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Literature Review

1.Symbols, Symbolism and its development

The thesis is to analyze the film from symbolism perspective, however, it is very important to take a hard look at symbol before disscussing symbolism literary. Becaause symbolism is closely associated with symbol and symbolism’s aesthetic pursuit of implication, melody and rhythm if there is no symbol. An outstanding German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel defined symbol as “ From the perspective of aesthetics symbol is a sensuous object, which must not be taken in itself such as it presents itself immediately to us, but in more extended and more general sense (http://www.wendangku.net/doc/ae968367482fb4daa48d4b15.html/reference/archive/hegel/works/ae/ch01.htm). Universal symbols and specific symbols are the two categories of symbols. Uniwersal or cultural symbols are those whose associations are the common property of a society or culture and are so widely recognized and accepted that they can be said to be almost universal. These types of symbols are sometimes also called traditional symbols (Lin,2004). This type of symbols is widely used in western literature. For example, the color green for freshness and growth, rose for love, dove for peace.

In literature, however, the term “symbol”is taken to represent something which does have some characteristics analogous to, or some natural association with, what is symbolized. Symbol are a kind of medium of in direct expression. It can be a person, object, action, place, situation, group or even artwork.

Symbol is one of those words that are often used in a confusing manner. The confusion is increased by different scholars using the word to mean very different things. Most obviously, General Semantics use symbol to designate what other writers call a “sign” . A symbol is a sign that has further layers of meaning. In other words, a symbol means more than it literally says. The more profound the symbol, the greater the complexity

of the layers of meaning. In literature, it is important to remember that a novel means more than what the writer consciously intends to convey. When referred to symbolism, Dr. Frank Lentricchia and Thomas Mclanghlin concludes, “symbolism is the systematic use of symbols to represent or allude to something. In the most literal sense, all languages are symbolic. In a narrower sense, symbolism is the use of iconic figures with particular conventional meanings.”(Lentricchia & Mclanghlin, 1990)

In literature, symbolism is a very important element. It means the systematic use of symbols or pictorial conventions to express an allegorical meaning. Symbolism is a series of links between man’s apprehension of the world, and the way he can convey his apprehension. Many writers and some fiction authors use symbolism as a rhetorical device central to the meaning of their works. Their literature works are often admired for their artful use of symbolism. Now, symbolism is an international ideological trend. Symbolists believed that art should apprehend more absolute truths, which could only be accessed indirectly. So they describe scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena in a highly metaphorical and suggestive manner. They provided particular images or objects with esoteric attractions.

Symbolism of literature is originated in the middle of the 19th century in France, and spread to Europe and the United States of a literary genre in the early 20th, is the embodiment of the trend of symbolism in literature, and it is also a core branch of the modernist literature, mainly include two fields: the poetry and drama, its influence continues today. The birth of western mainstream academic thought symbolism literature is the watershed of classical literature and modern literature. The french poet Charles Baudelaire and American poet Allan Poe are the pioneer in the symbolism. Although the term “symbolism” first appeared in 1886, in Charles Baudelaire and Allan Poe’s creation as early as in the middle of the 19th century had involved some concepts of symbolism.

In 1857, the French young poet Baudelaire’s “Flower of evil”is a staple of symbolism. “Flower of evil” like a monster in the French poetry, becoming the French literature and even a high - profile event in the world literature history. Baudelaire become literary accomplishment, then a new literary genre quickly formed as the center of Baudelaire. As a result of his followers Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud and Stephane Mallarme’s appearance, the new school at the end of the 19th, reached the period of prosperity. Due to their three people’s efforts to symbolism, symbolism appeared the unprecedented boom in the end of the 19th century. As 70 literary genres, early symbolism has been disintegrated in the end of the 19th century. However, early symbolism as a kind of literary thinking, its impact has been rooted in France. And because of the role of Stephane Mallarme and other famous poets, symbolism began to cross the border of France in the late of 19th century, it expands to Western Europe, North America. The later symbolism rises again in the 1920s.

2.2Both home and abrosd.

2.2.1 Cutural

When the film is published, it is welcomed by many people both in home and abroad. Many scholars survey the film from different perspectives including intercultural perspective, linguistic perspective, film literature perspective, translation perspective and education perspective. He was voted the 11th Greatest Director of all time by Entertainment Weekly. “ Without a doubt one of the most influential film personalities in the history of film, Steven Spielberg is perhaps Holly-wood’s best known director and one of the wealthiest filmmakers in the world .” (Tom, 2007)

The youth writer Zhang Dan dan analyzed the phenomenon of cultural shock of the film “The Terminal”. She analyzed the film from the aspect of the five stages of cultural shock including the stage of honeymoon, the stage of enmity, the stage of recover, the stage of adaption and the stage

of harmony, she also analyzed the film from the aspect of solutions to adapt the cultural shock. “ Through the film we could know that cultural shock is objective existence, even it exists in everyehere. We should face it actively rather than let it blocks our intercultural communication.”(zhang,2012)

From the film The Terminal to see the cultural conflicts and integrations. They divided it into three parts. The first part is the cultural conflicts that the main character faced. The second part is the process of adapting the culture. The last part is what he learned from the process of the cultural adaption. Among the three parts, they write cultural conflicts from the stage of honeymoon to the stage of enmity, write the process of cultural adaption from the stage of recover to the stage of adaption of the main character. They shape the main character as an American hero and will highlight the theme of the good of humanity (狄建茹&关博,2012). The process of cultural adaption and strategy to analyze the film The Terminal. Chai Ru jing used the film as her object of study to analyze the main character’s intercultural life in the special and limited space of Kennedy International Airport. She found the process of his cultural adaption is fit for the U-bend. Although each stage of cultural adaption has no clear bound, some external factors will speed up the process of cultural adaption and the mark of going into a new stage. At last, she analyzed the solutions to adapt culture.

2.2.2 Linguistics

Dai Xiao yu once wrote the pragmatic analysis for the film’s dialogue, using two basic theories of pragmatics - using speech act theory and conversational principle to analyze the characters’conversations in the film. Through analyzing the illocutionary acts that were used in conversations and obeying the conversational principles or violating implications that the speaker wanted to expressed, he revealed the process that the main character was experienced from cultural conflicts and cultural integrations (Dai Xiao yu,2013).

Evan Williams used the structuralism to analyze The Terminal from a mew perspective. Through the binary opposition and Greimas Algirdas Julien’s semiotic rectangle to study the film “The Terminal”from its surface structure to its deep meaning. In detail, the binary including three aspects in the film. The first aspect is the opposition of English and non english; the second one is the opposition of true love and false love; the third one is the opposition of the dream of America and the dream of individual. Greimas Algirdas Julien’s semiotic rectangle is matrix model to explain a work of literature. Suppose one of the element of the story is X, its opposite aspect is Against X, contradict with X but don’t opposite to it is Not X, contract with Against X is Not Against X. The story of literature origin from the opposition between X and Against X. When we describe the story, we will introduce new elements. Then the Not X and Not Against X will be appeared. With all the elements’ appearance, the story will be finished. In the film, Navorski is X, Deckese is the Against X, the sergeant and other workers in the airport is Not Against X, the other people is called Not X.

2.2.3 the perspective of film literature

Some foreign schoolars analyzed the themes of The Terminal. She wrote from life is waiting, the shape of Navorski and the main characters that be hided in the film these three aspects to explain the themes that the authors wanted to expressed, waiting, black humor and the shape of characters were included.

Zhao Ying jun and Cai Yu xia from three viewpoints of the director’s film aesthetics to analyze the theme of The Terminal. They used the parachute management and the few to defeat the many these two technique of expressions and metaphor to analyze the film(赵英俊&蔡玉侠,2007).

2.3 Conclusion

Steven Spielberg is recognized as one of the greatest filmmakers of all-time. He and his works are welcomed by both foreign and domestic

people. There are some people to analyze the film from other perspectives. For example, Wu Zhen, Ma Qun ying and Tu Yu xin analyzed the film from translation perspective; Pan Li chun analyzed the film from the education perspective.

Bibliography

1.http://www.wendangku.net/doc/ae968367482fb4daa48d4b15.html/reference/archive/hegel/works/ae/ch01.htm

2.Lin, Liuchen. 2004. An Approach to Fiction. Shanghai Foreign

Language Education Press. (林六晨,《英美小说要素解析》,上海:上海外语教育出版社,2004。)

3.Lentricchia & Mclanghlin. 1990. Surreal Dream: Symbolism

Literature. New York: Pergamon Press.

4.Zhang, Dandan. 2012. Intercultural shock. Xian Poly-technic

University Press. (张丹丹,《跨文化交际》,西安:西北工业大学出版社,2012。)

5.Tom, Hanks. 2007. Entertainment Weekly. Frenmg Press.

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