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U3翻译

Unit 3 Conversion

Section One Conversion in E-C Translation

1 Introduction

A word in one language is not necessary or even possible to be turned into one of the same part of speech in another language.

Conversion –conversion of part of speech, also of sentence element and voice

It is one of the important techniques and is necessary because of the differences in syntactic structure and idiomatical way in the two languages. different syntax

E: hypotactic language; rigid grammar rules;

C: paratactic

E:

1) using nouns that derive from verbs to indicate actions

2) prepositions functioning as adverbials, post-modification and predicative; more frequently in English used than in Chinese

C: verbs are of great importance; can be clustered together within one sentence

2 Conversion of Part of Speech

2.1. Converting into verbs

1) Nouns converted into verbs

a) Nouns deriving from verbs or indicating an action

? A view of Mt. E-mei can be obtained from here.

从这儿可以看到峨眉山。

?An acquaintance of world history is helpful to the study of translation.

读一点世界史,对学习翻译是有帮助的。

? A smiling is an open invitation to be approached.

笑是在公开邀请人们向你靠拢/近。(passive→active)

?There is no time for consideration.

没有时间多考虑。

b) Nouns ending with –er / -or which doesn’t indicate status or occupation but action

?He is not a smoker, but his father is a chain-smoker.

他倒是不抽烟,但他的爸爸却一支接一支地抽(是个老烟枪)。

?He was a regular visitor.

他经常来。

?Those small factories are also lavish consumer and waster of raw

materials.

那些小工厂还在极大的消耗和浪费原材料。

?I am afraid I can’t teach you swimming. I think my little brother is a better

teacher than I.

我恐怕不能教你游泳。我想我小弟比我教得好。

c) nouns in some verb-phrases where the noun is the core, like have a rest, take a look, pay attention to, etc.

2) Prepositions converted into verbs

?Her brother was in a serious car accident and she went to be with him.

她的兄弟遭遇严重车祸,她得去陪陪他。

?The shaft turns about its axis.

轴围绕它的轴心转动。

?No one has ever seen a single atom or molecule even with the most

powerful microscope.

即使用倍数最大的/最精密的显微镜,也没有任何人看到过单个的原子或分子。

3) adjectives converted into verbs

Adjectives indicating consciousness (知觉), feelings (情感), desires (欲望), etc, such as aware, conscious, certain, sure, glad, pleased, careful, confident, eager, afraid, anxious, keen, enthusiastic, etc.

?I am sure the meeting will be a success.

我确信这次会议会成功。

?The library was silent, making Susan suddenly aware that she was alone

on the third floor.

图书馆静悄悄的,苏珊猛然意识到三楼只有她一个人。

?I am anxious about his health.

我担心他的身体健康。

?Are you familiar with the performance of this type of transistor amplifier?

你熟悉/ 了解这种晶体管放大器的性能吗?

4) adverbs converted into verbs

?As he ran out, he forgot to have his shoes on.

他跑出去时,连鞋子都忘了穿。

?After careful investigation they found the design behind.

经过仔细研究后,他们发现这个设计落后了。

?That day she was up before sunrise.

那天她在日出前就起来了。

?Jones opened the windows to let fresh air in.

琼斯把窗户打开,让新鲜空气进来。

2.2. Converting into nouns

1) verbs converted into nouns

Verbs deriving from nouns and having no correspondent verbs in Chinese ?She behaves as if she were a child.

她的举止跟一个孩子一样。

?This kind of behavior characterizes the criminal mind.

这种举止是罪犯的心理特征。

?Gases differ from solids in that the former have greater compressibility

than the latter.

气体和固体的区别在于,前者比后者有更大的压缩性。

2) adjectives converted into nouns

Adjectives with the definite article or used as predicative to indicate the nature of sth.

?He hated the rich and loved and protected the poor.

他痛恨阔人,热爱并保护穷人。

?This problem is no less important than that one.

这个问题的重要性不亚于那个问题。

?Glass is more transparent than plastic cloth.

玻璃的透明度比塑料布要好。

?The more carbon the steel contains, the harder and stronger it is.

钢的含碳量越高,强度和硬度就越大。

?The Smith family ware religious.

史密斯一家都是教徒。

?Stevenson was eloquent and elegant– but soft.

史蒂文森有口才、有风度,但很软弱。

3) pronouns converted into nouns

E: trying to avoid repetition; using pronouns to substitute nouns or using different words

C: repetition

E-C Tr: pron →n; to avoid ambiguity or misunderstanding

?It may seem strange to put into the same packet an industrial revolution

and two political revolutions. But the fact is that they were all social revolutions.

把一场工业革命同两次政治革命归作一类似乎有点奇怪,但事实上这三次革命都是社会革命。

?Henry Ford did not invent the automobile, but he was the first man to

mass-produce it, and this made it available to the ordinary man.

汽车不是亨利·福特发明的,但他确是使用机器大量生产汽车的第一人,从而使普通老百姓也能拥有汽车。

?Foreigners sometimes draw the conclusion that Americans are wealthier

than they are because they have such things as vacation houses or beautiful landscaped garden.

外国人有时会得出这样的结论:美国人比他们富,因为美国人有度假屋、景观美丽的花园等等。

4) adverbs converted into nouns

?It is editorially said that…

社论说…

?It is officially announced that China has successfully launched its second

unmanned lunar probe, Chang’e-2 on 2nd, October.

官方宣布,10月2日,中国已经成功发射嫦娥二号,实现第二次月球探测。

2.3. Converting into adjectives

1) Nouns converted into adjectives

nouns deriving from adjectives (esp. used in “of + n”; “a / an + n. →predicative”; “the + n. + of”), such as necessity, depth, importance, etc.

?This issue is of vital importance.

这个问题至关重要。

?I can note the grace of her gesture.

我可以看到她优雅的举止。

?We have seen the beauty of Mt. Tai.

我们看到了美丽的泰山。

?He is a stranger to the operation of the electronic computer.

他对电子计算机的操作是陌生的。

2) Adverbs converted into adjectives

v →n. adv →adj.

?Hopefully, it will be done early next month.

下月初完成这项工作是大有希望的。

?The film impressed him deeply.

这部电影给他留下深刻的印象。

?The President had prepared meticulously for his journey.

总统为这次出访作了十分周密的准备。

?She looked at me expectantly.

她用期待的眼光看着我。/ 期待地看着我。

2.4. Converting into adverbs

1) Adjectives converted into adverbs

When a noun is modified by an adjective and the noun is converted into a verb

?He had a careful study of the map before he started off.

他在出发前仔细地看了看地图。

?Can you give an accurate translation of the sentence?

你能准确地把这句话译出来吗?

?We must make full use of the existing technical equipment.

我们必须充分利用现有的技术设备。

?We place the highest value on our friendly relations with developing

countries.

我们高度地珍视同发展中国家的友好关系。

?Warm discussions arose on every corner as to his achievements.

到处在热烈地讨论他的成就。

2) Nouns and verbs converted into adverbs

conform to idiomatic Chinese expression

?When he catches a glimpse of a potential antagonist, his instinct is to win

him over with charm and humor. (n →adv.)

只要一发现有可能反对他的人,他就本能地要用他的魅力和风趣将这人争取过来。

?I had fortune to meet him. (n →adv.)

我幸运地见到了他。

?I succeeded in persuading him.

我成功地说服了他。(v →adv.; the action of “persuading” is emphasized not “succeeding”)

3 Conversion of Sentence Elements

1) object →subject

?An automobile must have a brake with high efficiency.

汽车的刹车必须高度有效。(object →subject; subject →attributive)

?We have friends all over the world.

我们的朋友遍天下。(object →subject; subject →attributive)

?Atoms differ in their atomic weights.

各种原子的原子量是不相同的。(object →subject; subject →attributive) Comment: in the above two sentences, the object is part of / related to the subject, therefore can be changed into subject while the subject usually changed into attributive.

2) subject →object

?The mechanical energy can be changed back into electrical energy by

means of a generator.

利用发动机可以把机械能再转变成电能。

(subject →object; passive →active; prep-phr →verb)

?The molecules are held together by attractive forces. (subject →object;

object →subject)

引力把分子聚集在一起。

3) subject →other elements, such as predicate, adverbial, etc.

?Precautions are necessary to prevent it from burning.

必须注意不要让它烧着。(subject →predicate; subjectless sentence)

?These circumstances make it difficult to find site on which to carry out

experiment.

由于这些环境条件,难以找到进行试验的场所。(subject →adverbial)

?Machinery has made the products of manufactories very much cheaper

than formerly.

由于机械的缘故,工厂里出的产品比起以前来,价格便宜多了。(subject →adverbial)

4) other types of conversion

?There should be a hospital in this area.

这个地区应该有个医院。(adverbial →subject)

?High-quality machines of various types are produced in our country.

我国生产各种类型的优质机器。(adverbial →subject)

?Neutron has a mass slightly larger than that of proton.

中子的质量略大于质子的质量。

(attributive →predicate; object →subject; subject →attributive)

?Radar works in very much the same way as the flashlight.

雷达的工作原理和手电筒的工作原理极为相同。

(v →n; predicate →subject)

Section One Conversion in C-E Translation

Step One: Introduction:

One of the characteristics of Chinese language is the predominance of the verb.

Examples:

?我带孩子上街去走走。(连动式)

I took my child to the street for a walk.

?你妈妈叫你马上回去。(兼语式: you – both the subject and object)

Your mother wants you back at once.

Many verbs should be converted into other parts of speech in C-E translation. Step Two: discussion

1 conversion of verbs

1) v →n.

?一定要少说空话,多做工作。

There must be less empty talk and more hard work.

?选择朋友,愈谨慎愈好。

One can never be too careful in the choice of one’s friends.

?一切爱好和平的人们都要求禁止原子武器。

All peace loving people demand the prohibition of atomic weapons.

2) verb →preposition

?他到商店去买酱油。

He went to the shop for a bottle of sauce.

?她漂亮的无法形容。

Her beauty is beyond word.

?你是赞成还是反对我们的建议?

Are you for or against our proposal?

?他们不应该以怨报德。

They shouldn’t return evil for good.

?那个穿绿衣服的女孩是英语系的学生。

The girl in green is a student of the English Department.

?我们决心建立一个真正的民有、民治、民享的政府。

We are determined to build a government truly of the people, by the people and for the people.

“用”: with, on, by, in, ect.

?用刀切面包Cut bread with knife.

?用右手写字write with right hand

?汽车用汽油开动。Cars run on petrol.

?这活得用机器/手做。The work has to be done by machine / hand.

?用特快专递邮寄。Send by express (mail service)

?你能用英语唱这首歌吗?Can you sing this song in English?

?不要用铅笔写。Don’t write in pencil.

3) verb →adjective

?事实胜于雄辩。

Facts speak louder than words.

Facts are more eloquent than words. (v →adj.)

?他非常清楚自己的缺点。

He is quite aware of his shortcomings.

?他好心帮助我,我很感激他。

I am grateful to him for his kind help.

?不要嫉妒别人。

Don’t be envious of others.

?我们愿意与其他世界贸易组织成员国携手合作,为建立完全新型的世界贸易

新格局共同努力。

We are willing to join hands with other WTO members to build a brand new pattern of world trade through concerted / joint efforts.

?酒店的业绩受制于天气、经济景气和政治稳定程度、社会安全等因素。

Achievements of the hotel industry are subject to a series of factors including weather, economic prosperity, degree of political stability, and social security.

4) verb →adverb

?这部电影正在上演吗?

Is the movie on?

?“放我出去!”房间里的孩子叫道。

“Let me out!” the child in the room shouted / cried.

2 noun →verb

?他的态度/举止极其镇静。

He behaved with great composure / calm.

?对立面的双方互为存在的条件。

The pairs of opposites condition one another for their existence.

?中国科学研究发展的特点是理论联系实际。

The development of scientific research in China is characterized by integration of theory with practice.

3 adj. / adv. →noun

?代表们一致表示坚决反对原子武器。

The delegation unanimously expressed their determination to oppose atomic weapons.

?那艘新建轮船的处女航是成功的。

The maiden voyage of the newly-built steamship was a success.

4 adj. / adv. →prep.

The use of preposition is flexible in English, making the expression more concise and accurate.

?她的声音响彻整个屋子。

Her voice rings through the house.

?他在城里到处乞讨。

He went begging about the town.

?那消息很快传遍全世界。

The news quickly spread throughout the world.

5 adv. →adj.

1) v. →n.; adv. →adj.

?他们热忱地欢迎他。

They gave him a hearty welcome.

?他会立即答复。

He will give an immediate reply.

?他每年去北京一次,使他接触到许多国内有名的作家。

His annual visits to Beijing brought him into contact with many well-known writers of our country.

(C: sentence as the subject; E: noun phrase; adv. →adj.)

?我们应该充分发挥学生的积极性和创造性,以提高教学质量。

We should bring the initiative and creative spirit of the students into full play so as to raise our teaching quality.

2) different idiomatic expressions 表达方式不同

?你拨错了电话。You dialed the wrong number.

?这正是你所要找的人。This is the very person you are looking for. Exercises:

?他们的实验已经结束了。Their experiment has been over.

?他的画的特点是笔力沉着,颜色鲜明。

His paintings are characterized by steady strokes and bright colors.

?我们应当起来捍卫真理。We should come forward in defense of truth.

?校长带着外宾参观校园。

The president took the foreign guests about the campus.

?这台计算机具有很高的灵敏度。The computer is of high sensitivity / is very

sensitive.

?我们的政府对在国外的学生很关心。

Our government shows great concern for the Chinese students abroad.