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改革后的英语四级翻译

1

孔子(Confucius)是春秋时期(the Spring and Autumn Period)的大思想家、大教育家和儒家学派(Confucianism)的创始人,是古代中国人心目中的圣人。孔子的言论和生平活动记录在由他的弟子或再传弟子编成的《论语》(The Analects)一书中。《论语》是中国古代文化的经典著作。在孔子之后几千年的中国历史上,没有哪一位思想家、文学家和政治家不受《论语》的影响。不研究《论语》,就不能真正把握中国几千年的传统文化。

As a great thinker, educator and founder of Confucianism during the Spring and Autumn Period, Confucius is a sage to the ancient Chinese people. His words and life story were recorded by his disciples and their students in The Analects. As an enduring classic of Chinese culture, The Analects has influenced all thinkers, writers and politicians in the thousand years’ Chinese history after Confucius. No scholar could truly understand this long-standing culture or the inner world of the ancient Chinese without this book.

2

大约在两千多年前,中国就出现了蜡染(wax printing)。

在中国服饰中,蜡染是一种流传

时间长、流行范围大、使用领域广的服装工艺。蜡染是在布匹着色的过程中,以蜂蜡(beeswax)

作为防止染色的材料。蜂蜡干了之后,会产生一些裂纹,这些裂纹在染色过程中渗透进靛蓝

色,于是形成了如冰花式样的美妙纹理。这样自然天成的纹理可以说是蜡染的灵魂所在。

Wax printing appeared in China about 2,000 years ago. Wax printing has long been a widespread

technique used in the history of Chinese fashion. During the dyeing process, beeswax is applied to prevent some parts of the cloth form being dyed. When the beeswax dries, it develops cracks,

which absorb indigo in the process of dyeing, thus forming the beautiful natural lines resembling breaking ice. These naturally formed lines represent the beauty and soul of wax printing.

3

景泰蓝(cloisonné)是驰名中外的传统工艺,它集青铜艺术、瓷器和雕刻诸种工艺制作技巧

于一身,是一门地道的北京绝活。它是收藏家收藏的佳品,也是人们居家使用的精美物品。

这项工艺始创于明代景泰年间,初创时的颜色主要是蓝色,故得名“景泰蓝”。到了成化年

间,景泰蓝技术进一步成熟,这个时期的作品沉稳凝重又透明灵动,而且铜胎也极为讲究。

Cloisonné is a traditional art widely known in and outside China. It is a kind of superb local expertise form of Beijing, which combines the skills of bronze art, porcelain, carving and other

types of folk arts. It is deemed valuable in the eyes of collectors, as well as refined ornaments for daily use. The making of cloisonnéfirst appeared during the Jingtai reign of the Ming Dynasty,

with the main colour used being blue, hence the name “Jingtai Blue” as it became known later on.

By the time of the Chenghua reign, the techniques for making cloisonné were further developed,

with products of this period looking heavy and dignified yet not lacking in eloquence or vividness. Moreover, its cast was always made of choice copper. 4

西塘在浙江嘉兴,位于上海和杭州之间。这个占地规模并不大的古镇有着悠久的历史,它初

建于春秋时期(the Spring and Autumn Period),位于吴国和越国的交界处。西塘的大致规

模在宋代之前就已经形成,今所见西塘著名的桥梁望仙桥(Wangxian Bridge)就是宋代的

遗迹。在明清时期,西塘既是远近闻名的鱼米之乡,又是著名的丝绸制造之地,还以制陶业

(ceramics)而享誉全国。

Xitang is located in Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, between Shanghai and Hangzhou. Though small

in size, this ancient town boasts a long history. It was first built during the Spring and Autumn Period, at the border between the states of Wu and Yue. The present layout had already taken

shape before the Song Dynasty, and the famous Wangxian Bridge in Xitang is a legacy of the

Song. By the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Xitang had become a well-known trade centre for farm

products, silks and ceramics, all produced in the surrounding areas and famous throughout the country.

5

秧歌舞(Yangko dance)是中国汉族的一种传统民间舞蹈,

通常在北方省份表演。秧歌舞者

通常穿上明亮多彩的表演服装,他们的表演动作迅速有力。在农历春节、元宵节等节日期间,

人们一旦听到锣鼓声,不管外面天气有多冷,他们都会蜂拥到街上观看秧歌舞表演。近年来,

中国东北某些城市的老年人自发组织了秧歌队,队员常年通过跳舞来保持健康,同时他们也

乐在其中。

The Yangko dance is a traditional folk dance of the Han Chinese, commonly performed in the

northern provinces. Yangko dancers usually wear bright and colorful costumes, and their

movements are vigorous and quick. During holidays, such as the lunar New Year and the Lantern

Festival, as soon as people hear the sound of drums and gongs they swarm into the streets to watch

Yangko dance performances, no matter how cold it is outside. In recent years, elderly people in

some cities in Northeast China have been organizing themselves into Yangko teams, with the

dancers enjoying themselves while keeping fit all year round.

中国的青铜器时代(Bronze Age)从夏开始,经历商、西周到春秋时期(the Spring and Autumn

Period),前后持续了一千五百多年的时间。大量出土的青铜器物表明,中国创造了灿烂的

青铜文明。这些青铜器物不仅有丰富的政治和宗教内涵,而且还具有很高的艺术价值。今藏

于中国历史博物馆的大盂鼎(the Great Ding for Yu)是中国青铜器时代的代表性作品之一。

它是西周康王(King Kang)时期的作品,距今大约有三千多年。

The Bronze Age in China lasted more than 1,500 years, from the Xia through the Shang and

Western Zhou Dynasties, to the Spring and Autumn Period. Large numbers of unearthed artifacts

indicate a high level of ancient bronze civilization in the country. They feature rich political and religious themes, and are of high artistic value. A representative example is the Great Ding for Yu, which is now preserved in the Museum of Chinese History. It was cast about 3,000 years ago

during the reign of King Kang of Western Zhou Dynasty.

1911年,中国爆发了历史上的第一次资产阶级革命——辛亥革命(the Revolution of 1911),

它推翻了中国封建社会的最后一个朝代——清朝,废除了中国延续了2000多年的封建帝制,

建立了中国的第一个民主共和国——中华民国。民国政府成立以后,要求全国人民都剪掉头

上的辫子(queues),选择自己喜欢的发型。至此,在中国延续了280多年的辫子法令终于

被解除。

In 1911, the first bourgeois revolution in Chinese history — the Revolution of 1911 broke out.

The last dynasty of the Chinese feudal society, Qing Dynasty, was over-thrown and the monarch

system that had a history of more than 2,000 years was abolished. The Republic of China, the first democratic republic in China, was founded in 1912. After its foundation, the government of

Republic of China had required the citizens to cut off their queues and make the haircut they liked.

Since then, the wearing-queue order that had lasted for more than 280 years in China has been

abolished.

8

出现在中国五代时期的妇女缠足(foot-binding),虽然最初是宫廷舞女为了方便跳舞而采用

的一种行为,但由于有人认为脚裹起来更好看,所有很多人就开始效仿起来。到了宋代,封

建社会的纲常思想非常严重,受到男尊女卑的封建礼教的影响,女子裹脚的风气被传承下来,

并逐渐成为一种习俗。为了与妇女的小脚相适应,宋代还出现了专门为裹足妇女制作的弓鞋

(gongxie)。

The practice of foot-binding for women appeared in the Five Dynasties, but in the beginning, it

was only adopted by the court dancers for convenience while dancing. Since people thought the

foot-binding made women’s feet look more beautiful, many females rushed to follow suit. By the

Song Dynasty, due to the importance of feudal ethical thoughts and influence of the feudal male

superiority conception, the practice of foot-binding was inherited and became a custom. In the

Song Dynasty, to meet the needs of women’s small feet,

a kind of specially designed shoes gongxie was made.