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被动语态讲解

被动语态讲解

一、被动语态的构成形式

1. 被动语态的基本时态变化

被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由be+过去分词构成,be 随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:

1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时

例Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

2)has /have been done 现在完成时

例All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start.

3)am/is /are being done 现在进行时

例A new cinema is being built here.

4)was/were done 一般过去时

例I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

5)had been done 过去完成时

例By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.

6)was/were being done 过去进行时

例A meeting was being held when I was there.

7)shall/will be done 一般将来时

例Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

8)should/would be done 过去将来时

例The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived.

9)shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用)

例The project will have been completed before July.

2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式

1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。

例The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一

个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

例His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为He was given a

present by his mother for his birthday.

3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。

例Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。

例Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

例The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

3. 非谓语动词的被动语态

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