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定语从句考点归纳

定语从句考点归纳

基本概念:

一个句子充当定语称之为定语从句。被修饰限定的词叫先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,包括关系代词和关系副词。定语从句可分为两种,即限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

正确使用关系词——关系代词和关系副词:

关系代词:that, which, who, whom, whose, as指代人或物,在句中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。关系副词:when, where, why指代时间,地点,原因,在句中作状语。

选择依据:

1)弄清关系词在从句中作什么成分,是主语、宾语、定语还是状语

2)辨别先行词表示的是人、物、事还是时间、地点、原因

3)判断从句是限制性的还是非限制性的(只有that,why不能引导非限制性从句)

考点一:关系代词that和which在很多情况下可以互换,但哪些情况只能用that?

在以下几种场合只能用that

A.先行词(指物)本身是不定代词all,much,little, everything,anything,nothing,none,the one,any等或先

行词被不定代词修饰

All that can be done has been done.

B.先行词兼有指人和指物的名词

C.先行词(指物)被the very, the only, the next, the last 等修饰

D.先行词(指物)被形容词最高级和序数词修饰This is the best TV that is made in China.

E. 当主句是which/who引导的特殊疑问句Who that you have ever seen can do it better ?

考点二:有哪些情况关系代词不用that,而用which,who,whom?

1.He made the same mistakes again,whose made his parents very angry.

2.Yesterday I bought a dictionary,whose cost me more than 100 yuan .

3.Mr Smith, who gave a talk several months ago,will come again.

4.My uncle has come back from abroad, whom I haven’t met for a long t ime.

注:a)在非限制性定语从句中,指事物用which,指人用who或whom.

b)在介词后面,指事物用which,指人用whom.

Her bag ,in which she put all her money, has been stolen.

This is the ring on which she spent 1000 dollars.

Xiao Wang ,with whom I went to the concert, enjoyed himself very much.

考点三:在定语从句中如何正确判断与使用介词?

方法1.看定语从句中动词或形容词与介词的搭配

1. The girl for whom he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.

2. He is the man on whom I think you can depend .

3. He referred to some reference books with which I am not very familiar.

方法2.看从句中的动词或动词词组与先行词的搭配

1.He made a hole in the wall, through which he could see what was going on outside the house.

2.The librarian with whom I just shook hands works heart and soul.

方法3、根据先行词判断,所用的介词与先行词搭配

1.The rate at which wild animals are being destroyed has increased.

2.This is our classroom ,in the front of(在前面)which there is a teacher’s desk.

考点四:名词/代词/数词+ of +which/whom知多少?

Rewrite the following sentences

1.The committee consists of 20 members and5 of them are women.

The committee consists of 20 members ,5 of whom are women.

2.The book contains 50 poems, and most of them were written in 1930s.

The book contains 50 poems, most of which were written in 1930s.

3.I have a sentence ,and the meaning of it I don’t understand.

I have a sentence , the meaning of which I don’t understand.

注:名词/代词/数词+ of +表示物用which/表示人用whom

考点五:如何恰当使用when ,where , why与which, that引导的定语从句?

1. 先行词是表示地点,时间,原因的名词或含有地点,时间,原因意义的抽象名词,用来引导定语从

句.when ,where, why在从句中作状语.相当于相应的介词+which

2. 若定语从句缺主语或宾语,用which或that引导定语从句。

This is the town ______________I spent my childhood.

The library _____________ you visited yesterday was built in 1990.

I’ll never forget the day ____________ we first met in the park.

I’ll never forget the time __________ I spent with you.

This is the reason _________________ I didn’t come here.

The reason __________ she gave was not true.

考点六:如何用好whose 引导的定语从句?whose表示所属关系

The river _________ banks are covered with trees flows to the sea.

There are in this class 20 students, ______ are different.

A.whose backgrounds

B.the backgrounds of whom

C.of whom the backgrounds

D.the backgrounds of whose

考点七:as 和which 的区别知多少?

as 作为关系代词,既可以引导限制性定语从句,又可以引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中做主语、宾语或表语.

as引导的限制性定语从句,此时先行词前常被such,the same, so,as 修饰,即构成such…as , the same …as, so…as, as…as结构,做题时容易忽略。

提示:在做有关定语从句题目时,如果选项中出现as, 请先考虑是否考查as 引导的定语从句。

1、用于非限制性定语从句时,可以指代整个主句的内容,as 和which 可以换用。

He left her, as/ which was strange.

2、as 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句的内容,从句可置于句首,句中和句尾。

As everyone knows, Tom is good at English.

3、非限制性定语从句中谓语为被动时,常用as 作主语。

as is said/ known/ announced/ reported/ mentioned/ expected/ discussed等。

As is known to all, Taiwan is part of China.

4、as引导非限制性定语从句,有“正如”的含义,因此,下列句式中多用as:

as引导非限制性定语从句常见结构有

as is well known/ is known to all众所周知as has been said before如前所述

as has been already pointed out正如已经指出的as we all can see正如我们所看到的

as is expected/ hoped/ supposed正如所盼望的/希望的/料想的

as is often the case情况常常如此as be known /expected /reported /announced /shown

as has been said as is mentioned above as anybody can see as often happens

5、which 引导非限制定语从句,指代整个主句的内容,从句只能置于句尾。

The decision was right, which was exactly what he wanted.

6、which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代主句中的一个词(先行词)从句置于先行词后,可在句中或句尾。

The football match, which I watched yesterday, is very interesting.

7、which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句的内容,从句的谓语带有宾语,有的还带宾语补足语。

That things improved, which astonished me.

8、which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句的内容从句为否定式或带否定前缀的形容词。

He was married again, which was unexpected.

9、that,why不能引导非限制性定语从句

考点八:定语从句运用中的注意点

1.定语从句中关系代词与先行词的一致性。试比较:

He is the only one of the students who was here just now.

He is one of the students who were here just now.

2.定语从句与并列结构。试比较:

He has two sons, neither of whom looks like him.

He has two sons, and neither of them looks like him.

3、是用the one还是用that , which, where.

(1)Is this school _______ you study? (2)Is this the school ______ you study in?

(3)Is this the school _______ you study? (4)Is this school ______ is a senior one?

A. that/which

B. where

C. the one

D. the one where

E. the one that / which

4、是用when还是用that, which

(1)May 1 is the day ______ we spent together. (2)May 1 is the day ________I joined the army.

A. that/ which

B. when

当先行词是表示时间的名词时,作时间状语时,用when, 若作主语或宾语时,就用that/ which.

5. where引导的定语从句先行词大多数情况下是

表示地点的名词,但也有特殊情况。如:

1)I've come to the point where I can’t stand him.

2)He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he is likely to lose control over the plane.

在这两句中,where 引导的定语从句分别修饰point和situation, 表示抽象意义“到了某种地步,在某种境况中”。

先行词是case, condition, situation, position, point, stage等名词表示情况、方面、处境,并且在定于从句中作状语时,常用where引导定语从句(但当point, stage表示时间时用when引导定语从句);在定语从句中作主语、宾语时,常用which/that引导定语从句。同时occasion作先行词时,通常用when引导定语从句。如:

I met the situation where I can’t find my direction.

We had reached the point when there was no money left.

I had the situation that/which I have never met before.

I had never met the occasion when there was no money left.

6、定语从句与强调结构的区别

(1)It was in this house ______ he was born.

(2)It was this house ______ he was born.

(3)It was in the house ________ he used to live in that the exhibition was held.

A. where

B. that

C. which

D. there

判断是否是强调结构的方法是去掉it is /was …that, 若整个句子结构和意义不受影响,则为强调结构,否则为定语从句。

7、定语从句与其他从句的区别

定语从句与结果状语从句的区别是看从句的连接词是否在从句中作成分,作成分的是定语从句;若连接词在句中不作成分时,则为结果状语从句。试比较:

He is such a kind person as everybody likes.

He is such a kind person that everybody likes him.

8、way 后面的定语从句(用that/ in which 或省略):

Please tell me the way (that/ in which) you did the job.

9、“介词+ whom/which + 不定式”。如:

The poor man has no house in which to live. = The poor man has no house to live in. = The poor man has no house in which he can live.

10、注意句型“It’s (high) time that…”结构中,谓语动词用一般过去时态或should do(should不能省略)。

It’s time that we went/should go to school.

考点九:定语从句的位置

一般来说,定语从句总是紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后,比较容易找出从句;但有时,定语从句和先行词会被介词或其他成分分隔,这叫间隔性定语从句/分隔性定语从句。从而给从句的辨别带来一定的难度。下面就来看从句和先行词被分隔开的两种情况。

1. 被介词分隔

定语从句和先行词被介词分隔,实际上也就是关系词在定语从句中作介词宾语。此时,关系词多和介词一起放在先行词和从句之间。用于这种情况的关系代词一般为which(指物)和whom(指人),that一般不能放在介词之后。例如:

? He was educated at a local high school, ____ he went on to Beijing University.

A. after which

B. after that

C. in which

D. in that

? Frank's dream was to have his own shop ____ to produce the workings of his own hands.

A. that

B. in which

C. by which

D. how

注意:有时候关系副词when和where也可以用在介词之后,如since when、by when和from where等。

? The book was writte n in 1946, ____ the education system has witnessed great changes.

A. when

B. during which

C. since then

D.since when

2. 被其他成分分隔

一般来说,定语从句总是紧跟着它所修饰的先行词,但有时候定语从句如果紧接先行词会引起主句头重脚轻或句意分隔等问题,此时,从句和先行词被其他成分分隔。例如:

? The village has developed a lot _____ we learned farming two years ago.

A. when

B. which

C. that

D. where

? After graduation she reached a point in her career ___she needed to decide what to do.

A. that

B. what

C. which

D. where

3. 被插入语隔开

—Is that the small town you often refer to?—Right, just the one____you know I used to work for years.

A.that B.which C.where D.what

附:定语从句的常见错误

1. 错用引导词

This is the book who he is looking for.

This is the book that/which he is looking for.定语从句的引导词由先行词决定,当先行词为人时用who,that,whom或whose;当先行词为事物时用that,which。

You can tell me anything which I don't know.

You can tell me anything that I don't know.定语从句的先行词为anything,nothing等表示事物的不定代词时,定语从句的引导词只能用that。

I like the book from that I borrowed the library.

I like the book from which I borrowed the library.定语从句作介词的宾语且介词提前时,只能用which,whom引导定语从句。

I still remember the days when we spent together.

I still remember the days that/which we spent together. 表示时间、地点或原因的先行词在定语从句中作时间状语时才能用when,where,why;当这些先行词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时用that/which。

This is the most popular film,that I saw yesterday.

This is the most popular film,which I saw yesterday.

that,why不可以引导非限制性定语从句。

2. 错省引导词

The boy who/that is standing there is my brother. 关系代词做主语时不可以省略。

The place in(which)I live is very quiet.

The place in which I live is very quiet. 当介词提前时,定语从句的引导词不能省略。

He is from America,(which)I know from his composition.

He is from America,which I know from his composition. 非限制性定语从句的引导词不能省略。

3. 错用、遗漏介词或动词短语中的介词被拆开

The pen by which I write a letter is on the table.

The pen with which I write a letter is on the table.

The place which I live is very quiet.

The place in which I live is very quiet.

This is the watch for which he is looking.

This is the watch which he is looking for.

4. 定语从句的主谓不一致

This is one of the books that was written by Lu Xun.

This is one of the books that were written by Lu Xun.

This is the only one of the books that was written by Lu Xun.

5. 定语从句的成分重复或残缺

This is the book that I give it to you.

This is the book that I give to you.

Is this book that you bought yesterday?

Is this book the one that you bought yesterday?

Is this the book that you bought yesterday?

1、A)Is this village my father was born in?B)Is this the village my father was born in?

a、where

b、which

c、the one

d、when

2、A)She likes to live in the room windows facing south.

B)She likes to live in the room windows face south.

a、whose

b、with

c、its

d、and

3、A)This is such a difficult question nobody can answer it.

B)This is such a difficult question nobody can answer.

a、as

b、which

c、that

d、what

4、A)He is one of the students who English well. B)He is the only one of the students who English well.

a、speak

b、speaks

c、speaking

d、spoken

5、A)Only those a knew well could be let in. B)Only those he knew well could be let in.

a、he

b、whom

c、did he

d、he did

6、A)The reason he gave us was acceptable. B)The reason he helped us was acceptable.

a、for

b、what

c、why

d、which

7、1)She has two daughters,and are nurses. 2)She has two daughters. are nurses.

3)She has two daughters,are daughters.

a、all of them

b、both of them

c、both of whom

d、all of whom

定语从句专项练习

一、认真观察下列句子的定语从句中关联词的用法。总结这些关联词使用的规则。(“/”表示这里可运用两个关联词中任一个)

This is the book which/that my mother bought yesterday.

This is the teacher who/that teaches us English.

That is the man (who/whom/that) you are looking for.

That is the day when I got married. 那就是我结婚的那一天。

That is the school where I work as a teacher.

This is the boy whose father is a scientist.

规则:

1)在限定某事物时,一般使用which/that作关联词。

2)在限定某人,并且此人在从句中作主语时,一般使用who/that作关联词。

3)在限定某人,并且此人在从句中作宾语时,一般使用whom作关联词。

4)在限定某时间,并且该时间在从句中作时间状语时,一般使用when作关联词。

5)在限定某地点,并且该地点在从句中作地点状语时,一般使用where作关联词。

6)在限定某人或事物,并且在从句中,从句主语与该人或事物有物主关系时,一般使用whose作关联词。

That is the book which/that my mother bought yesterday.

That is the teacher who/that teaches us English.

I like our teacher, who is very kind.

I like this book, which is very interesting.

规则:

1)限定性定语从句中,表示人或事物时,常用who/that或which/that作关联词。

2)非限定性定语从句中,表示人或事物时,常用who或which作关联词。

That is the book (which/that) my mother bought yesterday.

(括号表示此关联词可省略)

This is the teacher who/that teaches us English.

I like this book, which is very interesting.

规则:1)关联词在定语从句中作宾语时,可以省略关联词。

2)关联词在定语从句中不作宾语时,不可以省略关联词。

He is the only student that passed the exam.

他是唯一通过这个考试的学生。

Shanghai is the biggest city that lies in the east of China.

规则:关联词是或被the only/形容词的最高级/序数词修饰时,只能用that作关联词。

二、单项选择

1. Nearly all the streets are in straight lines, ________ from east to west. Those ________ run from north to south are called avenues.

A. running; that

B. run; who

C. running; who

D. run; that

2. This is the case ________ he’s had all his money stolen.

A. when

B. where

C. that

D. on which

3. Mr. Smith will pay a visit to Beijing this autumn, ________ we will enjoy the Olympic Games in 2008.

A. where

B. when

C. which

D. how

4. The artist will not paint people or animals but he will paint anything ________ .

A. that the little girl asks him

B. the little girl asks him to

C. for the little girl to ask him

D. what the little girl asks him

5. —How did you get in touch with the travel agent, Robin?

—Oh, that’s easy. I surfed t he Internet and then called one _______ the telephone number is provided.

A. which

B. in which

C. of which

D. whose

6. October 15 th is my birthday, ________ I will never forget.

A. when

B. that

C. what

D. which

7. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point ________ he can walk correctly and safely.

A. when

B. where

C. which

D. whose

8. There are several research centers in China ________ a certain disease called Bird Flu is being studied.

A. which

B. where

C. when

D. what

9. I hope that the little ________ I have been able to do does good to them all.

A. which

B. what

C. that

D. when

10. The time is not far away ________modern communications will become widespread in China’s vast count ryside.

A. as

B. when

C. until

D. before

11. ________ is known to everybody, Taiwan is a part of China. We must unify it.

A. It

B. As

C. Which

D. What

12. I shall never forget the day ________ Shen Zhou V was launched, ________ has a great effect on my life.

A. when, which

B. that, which

C. which, that

D. when, that

13. The bread my wife makes is much better than ________ you can buy at a store.

A. that which

B. one that

C. that of which

D. this of which

14. There is no such place ________ you dream of in all this world.

A. that

B. what

C. which

D. as

15. The people, ________ had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red Cross.

A. all whose homes

B. all of whose homes

C. all their homes

D. all of their homes

16. The humans are destroying nature day by day, __ of course, will cause severe punishment from it sooner or later.

A. who

B. when

C. on which

D. which

17. Is this research center ________ you visited the modern equipment last year?

A. where

B. that

C. the one that

D. the one where

18. Some pictures of the river brought the days back to the old ________ they swam in it.

A. when

B. that

C. who

D. where

19. The man showed us so heavy a stone ________ no man can lift.

A. that

B. as

C. which

D. and

20. He stayed there for quite a long time, during ________ time he learned much spoken English.

A. that

B. this

C. which

D. same