: American young people viewed the adult world with great skepticism and even worse, with increasing rejection, according to the lesson “Four Choices for Young People.
They saw this affluent society of America filled with poverty, injustice and hypocrisy. They became rebellious. They rejected the beliefs and values of society. While some young people fought against poverty, racial injustice at that time, others showed their discontent through passive ways. They were addicted to drugs and refused to take any social responsibilities.
解析:作该题型的题目时,要记住首先要有一个基本的观点“ARGUMENT”(当然,这个观点是从所学课文中,合理地、符合逻辑地得出来的,并非自己臆断或杜撰出来的。 所以这一切也是建立在对课文熟练掌握基础上的。),然后,提供一些左证“SUPPORTING IDEAS”。
课文中的内容要能做到会归纳,会用自己的话来转述;
另外,要写完整的句子。少用“yes or no” 这样的方式来回答问题;最后,通读自己的答案,检查文法,尽可能消除拼读、语法错误。
3. 填空
考核学生对语法和词汇的运用能力。每句一个空格,要求学生从所提供的单词或词组中选择正确的答案填入空中。单词或词组选自课文中要求算重点练习的词语。
Fill in the blank in each sentence with the best wor

d or expression from the box below, changing its form when necessary:
motivate in the long run regardless of be held to blamesquander to a great extent with honors take advantage ofsurvive be credited with fall victim to have trouble doing sth.
1. The chairman of the board of directors was forced to resign, _____ the power struggle among the directors.
2. Intelligent and hard-working, he passed _________ in degree examinations.
3. Some girls are so shy as to ________ mixing socially with people.
4. No one ________ for the loss of the game; each had done her best.
5. He enjoyed great popularity among the students, _________speaking five foreign languages.
6. The president decided to run for the second term, _________ the state of his health.
7. The small restaurant owner _________ all his hard-earned money in gambling within a year.
8. To increase productivity, we have to get the workers ______, but do you think material incentives will always work?
答案:
1. falling victim to 2. with honors 3. have trouble 4. was held to blame
5. credited with 6. regardless of 7. squandered 8. motivated
解析:这种题目的做法可以借鉴上面题型的处理办法,
1. 首先研读一下供选择的词做到心中有底,把词大致分分类。
2. 然后仔细研读每一个句子,了解句子内容,做到心中有底。
3. 根据语感,快速试填充一遍。
4. 接下来逐句推敲。
5. 根据上下文确定词义。使所选词的词义符合上下文逻辑意思的需要;尤其关注实词。
6. 根据句子结构确定词形。使所选词的形式符合所在句语法结构上的要求;重点关注虚词。
7. 着眼整体、注意关键词。如:but, however, even so… 说明后面的意思与前面的相反或对照,所选的词可能与前面某个词互为反义词。
8. 抓住关键句型,作直观判断。比如常考的句型有:定语从句中缺少引导词;比较从句中漏了than;其它从句中的表示语法结构关系词例如so…that;hardly…when 等是否遗漏。
9. 注意常用词语搭配,关注词语间的互为提示。
10. 然后通篇审核。
不同的是选择对了词之后,在填充时还要根据句子的意思确定词形的变化。这给考生增加了不少难度。例如:
例句1中选择对了“fall victim to ”,还要知道该句子中不缺谓语动词,必须将“ fall victim to”变成非谓语形式,即用分词短语“falling victim to ”。
例句4中,在选择对了“be held to blame ” 之后,还要注意时态及主谓一致原则,所以应将“be held to blame ”变成“be held to blame ”。
答案:
1. A 2. B 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. B
7. A 8. B 9. A 10. B 11. B 12. A
13. A 14. B 15. B 16. B 17. B 18. A

析(限于篇幅只分析13-18题):
这一部分主要检查学员对同、近义词的区分与应用。
13题区分A. conceive, B. imagine:都有“想象”的意思。imagine 表达“想象, 设想, 幻想”时,是及物动词, conceive 表达“想象;构想;设想”(常与by连用)。故此题选择A.
14题区分A. adulation, B. admiration:两词都有“对别人表达好意”之义,但前者表示“谄媚, 奉承”之意,有贬义;后者则有“赞美;钦佩;赞赏”之意,故答案为B.
15题区分A. sight, B. glance:都有“看”的意思。glance更有“匆匆一看”的意思,结合该句填空处前面一词 “hasty (匆忙的)”,我们可以断定应选择B.
16题区分A. lived, B. inhabited:都有“住”的意思。live作及物动词有“过着, 度过, 经历”之意,作不及物动词才有“活着, 生活, 居住”之意, inhabit有“居住; 栖息; 占据”,常作及物动词,且常用于被动语态。根据题意,应选择B.
17题区分A. attraction, B. appeal:都有“吸引,招人喜欢”的意思。attraction是“吸引; 吸引力”的意思; , appeal除了有“吸引力”之意,还有“请求, 呼吁, 要求”的意思。这句话中明显要求是后一个意思,故答案应选B.
18题区分A. contemptible, B. contemptuous:都有“瞧不起的”之意。contemptible是“可鄙的, 下贱的, 不齿的, 可轻视的”之意;contemptuous为“轻蔑的, 目空一切的, 傲慢的”。前这表达被别人瞧不起,后者是瞧不起别人。故选择A.

5.英译中
考核学生对课文难句的理解及用汉语加以正确表达的能力。
a) Some sociologists say that your answers to them could explain a lot about what you are thinking and about what your society is thinking —— in other words, where you and your society are. [选自《高级英语》上册第一课]
译文:有些社会学家认为你对这些问题的回答可以充分说明你在想些什么,这个社会在想些什么 —— 换句话说,有关你及社会的态度。
b) When he was saying all those things against the government and against the council, he became more and more ugly and embittered and I used to be afraid for him. [选自《高级英语》上册第六课]
译文:他在发表那些反政府、反对美国印第安人事物委员会言论时,总会变得越来越气愤、充满怨恨。我曾为他担忧。
解析:
做这种题目时,还是要求考生对教材的内容有很好的把握。翻译什么最难——词、句、段落、篇章?。很多人会认为,难度是按照“词、句、段落、篇章”依次递增的。其实不然。一个单词的通常是多义的,单独出现,常人是很难穷尽其所有意义;而当该词与更多的词

发生联系,其受到的制约越来越多,其意义范围越来越小,翻译起来也越好把握。
我们在翻译这些句子时,往往脱离了篇章(除非你能记得起来课文内容),所以句子的许多代词很难知道它们确切所指。而英文往往多使用代词,以避免重复;中文则不同,要表达明了,有时不忌讳重复。
上面例句 1中, “them” 指代什么?另外很多词、短语在不同的上下文中,都有不同的意思:
例句 1中,where you are 不是“你在哪儿”,而是“你是什么态度”。
例句 2中, be afraid 不是“害怕”,而是“担心;担忧”。
6.中译英
考核学生运用所学语言的能力。
i. 美国食品虽然包装考究和富有营养,但味道却一年比一年逊色。有些蔬菜味道就像图书馆里的浆糊。低温冷藏过的肉变成了皮革。这就是所谓的科学和经济学应用到食品生产上的恶果。[参见《高级英语》下册第八课]
译文:Although American food is handsomely packaged and nutritious, it tastes less good year by year. Some vegetables have the flavor of the library paste, Deep-frozen meats turn into leather. This is the consequence of the so-called science and economics applied in food production.
ii. 美国人比看电视花时间更多的事只有工作和睡眠。[参见《高级英语》上册第九课]
译文:The only things Americans do more than watch television are work and sleep.
iii. 现在对美貌的狂热崇拜并不只是(从数学意义上看)财富的作用。[参见《高级英语》上册第十五课]
译文:The modern cult of beauty is not exclusively a function (in the mathematical sense) of wealth.
解析: 因为都是比较难的句子,所以这些句子中要么涉及许多“术语”,要么句子结构较为复杂。
例句 1中,“包装考究”,“图书馆里的浆糊”要译成“handsomely packaged” “the library paste”。不要把 “考究”译成“ observe and study” 或“carefully ”, 不要把“浆糊”译成“glue”。或 “starch”。
例句 2中,译文中需用到“do more than watch television”这个结构。注意在这种结构中“watch ”前不需要“to ”, 这是一个重要语法现象。
例句 3中,“狂热崇拜”,“从数学意义上看”要译成“cult ”及“ in mathematical sense”,不要译成“adoration ”,“in mathematical view ”。
B. 水平考试
要求考生在阅读试卷中与课程难易程度相当的、600~800字的短文后(不可使用辞典,如有超出教材要求的认知词汇的词语,考卷中附词汇表),回答考卷中题型中的题。题型如下:
1. 选择题
考核学生对短文的综合理解程度。考生根据短文内容勾出正确答案。
2. 单

项选择
考核学生对词语在上下文中的确切含义的理解。考生根据该词语在文中含义从所提供的解释中勾出正确答案。
3. 英译中
考核学生对难句的理解。
4. 用英语回答有关短文内容的问题(80~100个字)
我们先来谈一下对阅读理解总的看法,然后就这一部分的题型别做一些解释:
如何认识阅读理解
阅读理解部分要求考生有一定的词汇量和语法结构知识,有较宽的知识面,有一定的阅读速度和准确率。衡量一位考生的阅读能力的标准主要有三个方面:1、阅读速度;2、理解能力;以及3、阅读技巧。这三者之间的关系是相辅相成的,某一方面有不足,都会影响到考试的成绩。
但我们发现不少考生在复习迎考时,特别注意扩大自己的词汇量,学习语法结构知识,也做了不少的题目,但表现总不是很理想。有的考生能一目十行,可对所阅读的内容却不知所云;有的考生理解能力强,却在规定的时间完不成考试要求;还有的考生速度也上去了,自觉对内容也理解,可是一做题就发蒙,总觉得每个选择答案都有道理。
其中的原因在于有些考生对阅读理解的认识存在一些错误。首先,对阅读理解的目的不清楚。不少考生误认为阅读理解就是按照原文顺序一句一句地从头读到尾,并对每个词、每个句子或每段落节都应给予同样程度的重视。事实上,阅读理解的目的在于为了获取我们所需要的信息。
其次,对英文行文特点和篇章结构布局不了解,不知道重要的和非重要的信息的一般出现在何处。实际上,正规英文文章是很有特点的,尤其是议论文和说明文,而这方面的文章又是我们接触最多的。如果一篇短文包含多个段落,那么,短文的首尾两段常常包含重要信息。因为作者往往会在文章的首段开宗明义地告诉读者他想说明什么,或者他想就什么论点展开讨论或分析,既所谓的文章的THEME.在文章的结尾段,作者往往会对他所说明的问题或他所讨论的论点等做一总结或概括。因此,结论性的东西常常会在末段出现。同样,文章的每个段落也有共同的特点,一段的首尾两句往往包含重要信息。因为概括段落中心意思的主题句(topic sentence)往往出现在段首或段末。作者为了使他的文章条理清楚,往往会将每一段落的中心意思用一句话概括出来,并将其置于段首或段末。在极个别的情况下,也会置于段中或不写出来,例如只有一段短文。
基于这样的认识,考生必须学会分析,在阅读文章时就不必一字一句地精读,而应该根据考试要求,学会捕捉、分析相关信息并区别对待。
再次,对英文词汇

中哪类词重哪类词轻心中无数。总的来说,从词的层面来看,实词往往比虚词更重要。因为实词含有实在、具体的意思;虚词不包含任何实际意思,只起承上启下的作用。可是虚词中的连词却很例外,虽然它们也不包含实在意思,但它们常用来表明词与词、句子与句子甚至段落与段落之间的关系,这种功能决定了它在句中不可忽视。一些重要的连词归纳如下:
(1) 表示因果关系的信号词有:so,as a result,thus,therefore,hence,as a consequence,consequently
(2) 表示转折关系的信号词有:but,although,however,on the contrary,on the other hand,nevertheless,even so
(3) 表示递进关系的信号词有:and,moreover,furthermore,besides,likewise,also,similarly,in addition to
(4) 表示目的关系的信号词有:in order to,so that,for the purpose,to this end
(5) 表示例举关系的信号词有:for example,such as,namely,that is,for instance
(6) 表示总结归纳关系的信号词有:in short,in conclusion,in brief,in summary
最后,有的考生知识面还不很广。有不少考生因为平时兴趣、爱好不甚广泛,关注领域较为有限,以至于在考试中遇到熟悉领域里的文章时做起题来还顺手,一碰到不熟悉方面的文章,速度、准确率就明显下降。这充分说明丰富、广博的知识和多方面的兴趣爱好能够增强考生的理解能力。我们希望广大考生能在空暇时间里多涉猎一些文章,与别人交谈时也一些新的信息、内容,不要觉得什么都不重要。要知道每个人都有这种感觉——“书到用时方很少”。
我们不否认具备丰富的词汇和语法结构知识,可以帮助考生在阅读理解部分获得较高的分数。这是因为如果没有一定的词汇量和丰富的语法结构知识作为支撑,奢谈什么技巧或方法都无益,毕竟基础是第一位的,而技巧是第二位的。
但如果在具备相当的词汇量和语法结构知识的同时,即基础扎实的同时,又能够了解并掌握一定的阅读技巧和解题方法,显能会对考生大有好处。媒体上不是常有文章报道,名牌大学的中文系的教师不一定能做好高考语文试卷;英语科班出身的人考TOEFL、GRE不一定有理工科学生得分高。前者不可谓基础不扎实,然而他们却不一定很关注技巧和解题方法。
所以,做好阅读理解题需要:扎实的英语基础 + 丰富的知识面 + 一定的解题技巧
阅读理解通常处理办法
一、 看问题,再读文章
做阅读理解时,可先看短文后的问题(不必看四个选项),弄清楚需要了解什么,然后带着问题阅读以达到明确目的。
二、 略读关键段落,获取

重要信息
先将文章的首尾两段读一下,然后再快速找到并测览一下其它段落的段落主题句。这样做读者可以获得整篇文章的大概意思以及它的谋篇布局。掌握并熟练运用略读法可以使考生在尽可能短的时间内了解整篇文章的大概内容以及整体布局。这能帮助考生把测试题答案所依据的信息的大概位置快速确定下来。
三、 充分利用信号词,查找信息
英文中有很多种表示上下文之间逻辑关系的信号词。所谓信号词指在具体的段落中那些能够发出信号,预示读者将要读到的内容与上文存在什么样的关系或本身具有什么逻辑意思的一些词。
比如: 1)however,but ,nevertheless 等词预示着后面的内容与前面的不同或相反;
2) so…that…表示该句本身存在一种逻辑上的因果关系。 等等。
掌握并关注这些词对解答诸如细节题、是非题就很有帮助。
四、学会猜测词意、扫除阅读障碍
虽然考生大多积累了一定的词汇量,甚至即使你记住大纲上所列的单词,在考试时仍不可避免地会或多或少地碰到一些生词。这些生词对于理解文章内容无疑是一大障碍,克服这一障碍的方法就是运用猜测词意法将该词大概的词义猜测出来,因为考试时是不允许查字典。掌握并熟练运用猜测词意法可使考生在阅读时越过生词这一障碍,更好地理解作者的思想观点。
猜测词意所依据的线索可分为以下几类:
1. 定义( definition)
通过上下文给出的定义,考生可以将某些生词的意思猜测出来。使定义与被定义的内容之间建立起关系的词有: put it in another way,mean,in other words,that is,or,namely等等。
2. 重述(restatement)
所谓重述是指作者用另外的词,短语或句子将前面已述及的内容再重述一下。据重述内容,考生可将前面内容中的生词的意思猜测出来。
3. 举例(examples)
从such as,like,for example,for instance,等词后所列举的例子以及所表示的前后同位关系可以猜测出一些单词的词意。
4. 对比(contrast)
从表示对立或相反的信号词可以判断某些词语内容前后意思对立或相反。根据这一点,考生可以从其中一个词猜测出另外一个词的意思。
关于这一点我们在后面还会进一步讲解。



五、先易后难,逐个解题
由于测试的短文难易程度各异,考生应根据自己的兴起、爱好或专业知识,先易后难答题。这样做可让考生保持良好的考场情绪,有利于考生正常发挥水平。
做阅读理解应忌讳的方面
一忌:不带问题阅读。费力、费时、效率低。
二忌:草率行事。出题者有

时故意出一道似是而非的题目,如果匆忙答题,很容易犯错。
三忌:主观印象。有的考生爱根据自身的生活经历或常识来答题,而考试则是要根据原文
旨意来选择答案。
四忌:一叶障目。只见树木,不见森林。有的考生会被文章的个别内容、局部环节所迷惑,
结果忽略了文章的全貌。
五忌:忽略时间。前面耗时太多,后面时间不够用,结果影响成绩。
各种题型讲解
一、选择题
考核学生对短文的综合理解程度。考生根据短文内容勾出正确答案。
常见题型有:
1. 主旨大意题
2. 事实、细节题
3. 是非题
4. 推理、引申题
5. 作者观点和态度题
(-)主旨大意题
主旨题要求考生在阅读有关文章后能够概括出中心思想,确定段落大意或选定最佳标题。主旨题的常见提问方式有:
1) From this passage, we learn that…
2) The article was written to explain…
3) The author mainly discusses…
4) The best title for this passage is…。
5) The central idea conveyed in the above passage is…
6) The title that best expresses the main idea is…
7) What does the passage mainly discuss?
8) What is the main topic (theme, subject, point) of the passage?
9) What would be the most appropriate title for this passage?
10) Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
11) Which sentence best summarizes the article?
12) Which title suits this passage best?
例如:
The United States is a country made up of many different races. Usually they are mixed together and can't be told from one another. But many of them still talk about where their ancestors came from. It is something they are proud of.
The original Americans, of course, were the Indians. The so-called white men who then came were mostly from England. But many came from other countries like Germany and France.
One problem the United States has always had is discrimination. As new groups came to the United States they found they were discriminated against. First it was the Irish and Italians. Later it was the blacks. Almost every group has been able to finally escape this discrimination. The only immigrants who have not are the blacks. Surprisingly enough the worst discrimination today is shown towards the Indians.
One reason the Indians are discriminated against is that they have tried so hard to keep their identity. Of course they are not the only ones who have done so. The Japanese have their Little Tokyo in Los Angeles and the Chinese a Chinatown in New York. The Dutch settlement in Pennsylvania also stays separate from other people. Their towns are like something from the 19th century. They have a differ

ent reason from the other groups for staying separately. They live separately for religious reasons rather than keep together in a racia1 group.
Although some groups have kept themselves separate and others have been discriminated against, al1 groups have helped make the United States a great country. There is no group that has not helped in some way. And there is no group that can say they have done the most to make it a great country.
Many people sti1l come from other countries to help the United States grow. A good example is the American project that let a man walk on the moon. It was a scientist from Germany who was most responsible for doing that. It is certain that in the future the United States wil1 still need the he1p of people from all racial groups to remain a great country.
Question: Which of the following statements can best describe the main idea of this passage?
A. The United States is a country made up of many different races.
B. Discrimination is the most serious problem in the United States.
C. All races in the United States have helped make the country a great one.
D. The prosperity of the United States is mainly due to the hard work of the most discriminated races.
解答:选C.
这是一道主旨题,要求我们归纳文章的中心思想。速读全文后,我们就会发现D根本不是本文思想,应首先排除。B与原文的意思不符合。原文第三段第一句讲到美国一直有种族歧视问题,但没有说这是美国最严重的问题。A是本文第一段第一句的原话,但不足以概括全文的中心思想。而文章的第五段强调美国所有的种族都为建设美国做出了贡献,体现了文章的中心思想,所以C为正确答案。
(二)事实、细节题
这类问题要求考生找出例证、原因、时间和其它有关的细节或具体的数据等。细节题出题类型主要有以下几种:
1. According to the author, it is true that …
2. According to the passage, who (what, where, when)…… ?
3. How many (much)…… in this article?
4. In what way…… ?
5. In what year…… ?
6. What do we know about…… ?
7. Why is (are)…… ?
例如:
Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that men and animals possess, if they are proper1y used. If fire did not hurt when it burnt, children would p1ay it until their hands were burnt away. Similarly, if pain existed but fear did not, a child would burn itself again and again, because fear would not warn it to keep away from the fire that had burn it before. A real1y fearless soldier —— and some do exist —— is not a good soldier because he is soon killed; and a dead soldier is of no use to his army. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which men and animals might and die out.
In

our first sentence we suggested that fear ought to be proper1y used. If, for example, you never go out of your house because of the danger of being knocked down and killed in the street by a car, you are letting fear rule you too much. Even in your house you are not absolutely safe: an airplane may crash on your house, or ants may eat away some of the beams in your roof so that the latter falls on you, or you may get cancer!
The important thing is not to let fear rule you, but instead to use fear as your servant and guide. Fear will warn you of dangers; then you have to decide what action to take.
In many cases, you can take quick and successful action to avoid the danger. For example, you see a car coming straight towards you; fear warns you, you jump out of the way, and all is well.
In some cases, however, you decide that there is nothing that you can do to avoid the danger. For examp1e, you cannot prevent an airplane crashing onto your house. In this case, fear has given you its warning; you have examined it and decided on your course, of action, so fear of this particular danger is no longer of any use to you, and you have to try to overcome it.
Question: Children wou1d p1ay with fire until their hands were burnt away if ______.
A. they were given no warning beforehand
B. they had never burnt themselves
C. they had no sense of pain
D. they were fearful of the fire
解答:选C.
本题是问文章中的一个细节。根据第一段的第二句话:“If fire did not hurt when it burnt,…”可以判断C项为正确答案。
(三)推断、引申题
该题形难度较大,要求考生在理解原文的基础上,根据文章中所阐述的事实细节和上下文的暗示与线索进行综合分析,然后做出推断或引申出合情合理的结论。
这种题型的常用提问方式有:
1) According to the article, many people may…。
2) An inference which may (not) be made from the article is…
3) In the paragraph following this one, we may expect the author to discuss…
4) It can be concluded from the passage that…
5) The paragraph preceding (following) this one may discuss…。
6) The passage implies that…
7) We can conclude (infer, see) from the article that…。
8) What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?‘
9) Where wou1d this paragraph most probab1y appear?
10) Which of the following can (not) be inferred from the article?
例如:
Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a very complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as we1l as those of a myr

iad of services, including labor, transportation, and public–utility services. The interrelationships of al1 these prices make up the “system” of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything e1se.
If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define “price”, many would rep1y that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words, that price is the money value of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. The definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and qua1ity of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take p1ace and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that supply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total “package” being exchanged for the asked—for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price.
Question: The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses_______.
A. unusual ways to advertise products
B. types of payment plans for service
C. theories about how products affect different levels of society
D. how certain elements of price “package” influence its market value
解答:选D.
本题要求推断本文后续段落的段意。根据文章最后一句“…both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors…in order that they may evaluate a given price.”买卖双方都要了解所有价格体系的决定因素,以便对实际价格做出评估。后面的段落将按逻辑讨论这些要素,由此选择D为答案。
(四)正误判断题
通常询问文章中所述的事情是否真实,某种提法是否正确或文章(作者)是否提及某事。常见题形如下:
1) All of the following are true except……
2) The author (passage) does not tell us……
3) The author mentions all of the items 1isted below except……
4) Which of the following does not explain…… ?
5) Which of the following is NOT listed as…… ?
6) Which of the following is (not) mentioned in the article?
7) Which of the following statements is (not) true?
8) Which of the following statements is wrong according to the author?
例如:
How men first learnt to invent words is u

nknown; in other words, the origin of language is a mystery. All we really know is that men, unlike animals, somehow invented certain sounds to express thoughts and feelings, actions and things, so that they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed upon certain signs, called letters, which could be combined to represent those sounds, and which could be written down. Those sounds, whether spoken or written in letters, we call words.
The power of words, then, lies in their associations —— the things they bring up before our minds. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience; and the longer we live, the more certain words recall to us the glad and sad events of our past; and the more we read and 1earn, the more the number of words that mean something to us increases.
Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but a1so express these thoughts in words which appeal powerfully to our minds and emotions. This charming use of words is what we call literary style. Above all, the real poet is a master of words. He can convey his meaning in words which sing like music, and which by their position and association can move men to tears. We should therefore learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they wil1 make our speech silly and dull.
Question: Which of the following statements about the real poet is NOT true?
A. He is no more a master of words than an ordinary person.
B. He can convey his ideas in words which sing like music.
C. He can move men to tears.
D. His style is a1ways charming.
解答:选A.
这是一道是非题,需要找出一个错误的选项。根据文章最后一段,B,C,D三个
选项都是对的,必须排除。而A项说:一位真正的诗人并不比普通人能更好地掌握和运用
词语。这一说法显然是不对的(NOT true about the real poet),正符合题意。 A项为正确答案。
(五)作者态度题
该类题型是阅读理解部分最难的地方,要求考生根据文章领会作者的态度和情绪。这类题要求考生从文章中作者论述问题的方法、行文的语气和措辞中来把握作者对人与事的好恶,了解作者的态度和情感。
常用的提问方式有:
1) By using the expression “……”, the author implies that…。
2) From the passage we know that the author ——。
3) How does the author fee1 about?
4) It can be seen from the passage that the author regards with ——。
5) The author of the passage seems to be…
6) The author seems to be in favor of the idea of…
7) The author‘s attitude towards…… might be best summarized as—’
8) The author‘s purpose of writing this article is…
9) What does the writer think of …… ?
10) Wh

at‘s the author’s opinion (attitude)?
11) What‘s the tone of the passage?
12) Which of the fo1lowing the author is most likely to agree with?
例如:
Around the world more and more people are taking part in dangerous sports and activities. Of course, there have always been people who have looked for adventure —— those who have climbed the highest mountains, explored unknown parts of the world or sailed in small boats across the greatest oceans. Now, however, there are people who seek an immediate excitement from a risky activity which may on1y last a few minutes or even seconds.
I would consider bungee jumping to be a good example of such an activity. You jump from a high place (perhaps a bridge or a hot-air balloon) 200 meters above the ground with an e1astic rope tied to your ankles. You fall at up to 150 kilometers an hour until the rope stops you from hitting the ground. It is estimated that two million people around the world have now tried bungee jumping. Other activities which most people would say are as risky as bungee jumping involve jumping from tall buildings and diving into the sea from the top of high cliffs.
Why do people take part in such activities as these? Some psychologists suggest that it is because life in modern societies has become safe and boring. Not very long ago, people's lives were constantly under threat. They had to go out and hunt for food, diseases could not easi1y be cured, and life was a continuous battle for survival.
Nowadays, according to many people, life offers little excitement. They live and work in comparatively safe environment; they buy food in shops; and there are doctors and hospitals to look after them if they become ill. The answer for some of these people is to seek danger in activities such as bungee jumping.
Question: The writer of the passage has a(n) ______ attitude towards dangerous sports.
A. positive B. negative
C. objective D. subjective
解答:选C.
本题要求考生对作者的态度作出判断。作者对危险的体育运动持积极态度(A)还
是消极态度(B),持客观的态度(C)还是主观的态度(D)?纵观全文,不难看出作者的态度较为客观。所以C为正确答案。
 二、单项选择
考核学生对词语在上下文中的确切含义的理解。考生根据该词语在文中含义从所提供的解释中勾出正确答案。
词汇题的提问方式主要有:
1) By “……”, the author means…
2) In 1ine……, the word “……” could best be replaced by…
3) In line……, the word “……,‘ most probably means
4) In line……, the word “this (that, these, those, it, them)” stands for… -
5) The ita1icized word in line…… means…
6) The word (phrase) “……” i

s closest to…
7) The word (phrase) “……” probably means…
8) What is the possible meaning of the word“……” in line… ?
9) Which is the probable definition of the word ‘……’?
10) Which of the following is nearest (closest) in meaning to ‘……’?
例如:
The wor1d's population continues to grow. There now are about 4 bi1lion of us on earth. That could reach 6 billion by the end of the century and 11 billion in another 75 years. Experts long have been concerned about such growth. Where will we find the food, water, jobs, houses, schools and health care for all these people?
A major new study shows that the situation may be changing. A large and rapid drop in the world's birth rate has taken place during the past 10 years. Families generally are smal1er now than they were a few years ago. It is happening in both developing and industrial nations.
Researchers said they found a number of reasons for this. More men and women are waiting longer to get married and are using birth contro1 devices and methods to prevent or delay pregnancy. More women are going to school or working at jobs away form their homes instead of having children. And more governments, especially in developing nations, now support family planning programs to reduce population growth.
China is one of the nations that has made great progress in reducing its population growth. China has already cut its rate of population growth by about one half since 1970. China now urges each fami1y to have no more than one child. And it hopes to reach zero population growth, the number of births equaling the number of deaths, by the year 2000.
Several nations in Europe already have fewer births than deaths. Experts said that these nations cou1d face a serious shortage of workers in the future. And the persons who are working could face much higher taxes to help support the growing number of retired people.
Question: “Fami1y p1anning programs” means _______________.
A. birth control policy in a country
B. economic policy in a family
C. TV programs designed for a family
D. economic policy in a country
解答:选A.
本题问“计划生育”的含义是什么。第三段最后一句指出:“more governments especially in developing nations,now support family planning programs to reduce population growth‘,因此计划生育是减少人口增长的手段,A为正确选项。
又如:
I wonder if you realize just how many others share your problem. It is so common for people to distort the truth about themselves. Sometimes it's just an invented excuse when you' re late for something or a pretence that you like someone you don't. These white lies don' t usually harm anyone and indeed often help smooth over difficult social situations. They certainly are embarrassing if exposed but, on