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新视野英语听力原文及答案 unit1-6

新视野大学英语听说教程第一单元原文和答案

Understanding words

Task1:insight;embarrassing;frustrating;access;virtual;

minimum;positive;commitment;benefit;gap

Task2:rewarding;environment;participate;required;medium;

access;commitment;frustration; benefits; insights

Understanding sentences

Task1: 1. The teacher told us where to buy our textbooks.

2. The text was explained to Mary and Jack yesterday.

3. Our monitor forgot the name of the actor appearing in the film.

4. Last week, Dr. Brown went to Washington by train in order attend a school meeting there.

5. She hasn't quite finished her assignment yet.

6. She'd like to take an online course.

7. John used to be a student in New York.

8. Jack isn't a good student because he never does his homework.

9. She'd like to see the professor as soon as possible.

10. Jack told my sister the way to the Chairman's Office.

key: 1. (B) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (A) 5. (B) 6. (B) 7. (B) 8. (B) 9. (A) 10. (B)

Task2: 1. Mary was at the top of her class during the last year.

2. I suppose that the teacher, Mary, wants me to finish the course.

3. I came across a letter from Brown the other day.

4. Jim soon got access to the library computers.

5. Much work has been done to bridge the gap between what students learn and what society needs.

6. Mr. Brown is a good driver and his wife is just like him.

7. Learning a foreign language was one of the most difficult yet most rewarding experiences of my life.

8. We asked all school students to participate in an online course.

9. I wouldn't trade my experience with English learning for anything in the world.

10. I can't keep up with the flow of the online course.

Key: 1.(B) 2.(A) 3.(A) 4.(C) 5.(B) 6.(A) 7.(C) 8.(A) 9. (C) ,I0. (B)

UNDERSTANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1 Passage one

Today, there are many opportunities open to those who wish to continue their education. However, nearly all require some break in one's job in order to attend school full time.

Part time education, that is, attending school at night or for one weekend a month, usually lasts a long period of time, As a result, many people find it almost impossible to complete a degree program. In addition, such programs require a fixed time, which can produce some bad effects on one's job and family time.

Of the many ways of teaching and learning, however, perhaps distance learning can be said to fit our needs. Distance learning is an educational method, which allows students to study at a speed that is comfortable for them. In this way, students enjoy a good opportunity to achieve the educational goals necessary in today's world. The time required to study can be fixed according to the students' actual needs and wants. In addition, students can participate in distance learning courses from almost any place in the world. They can receive teachers' help through the online course, by telephone and over the Internet.

Good distance learning programs have a lot of benefits. For example, students don't have to travel away from home to take a test. The distance learning course is the same as the courses students have at college. The degree offered is also the same whether distance learning or on-campus study is employed. In fact, a good distance learning program is popular not only with the students but also any company or business that wants to work for the educational benefit and business development of the company.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard.

1. According to the talk, what is meant by part time education?

2' What is one of the major benefits that distance learning offers to the students?

3. How many benefits of good distance learning programs are mentioned in the talk?

4. How can a business benefit from distance learning programs according to the speaker?

5. What benefit does distance learning bring to a worker in a business according to the speaker?

Key: 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. F 5. T

Passage two

In order to learn a foreign language well, it is necessary to get over the fear of making mistakes. If the major goal of language use is communication, the mistakes are second in importance and may be dealt with bit by bit as awareness of those mistakes increases. On the other hand, students should not ignore their mistakes. The language learner may notice how native speakers express themselves, and how native expressions are different from the way the learner might say them. For example, a Chinese speaker who has been saying "I'11 do it" lo express willingness to do something in the immediate future, could, by communicating with native speakers, realize that native speakers actually say 'Tll do it," when they mean "right now." The resulting gap can serve as a base for the student to change his way of using the present form in English. But a student who is unwilling to communicate in the first place would lose this opportunity to learn better.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard, c

6. What does the speaker mainly discuss in the talk?

7. How can language learners reduce the number of their mistakes?

8. What will happen to foreign language learners who do not communicate with native speakers?

9. Why shouldn't foreign language learners worry too much about making mistakes?

10. What does the speaker say about the use of mistakes in foreign language learning?

Key: 6. F 7. T 8. T 9. F 10. F

Passage three

Many Chinese students have studied English for more than ten years. However, they are still unable to speak English very well when they meet a native speaker. They seem to have mastered the basic language structure, but a conversation in English will make them feel uncomfortable. They are afraid that other people might find out their mistakes.

It's common that many students who are bad speakers of English can write English perfectly. This proves that they are unable to think about their ideas in English. The center of the problem is that they lack practice and positive belief in themselves.

Why should you be afraid? Do you fear those native speakers with whom you are speaking? Don't be shy! They will not laugh at you just for a little mistake you make. The best way to get rid of mistakes is to learn to speak by speaking more. I am sure that continual practice will help you succeed.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. What does this talk mainly discuss?

12. Why are so many Chinese students good at writing English but poor at speaking English?

13. Why are so many Chinese students afraid to speak to native speakers?

14. How can we speak English well?

15. What does the phrase "get rid of" mean in the talk?

Key: 11.F 12. F 13. F 14. T 15. F

Task 2 Passage one

Imagine you are a doctor of medicine from Japan. You are at an international meeting in Europe. You want to communicate with a doctor from Africa. What language do you speak with him? The answer is probably English.

Today, nearly 600 million people around the world use the English language. Only half of them speak English as their first language.

Why is English useful for international communication? For one thing, many books and papers in special fields are in English. As a result, people with great knowledge in these special fields often learn English. Such people from different countries can use their English for international communication. English is really a world language.

Key: 1. C 2. A 3.B 4.C 5.D

Passage two

Many people go to school for an education. They learn languages, history, political methods, geography, physics, chemistry and mathematics. Others go to school to learn skills in order to make a living. Traditional education is very useful and important. Yet, no one can learn everything from school. A teacher, no matter how much he knows, cannot teach his students everything they want to know. The teacher's main job is to show his students how to learn. He teaches them how to read and how to think. So, much more is to be learned outside school by the students themselves.

It is always more important to know how to study by oneself than to remember some facts or a formula. It is quite easy to learn a certain fact in history or a formula in mathematics. But it is very difficult to use a formula in working out a math problem.

Great scientists before us didn't get everything from school. Edison didn't even finish junior school. He made so many things for us. These scientists were so successful, but their teachers only showed them the way. The reason for their success was that they knew how to study. They read books that were not taught at school. They would ask many questions as they read. They did thousands of experiments. They worked hard ail their lives, wasting not a single moment. Most important was that they knew how to use their brains. Kay: 6. C 7.D 8.D 9.C 10.D

Passage three

When you are reading something in English, you may often come across a new word. What's the best way to learn it?

You may look it up in an English-Chinese dictionary. It will tell you a lot about a word: the pronunciation, the part of speech, the Chinese meaning and how to use this word. But how can you know where to find a word among thousands of English words? How do you find it both quickly and correctly in the dictionary? First, all the English words are listed in alphabetical order. In the dictionary, first you will see all the words beginning with the letter A, followed by those beginning with B, C, and D and so on. That means with two words like "desert" and "pull", "desert" must come before "pull".

Then, if two words both begin with the same letter, you look at the second letter, then the third, the fourth and so on. For example, "pardon" comes before "plough", "judge" before "just", and so on.

Do you understand now how to look up a word in a dictionary? The dictionary will be your good friends. I hope you'll use it as often as possible in your English learning.

Key: 11.D 12. D 13. A 14. B 15. C

新视野大学英语听说教程第二单元原文和答案

Understanding words

Task1:1. . annoy 2. blast 3. offensive 4. powerful 5. disgusting

6. definitely

7. horrible

8. rhythm

9. disturb 10. toast

Key: 1.(B)2.(C) 3.(A) 4.(B) 5.(A) 6.(A) 7.(C) 8.(B) 9.(A) 10.(A)

Task2:1. annoyed; 2. disgusting; 3. disturb; 4. jeans; 5. powerful

6. grab;

7. definitely

8. stuff

9. rhythms 10. horrible

Understanding sentences

Task1: 1. When he heard the music blast forth, Tom bolted out of bed like shot from a gun.

2. Sandy sang along with the music as she lay listening to her favorite record.

3. Not stopping to knock, the children burst into the room,

4. It must be weird for him to listen to such horrible stuff as a youngster.

5. He asked Sandy to turn down her music so that it did not wake her younger sister.

6. The music is so loud that it will hurt your ears as well as your brain, so mm it off.

7. Please hurry up or you'll be late for the concert.

8. We’d better get there early, or someone else will grab the best seats.

9. She stayed a long time in the shower and washed thoroughly.

10. The teacher banged on the table to rush the students into handing in their papers.

Key: 1. (A) 2. (B) 3. (B) 4. (A) 5. (A) 6. (A) 7. (B) 8. (B) 9. (A) 10. (A)

Task2: 1. It was so cold that he wrapped his sweater around his shoulders to keep warm.

2. As usual for this time of year, all of the restaurants are closed.

3. While standing by the sink, I heard Mother enter the kitchen.

4. Just one more question and I'm done.

5. She pretended that she didn't mind, but I knew that she did.

6. Normally she wore little make-up, except for this evening.

7. We don't go far enough in trying to stop young people from smoking.

8. She bolted to the phone to ring for an ambulance.

9. It's nice to have someone with whom you can share your problem.

10. Since her brother had left, her mother bugged Sandy a lot more than before.

Key: 1. (B) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (C) 5. (B) 6, (B) 7. (C) 8. (B) 9. (B) 10. (A)

UNDERSTANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1 Passage one

Until now, happy parents found themselves ignored by their young rebels, who charged them with being too concerned with money and too anxious to influence the neighbors. Young people thought true success was a matter of self-satisfaction. And self-satisfaction included reaching one's goals and achieving happiness in one's own way without paying attention to rules, duties, or the opinions of others.

Most parents found it hard to accept their children's thinking. They themselves had been brought up to respect traditional values; they had also learned to respect money because it was hard to find during their teenage years. They had married in the late 1930s or early 1940s, at a time when it was difficult to give their children a carefree life. A married couple's first duty, therefore, was to think of their children's happiness. If the parents felt tired and unsatisfied, they didn't dare admit it: it was not done. On the other hand, while Mom and Dad were going without things, they expected their children to obey the rules of "nice" manners, and to grow up into adults that make parents proud. These were the very ideas against which the young rebels of the 1960s rebelled.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard.

1. According to the passage, what did children think of their parents?

2. What was true success according to young people?

3. What did most parents learn to do when they were young?

4. What did parents think was their first duty?

5. What did parents expect their children to be?

Key: 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T

Passage two

My grandfather lives with us and he's making my life a pain. When I was small he was kind and happy. But now he's always negative and finding fault. I mustn't break in when he's talking. It's not polite. He doesn't like my clothes. "Nice girls don't dress like that." I shouldn't wear make-up. "Existing beauty is best." Sometimes he disturbs my homework. "When I was young we used to do maths differently," he says. Honestly, he's so old he doesn't know anything. But that doesn't stop him from finding fault with me. He doesn't like my friends or my favorite records. "You're making too much noise," he calls, "I can't get to sleep." When he's not being negative, he asks questions, "Where are you going? Where have you been? Why aren't you helping your mother?" He thinks I'm six, not sixteen. Anyway, why can't I do what I like? It's my life, not his.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. What is the talk mainly about?

7. What does the speaker's grandfather think she should do?

8. Why does the speaker's grandfather sometimes disturb her homework?

9. When does the speaker's grandfather stop being negative?

10. Why does the speaker's grandfather never stop bugging her?

Key: 6. F 7. F 8. F 9. T 10. F

Passage three

David Brown and Ann Ramos are two patients participating in the Adult Day Care Program at Mercy Hospital. David Brown is seventy-two years old. He's friendly and likes to talk. He lives with his wife in a small flat in the city. But David is becoming forgetful. His wife says, "He'll heat up some soup, then forget to turn off the cooking equipment." She is sixty-one and still works. She's worded about leaving her husband alone by himself.

Ann Ramos is eighty and lives with her daughter, who is sixty. Her daughter says that she needs a break. "Mom follows me everywhere. She follows me from room to room when I clean. She sits down next to me when I read the newspaper. She even follows me out of the house when I take out the refuse. I need a break and she does, too."

And so, several times a week, David and Ann's families take them to the Adult Day Care Center. Many hospitals now offer this program.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. Who are David Brown and Ann Ramos?

12. What does the speaker say about Ann Ramos?

13. What's wrong with David?

14. How often do David Brown and Ann Ramos go to Mercy Hospital?

15. What can we learn about the Adult Day Care Program?

Key: 11. T 12. T 13. T 14. F 15. F

Task 2

Passage one

When I was a child there were some people whose ideas I respected. My uncle John, I thought, knew everything about the world; he had traveled and seen all there was to see. I believed anything he told me about places like Japan, Australia and America. When I was 16 years old I got the idea that my parents, while they were very nice people and I loved them, really didn't know very much. I, of course, knew everything. Then, when I was 18, I realized my mother and father had learned a lot in just two years. I now respected their opinions on different subjects. It took two years of growing up for me to realize that they had had these opinions and ideas all the time.

Key:1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 A

Passage Two

Nine out often parents hit their children according to a report printed today. But many of them also feel that hitting is wrong. The report also says that parents often do not understand their children's bad ways.

Although about nine out of ten parents use hitting as a punishment, half of them feel shame about using it, while the other half do hit their children and think they are right. It seems most parents we talked to hit their children more than once a week and five percent actually hit their children every day.

Parents should make more efforts to understand their children; hitting isn't always the best answer if children are bad. If parents tried harder to understand how their children feel and why they act in certain ways, it would be better not to hit them because when a child's acting badly, she/he needs love and attention, not anger and violence.

KEY: 6. D 7. A 8. A 9. D 10. C

Passage three

When my father died, my mother insisted on living by herself. I wanted her to marry again, but she said she wanted to be free. But she didn't depend only on herself at all, you see, because whenever she had any problems she would bring them to me, and she was the kind of person who always made everything difficult, so it never stopped. Paul began to hate her for it, but I was sorry for her, you see; she was so without help... I couldn't just leave her, could I? Paul said I did far too much for her, and she never said thank you for anything, never showed me the kind of love normal mothers show their children. In fact in the end she was charging me with stealing from her. And when Paul heard that he blew up and said that we would never have a proper marriage unless we got away from her. In fact he warned me he would leave me if I didn't leave her.

KEY: 11. C 12. C 13. D 14 B 15. D

新视野大学英语听说教程第三单元原文和答案

Understanding words

Task1:1. amazed 2. impatient 3. reluctance 4. precisely 5. adjust

6. inwardly

7. punch

8. local

9. occasion 10. stress

Key: 1.(A) 2.(C) 3.(B) 4.(C) 5.(A) 6,(C) 7.(C) 8.(B) 9.(B) 10.(B))

Task2:1.subway 2. impatient 3. reluctance 4. precisely 5. adjust

6. inwardly

7. punch

8. local

9. occasion 10. stress

Understanding sentences

Task1: 1. Jim found it hard to adjust to his father's wife.

2. The plane didn't make it to New York because of the heavy snow.

3. He didn't show any envy of the more fortunate.

4. She was repeatedly subjected to critical comments.

5. She was on leave from school to visit her sick father in hospital.

6. How embarrassing that must have been for you!

7. David was thirty but he hadn't grown up yet.

8. My father worked in an office building on top of a subway station in Manhattan.

9. Please see to it that the patient takes the medicine three times a day.

10. He went to see films on occasion.

Key: 1. (A) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (B) 5. (A) 6. (B) 7. (B) 8. (A) 9. (B) 10. (B)

Task2: 1. Mary had a good time staying with her parents over the weekend.

2. He has a good heart and always helps others.

3. A heated discussion broke out in the classroom between the children.

4. She clung to the rail along the edge of the stairs as she walked down the icy steps.

5. He started out for work an hour ago.

6. He held onto the rail to keep his balance.

7. Dan broke his leg during basketball practice; that's why I saw him at the clinic.

8. I'm scared. No kidding, really.

9. It was unworthy of her to ask such a question.

10. It seems as though I've been gone a month, but it's only been a few short days.

Key: 1. (A) 2.(A) 3. (C) 4.(B) 5. (B) 6.(A) 7. (A) 8. (C) 9. (C) 10. (B)

UNDERSTANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1

Passage one

I am a 12-year-old girl. My legs are crippled and I can't walk. When I reached the age for starting school, I saw all the other children going and I wanted to go, too. My parents just shook their heads when I asked them. My grandmother tried to comfort me, but tears fell down her cheeks. A few days later, the headmaster of the school and Mrs. Wen came to our house. They said they would carry me to school every day. Early the next morning Mrs. Wen came and carded me on her back for half a kilometer to school. From then on she carried me to school and home every day. One morning there was a big rainstorm. The rain poured down and the wind was so strong that it nearly blew the trees down. I was just thinking that surely the teacher would not come when the door opened and in came both she and the headmaster. They carried me to school as usual. Last year an article about me appeared in the newspaper. Not long after that I received a letter addressed to me. It was from a doctor who had read about me in the paper. He is an old doctor in his 70s. He wanted to try to cure my illness. He studied my case carefully and decided he knew a medicine that could help me. After taking it for six months, I'm much better. I'm looking forward to walking to school like other children some day.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard.

1. What did her parents do when the speaker reached the age for starting school?

2. How did the speaker manage to go to school after all?

3. How far is it from the speaker's house to school?

4. What is one of the reasons that the old doctor offered to cure the speaker's illness?

5. How is the speaker after having taken the medicine for six months?

Key: 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F

Passage two

It was not until John was almost a year old that Karen and David Smith began to suppose that something might be wrong. The Smiths took their son to a doctor to find an answer. This began a journey to doctors, special medical doctors, hospitals and clinics that lasted for over a year. Finally John was found to be suffering from developmental disorder. The doctors pronounced that John would probably never speak. The struggle to discover John's problem was only the beginning. Now the Smiths were faced with the task of trying to find help for John-- a search that offered little hope. Encouraged by one book titled "Let Me Hear Your Voice", and another book "Me Book", they developed a special helping program, a method of one-on-one help for 36 hours a week. This began the journey to pull John into the real world.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. What did the Smiths think about their son when he was about a year old?

7. What did John suffer from according to the doctors?

8. Why did it take doctors such a long time to make their decision?

9. Why didn't the Smiths give up hope to find help for their son?

10. What did the Smiths do to pull John into the real world?

Key: 6. F 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. T

Passage three

At first Tom leaned toward not believing it. He felt fine. After a few months he suffered what appeared to be a stroke. He lost the use of his right hand. Little by little his case was getting worse and worse. Today he can move his mouth and his lips and he can talk, although much more slowly than when he was well. In every other way, he is completely not able to help himself. He has to be fed, to be moved in a wheelchair and he cannot sit up for very long. Most of the time he spends in bed with the continuous attending of his wife, who has managed so far to care for him at home. His care is her sole and continual concern. Both she and Tom have given way to the disease unwillingly, an inch at a time. Tom has been forced to have experimental drags as well as blood removed and replaced, a job that took five days in the hospital. He remains in good spirits. Both he and his wife openly discuss the future. His doctor has given him about three months more, butas his wife says, "They said that a year ago, and he's still here. That's because he's a fighter." Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

1 l. Why didn't Tom believe he was attacked by cancer?

12. How did Tom's wife look after him?

13. Why do Tom and his wife openly discuss his future?

14. What does Tom do every day according to the story?

15. What does the speaker suggest about Tom's future?

Key: 11. F 12. F 13. F 14. F 15. T

Listening Task 2

Passage one

Beginning in the 1960s American women started entering jobs and work positions that had been taken over almost completely by men. In the ! 970s, another pattern appeared in work choices: men began entering jobs and work positions held before by women. When John Smith started in nursing school nine years ago, his father took it hard. "Here is my father, a steelworker, hearing about other steel workers' sons who were becoming soldiers and miners, or getting baseball money to pay for school costs," Mr. Smith remembers. The thought of his son becoming a nurse was too much. Today, Mr. Smith, an official nurse, earns about $30,000 a year at the New Town Hospital in Brooklyn, New York. His father, he says, has changed his mind. Now he tells the fellows he works with that their sons, who can't find jobs even after four years of college, should have become nurses.

KEY: 1. A 2 A 3 C 4 A 5 B

Passage two

Peter Richards, the owner of a jewelry store which was left to him by his grandfather after his death, was the loneliest man in town. One winter afternoon before Christmas, a little girl, after carefully studying each piece of jewelry in the window, went into the shop. "Please would you wrap up that beautiful piece in pretty paper for me?" she said to Peter. "Are you buying it for someone?" Peter asked. "It's for my big sister who takes good care of me. You see, this will be the first Christmas since our mother died. I've been looking for a really wonderful present for my sister." "How much money do you have?" asked Peter. From the pocket of her coat, she took her hand full of pennies and put them on the table top. "This is all I have." Peter looked at the little girl with that yellow hair and blue eyes. Something made him feel once again the pain of his old sadness. Several years ago, he had loved a girl whose hair was as yellow as the shining sun and whose eyes were as blue as the sea. But one night when it was raining, she was struck by a car and died. What the little girl did made him remember again all that he had lost and at the same time brought him out of that world of self-pity. So Peter quickly removed the price card on the piece so that she could not see it. Then he wrapped it in pretty Christmas paper and tied it with green ribbon. "Here you are," he said, "Don't lose it on the way home."

KEY: 6 C 7 A 8 B 9 C 10 D

Passage three

In 1980, when a sudden pain struck 14-year-old Ma Wenzhong, a Grade 3 student in a middle school, he didn't pay much attention to it. He thought something must be wrong with his legs and it would pass soon. Ma Wenzhong didn't tell anyone about this, as he was studying for the coming entrance examination to a senior high school. He passed the examination with a top score and continued his study until he was in Grade 2, when he found he couldn't move his legs any more. The local doctor sent Ma Wenzhong to a large city for further medical examination. What he got there was very shocking: all his muscles, from limbs to internal body parts, would waste away, and he was dying! But Ma Wenzhong didn't give up. To reach his goal to be a teacher, he began to teach himself. In winter, his hands were frozen with cold; in summer, his bottom was hurting from long sitting. Finally, he finished all the required courses for high school students and some college courses. Up to now he has been working, heart and soul, as a personal teacher for over 13 years. KEY: 11 C 12 D 13 A 14 B 15 C

新视野大学英语听说教程第四单元原文和答案

Understanding words

Task1:1. relax ,2. humor 3. absorb 4. contact 5. entertain

6. depressed

7. conscious

8. consistent

9. audience 10. reaction

Key: 1.(B) 2.(A) 3.(C) 4.(A) 5.(A) 6.(A) 7.(A) 8.(C) 9.(A) 10.(B)

Task2:1.impression 2. presentation 3. successful 4. straight 5. express

6. addressing

7. attitudes

8. appear

9. humor 10. audience

Understanding sentences

Task1: 1. When you are talking to others, try to make eye contact.

2. That tone of his nearly drove me crazy.

3. The president spoke far longer than he ever did before.

4. She was depressed to learn of his illness.

5. The lady was totally absorbed in what she was doing.

6. Bill's pleasing appearance wins him many friends.

7. The professor introduced himself to the two new students.

8. On the whole, you express yourself very clearly.

9. Dr. Williams was invited by the director to address the professors.

10. He took my idea seriously.

Key: 1.(B) 2.(B) 3.(B) 4.(B) 5.(A) 6.(A) 7.(A) 8.(B) 9.(B) 10.(B)

Task 2

1. That big trading company holds interviews all over the country.

2. She encountered a friend at the meeting.

3. Effective communication is critical to each person yet is difficult to achieve.

4. Prices are increasing at a surprising rate.

5. Keeping eye contact with the interviewer is an important unspoken signal.

6. A little humor can relax a serious business environment.

7. We listen to relax, to get information, to express interest, and to discover attitudes.

8. Her speech is impressive.

9. The professor had a consistent attitude toward all his students.

10. Please keep an eye on my briefcase.

Key: 1. (C) 2.(A) 3.(C) 4.(B) 5.(B) 6.(A) 7.(A) 8.(C) 9.(B) 10.(B

UNDERSTANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1 Passage one

The discovery of your essential self comes after digging down through the many levels of the pictured self: Who you think you are, who you wish you were, who you are afraid you might be.

Finding your true self means believing and telling the truth about who you are and who you are not. Doing so may be simple or painful, depending on how in touch with the real world you already are. Finding your true self is essential to success because it is what allows you to go along your proper path, the one that will lead to satisfaction.

Knowing who you are allows you to tap into your inward desires, from which you can then plan your course. When you know who you are, you know what you want. When you know what you want you open your self to the opportunity of choice, and the place where you connect with the path that is right for you. The driving force behind the discovery of this path is your purpose. Why are you here? What is your goal? What do you

want your life to be about? What contribution do you want to make to the world? What gift do you want to leave behind? When you discover your essential self, you can know the answers to all these questions and find your true calling.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard.

1. According to the speaker, what do we have to do in order to discover our real self?.

2. Why is it important to discover our real self?.

3. What should we do before we can plan our future?

4. Which comes first, knowing what we want or knowing who we are?

5. What can be understood from this talk?

Key: 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. T

Passage two

Which type of communication will best express your message? Would it best be achieved by a relaxed chat, meeting, interview, official presentation, written report or what? Your chosen way or method of communication can totally influence the success or failing of your attempt to gain attention.

Too many people choose the wrong way and then wonder why they've failed to get through. For example, some managers depend heavily on written instructions when what's needed is personal contact and face to face communication. Others depend on a relaxed chat in the hall when a more official method may be advised. Decide what you most need and create it.

The more important your communication, the more helpful writing it down proves to be, even if finally you speak your communication.

If your communication is spoken, and you're satisfied with the basic plan, standing up and practicing it aloud while standing focuses your attention and energy on the communication.

Practice it again and again.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. What is the main topic of the talk?

7. What is important in seeking the success of the communication?

8. What is the usual way of managers' communication?

9. What does the speaker suggest for an important communication?

10. What is advised if the communication is spoken?

Key: 6. T 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. T

Passage three

Getting attention and making an impression is not an event--it's a course of action. You are part of it and the person through whom the message is sent. So getting attention means preparing both your mind and body.

The person who makes the greatest influence is usually someone who is most himself or herself. Children and animals are always thoroughly themselves. Being just themselves they seldom send "mixed messages". Mixed messages make an audience feel unsafe -- as if they can't quite believe their eyes or ears. So, for example, only go for power-dressing if you already feel powerful. Or only push daring ideas which you fully understand and when you can get completely behind them. Audiences soon notice when you are saying, or writing, one thing but really meaning something else.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. What must a person do in order to gain attention?

12. What kind of person is most himself or herself?.

13 What does the speaker think of the one who is most himself or herself?.

14. Why do mixed messages make the audience unsafe according to the speaker?

15. Do the audience seem to notice if what you say is not what you mean?

Key: 11. T 12. T 13. T 14. T 15. F

Task 2

Passage one

A boss announced in a newspaper that he needed a boy to work in his office. Out of nearly fifty who came for the job, the boss chose one.

One of the boss's friends asked, "I should like to know why you liked that boy? You know he brought no letter about his skills and attitudes."

"You are wrong," said the boss, "He is the right boy. He cleaned his feet at the door and closed the door after him, which showed that he was careful. He gave his seat immediately to the old man, showing that he was kind. He took off his cap when he came in and answered my questions quickly; this showed that he was polite and bright."

"All the others walked over the book I had put on the floor on purpose. He picked it up and placed it on the table; and he waited quietly for his turn instead of pushing. When I talked to him, I noticed his clean hair and fingers. Don't you think these things are excellent skills and attitudes?"

KEY: 1 A 2 B 3 A 4 D 5 C

Passage two

From the time we were babies we have been taught our manners. We are taught how to hold a knife and a fork and not to talk with our mouths full. We are taught how to shake hands and when to stand and when to sit and the way to introduce people.

Sometimes good manners in one place are very bad manners somewhere else.

Almost everywhere eating together means that you are very friendly to each other. But in parts of Polynesia it is bad manners to be seen eating at all. They politely mm their backs on each other when they are taking food.

Some East Africans spit four times as a kind of gift of favour. They do it to show that they want a sick person to get well, or to give favour to a newborn baby. In many other places, spitting means just

something completely different. It may be something to do to show that you hate someone.

When we go to visit someone we say "hello", and "how are you" and things like that. If you were visiting an East African village, everyone would be very careful not to pay any attention to you. The polite thing there would be for you to go quietly, without speaking to anyone, and sit beside your friend. You would wait until he had finished what he was doing and then he would begin talking to you.

KAY: 6 D 7 D 8 B 9 D 10 B

Passage Three

You speak, write a letter, and make a telephone call. Your words carry a message. People communicate with words.

Do you think you can communicate without words? A smile on your face shows you are happy or friendly. Tears in your eyes tell others that you are sad. When you raise your hand in class, the teacher knows you want to say something or ask a question. You shake your head, and people know you are saying "No". You nod and people know you are saying "Yes".

Other things can also carry messages. For example, a sign at the bus stop helps you to know which bus to take. A sign on the wall of your school helps you to find the lab. Signs on doors tell you where to go in and out. Have you ever noticed that there are a lot of signs around you that you get messages from all the time?

People can communicate in many other ways. An artist can use his drawings to tell about beautiful mountains, about the blue sea and many other things. Books are written to tell you about all the wonderful things in the world and also about people and their ideas.

KEY: 11B 12 C 13 C 14 A 15 C

UNIT 5 THE BA TTLE AGAINST AIDS

UNDERST ANDING WORDS

Listening Task 1

1. illustrate

2. relate

3. pressure

4. combat

5. rural

6. constitute

7. emerge

8. implement

9. infect 10. alarming

Key: 1.(B) 2.(A) 3.(A) 4.(C) 5.(B) 6.(B) 7.(A) 8.(C) 9.(B) 10.(A)

Listening Task 2

1. resources

2. adult

3. represents

4. solutions

5. implementing

6. inefficiency

7. establish

8. emphasize

9. organization.10. clients

UNDERST ANDING SENTENCES

Listening Task 1

1. Smith called up his patient last night.

2. Susan wishes she could have finished the work before the chief doctor returned.

3. . Jim and Bill went swimming despite their doctor's warning.

4. Having worked at the hospital all day, the nurse was tired.

5. John won't catch such a disease any more.

6. Bob gets good grades in his medical classes by studying hard.

7. Sally has begun to study medicine.

8. John went to the operating room while Peter was swimming.

9. The doctor with the red hair wants his car painted blue.

10. The doctor who doesn't speak Russian wishes she could learn it.

Key: 1. (A) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (B) 5. (B) 6. (A) 7. (B) 8. (B) 9. (A) 10. (B)

Listening Task 2

1. All people have a right to protect themselves, regardless of marriage status.

2. These programs help parents understand the types of peer pressure their children experience.

3. Like many local organizations, the South Carolina AIDS Education Network suffers from a lack of money.

4. It's amazing how many people she has educated on the job.

5. Since the late 1970s, AIDS has killed more than 500,000 Americans half in the past few years alone.

6. He demanded that milk be used in place of water in this test.

7. Whatever you do, you should guard against mistakes.

8. That woman's doctor told her that she was not at risk for AIDS.

9. Such barriers should not distract us from the job that must be done.

10. The owner hands out AIDS information to all her clients.

Key: 1. (A) 2. (C) 3. (C) 4. (C) 5. (B) 6. (A) 7. (B) 8. (A) 9. (A) 10. (A)

UNDERST ANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1 Passage 1

There are some steps you can take yourself to prevent catching a cold. It has been proved that colds are not caused by being subjected to very bad weather. Colds are caused by a virus hidden in the body, and you will feel better even waiting for a bus on a snowy day than you would in a warm room, gathered with friends, co-workers or fellow students, who just may be passing the virus around. If you feel a cold feeling when you are getting a cold, you're already sick. A cold feeling is an early signal: it's the cold that caused the cold feeling, not the other way around.

The virus can spread through tiny drops driven into the air. When a cold-sufferer coughs or sneezes, surprisingly, this is not the most common way of spreading. Many studies have now shown that most colds are "caught" by hand contact. A cold-sufferer rubs her nose, and by doing so, passes the virus to her hand. Then a friend comes to visit, "Don't kiss me," she warns, so the friend steps back and presses her hand. The friend then wipes her own nose or eye and several days later catches a cold. Or parents pick up waste paper thrown away by their children, but fail to wash their hands after doing this.

Cold viruses also can be spread to objects- telephones, towels, and plates- and can remain able to infect for three hours. If the cold-sufferer and other members of the family often wash their hands, the spread of viruses can be reduced in this way. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard.

1. What will happen to you if you stay out in very cold weather?

2. What causes a cold?

3. What should we do in order to prevent viruses from spreading?

4. Under what condition will the man most likely catch a cold?

5. How are most colds caused?

Key: 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T

Passage 2

Have you ever been ill? When you are ill, you must be unhappy because your body becomes hot, and there are pains all over your body. Y ou don't want to work, you stay in bed, feeling very sad.

What makes us ill? It is germs.

Germs are everywhere. They are very small and you can't find them with your eyes, but you can see them with a microscope. They are very, very small and there could be hundreds of them on a very small thing.

Germs are always found in dirty water. When you look at dirty water under the microscope, you see them in it. So your father and mother will not let you drink dirty water.

Germs aren't found only in water. They are found in air and dust. If you cut your finger, and if some of the dust from the floor goes into the cut, some of the germs also go into your finger. Y our finger becomes big and red, and you have much pain in it. Sometimes the germs go into all of your body, and you have pain everywhere.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. What are germs?

7. Can germs be found in dirty water?

8. What can we do with a microscope?

9. What if your finger is cut?

10. What can germs do to us?

Key: 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. T

Passage 3

Nearly three years ago I tested positive for HIV. Since then I have discovered a support network that firmly refuses to encourage mature behavior, and a society whose silence leads to the continued spread of this disease.

Most HIV-positive people I have met are not willing to tell their possible partners about their status. Indeed, even people in long-term relations lie about their status. These are the real world truths of HIV spreading today.

The people I am talking about are nothing like Nushawn Williams, the drug seller who is believed to have caused many people to suffer from AIDS in New Y ork State. They did not grow up in dangerous slums. They come from strong homes in safe areas. They went to high school and college and graduate school.

They remain silent because it is difficult to tell the truth, and because their friends and community support them in their silence. Their doctors and even a lot of ADS organizations offer comfort and sympathy but usually don't encourage them to tell the truth.

We are more than 15 years into AIDS, and I have been asked my status by possible partners only twice. Since testing positive, I've taken particular care about telling my status to any possible partner; all but one told me I was the first person to do so. Each believed that if he practiced safe sex, there would be no need to know.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. How long ago did the writer test positive for HIV?

12. What do most HIV-positive people do about their status?

13. Who is Nushawn Williams?

14. Do friends of AIDS patients support them in their silence about their status?

15. How often have the writer's possible partners asked him about his status?

Key: 11. F 12. T 13. F 14. T 15. F

Listening Task 2 Passage 1

It has been known to be a killer disease for humans. Cases of AIDS were first discovered in 1981 in the United States, but researchers have found that AIDS cases could go back to as early as 1969. Millions of AIDS cases have been reported all over the world.

AIDS is caused by two viruses that belong to a group called retroviruses. The first AIDS virus was found by researchers in France in 1983 and researchers in the United States in 1984. This virus became known as HIV-1. In 1985, scientists in France discovered another closely related virus that also produces AIDS. This virus, named HIV-2, occurs mainly in Africa. HIV-1 occurs throughout the world.

HIV infects certain white cells that play key roles in the immune network. The virus belongs to CD4 receptor molecules that are found only on the surface of these cells, which are often called CD4 cells. HIV enters CD4 cells and puts its own genes into the cell's reproductive system. The cell then produces more HIV. In the end, the cell dies and spreads HIV to other CD4 cells, where the pattern of infecting and cell death is repeated. The immune network produces millions of CD4 cells every day, but HIV destroys them as fast as they are produced.

HIV also makes infected people more likely to suffer from infections that do not often occur or that are usually not serious. These infections are called opportunistic because they benefit from damage to the immune network. With an opportunistic infection or one of several other serious illnesses or a sharp drop in the number of CD4 cells, an HIV-infected person is considered to have AIDS. There are many opportunistic infections that usually enter AIDS patients in North America and Europe.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard:

1. According to the passage, when and where was the first AIDS patient discovered?

2. How many viruses cause AIDS?

3. Where does HIV-2 often occur?

4. What will the CD4 cells do after being infected by HIV?

5. Why are the infections called opportunistic?

Key: 1. (C) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (D) 5. (A)

Passage 2

Doctors have known for a long time that very loud noises can cause heating damage or loss. The noise can be the sound of an airplane or machines in factories or loud music or other common sounds found at home and at work.

A person only needs to hear the noise for little more than one second to be damaged.

An American scientist has found that using aspirin can increase the short term hearing loss or damage from loud noise. He did an experiment, using a number of men at a university who had normal heating. He gave them different numbers of aspirin for different periods of time, then he tested their heating ability. He found that students who were given four grams of aspirin a day for two days suffered much greater short term heating loss than those who did not use aspirin. The heating loss was about twice as great.

The scientist said millions of persons in the United States use much larger numbers of aspirin than were used in the study. He said these persons face a serious danger of suffering heating loss from loud noise.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard:

6. What have doctors known for a long time about noise?

7. What will be the effect of noise on one's hearing?

8. What understanding can you draw about aspirin?

9. Why are millions of Americans in danger of suffering heating loss?

10. What was the purpose of the experiment the American scientist did?

Key: 6. (B) 7. (C) 8. (C) 9. (D) 10 (D)

Passage 3

People today expect to be examined when they enter a doctor's office. At least they expect their blood pressure and temperature to be measured. However, as recently as two hundred years ago, a doctor's examination depended on talking with the patient. In general, the communication between doctors and their patients was the most important part of medical methods. The modem age of medicine began with the stethoscope, an instrument for listening to the beat of the patient's heart and breathing. Before that, a doctor did not touch a patient. In fact, there was no such thing as a medical examination. All advice was the result of the patient's telling the doctor what the problem was and the doctor's being able to understand it.

The stethoscope and all the other medical instruments had a serious effect on the practice of medicine. Doctors became better at finding the medical problems. More lives were saved. At the same time, doctors gave less importance to the communication between patients and doctors. Some doctors actually stopped talking to their patients. It is easy to understand why some sick people thought of themselves as broken machines.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. What did a doctor's examination mainly depend on two hundred years ago?

12. What does the word "stethoscope" mean?

13. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?

14. What did the doctors of 200 years ago not know?

15. Which of the following is suggested but not openly stated in the passage?

Key: 11. (D) 12. (A) 13. (B) 14. (A) 15. (B)

Unit 6 THE WIDOW

UNDERSTANDING WORDS

Listening Task 1 1. cheerful 2. surround 3. sympathize 4. curiosity 5. anniversary

6. bride

7. mission

8. accidental

9. honeymoon 10. cabin

Key: 1. (A) 2. (B) 3. (C) 4. (C) 5. (C) 6. (A) 7. (A) 8. (C) 9. (B) 10. (A)

Listening Task 2

1. considerably

2. define

3. quotations

4. colleagues

5. congratulate

6. environment.

7. conveyed

8. restrained

9. anniversary. 10. fading

UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES

Listening Task 1

1. Mr. Johnson died yesterday, leaving a widow and four children.

2. Everyone turned around as her father led the beautiful bride into the church.

3. My husband replied in his usual cheerful way.

4. Y ou need time to get over it; the sadness of loss doesn't disappear in one day, you know.

5. Jane shared happiness with her husband in the forty years of their married life.

6. Tom had lodged at Mrs. Smith's for two years and had got quite used to sharing with the family.

7. The lawyer asked the person who saw it to try to recall as much about the accident as possible.

8. I tried to convey my sympathy by touching her hand.

9. Girls respond better than boys to our new teaching method.

10. She scanned the menu outside the restaurant, but decided it looked too expensive.

Key: 1.(B) 2. (B) 3. (B) 4. (B) 5. (A) 6. (B) 7. (A) 8. (A) 9. (A) 10. (A)

Listening Task 2

1. The whole family was delighted when she gave birth to a healthy child.

2. The church was filled with more and more people who came to celebrate the wedding service.

3. With the passage of time, the children's memory of their father slowly faded.

4. I often mistake her on the phone for her mother.

5. She decided to live on her own because she could not bear her husband's mother complaining about her all day long.

6. My wife has just worked her way through a great pile of washing for the children.

7. What matters is that we don't miss the next train to Beijing.

8. She wished that she had never brought up the subject of money in the face of her relatives.

9. The company is planning to set up a factory in this area, so it could provide some employment for the local people.

10. Someone knocked over the candle and the curtain began to catch fire.

Key :I.(C) 2.(C) 3.(B) 4.(A) 5.(B) 6.(B) 7.(B) 8.(B) 9.(B) 10.(B)

UNDERSTANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1 Passage1

It is my practice to interview couples who ask me to marry them, and then to give suitable advice to them before their marriage. If some serious problem is not covered, I will try my best to deal with it. After talking to David and Betty, I had serious doubt about marrying them at all. It became obvious that David's main desire in marriage was the satisfaction of his physical desires. Betty was closing her eyes to this because she was determined to escape an unpleasant situation at home and because she was blinded by David's false praise.

In a talk alone with Betty I warned her as carefully as I could against marrying immediately. Maybe time would help them understand each other better and bring things to the surface so that they could deal with them more wisely. Certainly if David loved Betty he would be willing to wait a little while for her. But Betty became angry and told David of my advice to her. They decided to have nothing more to do with me. I lost touch with them after that. But four years later I heard the news that David divorced Betty and Betty was struggling to finish her education while providing for her children. It was a marriage without real love that had failed to keep them together.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard,

1. What is the speaker likely to be?

2. What did the speaker tell Betty to do in his talk alone with her?

3. What was Betty's reaction after she had a talk with the speaker?

4. Who caused David and Betty's divorce?

5. What happened after David and Betty got divorced?

Key: 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T

Passage2

Love is a popular subject today. Never before in history have we heard so much about it and yet seen so little of it in action. Often we use the word in a rather free way. For example, a person may say he loves his family, his work, his new car, or even a particular dish. Hardly anyone defines the kind of love he means. Newspapers have been known to announce "love murders" or "love suicides"-- it seems to be a strange idea indeed! It is obvious that the word "love" means different things to different people in different situations. Y et love is a basic idea as well as the single most important part in a successful marriage. We ought to find out what love really means. Let us consider a person's first experience of love.

A baby must be loved or it will die. It receives love, but it has none to give in return. The loving holding which mothers understand as an expression of love is really only the baby's natural effort to get food and satisfy itself. Newborn babies love only themselves. As the baby grows, however, he becomes more aware of his mother. She cares for him, feeds him, and provides companionship for him through most of his waking hours. This new awareness includes growing and developing. A child's first expressions of liking (love) will, therefore, usually be directed to his mother.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. How is the subject of love different from the past?

7. How is the word "love" used nowadays?

8. What relation does the talk suggest between love and marriage?

9. How does the mother usually take care of her baby?

10. What is true of newborn babies according to the talk?

Key: 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. F

Passage3

Some say marriage is the graveyard of love. Some say marriage is the beginning of a new chapter in life. According to many dictionaries, marriage is the official uniting of a man and a woman so that they can live together and produce children.

They don't say anything about love and trust. Clearly dictionaries know very little about marriage.

As a white man with an Asian wife, I was interested to read the article "White Men on Asian Women". However, I found it showed as little understanding of love and marriage as most dictionaries! If I were an Asian woman reading this article I would certainly think twice about getting connected with a white man. Though the article states otherwise, its tone seems to suggest that white men are mostly concerned with Asian women's physical qualities and serving behavior. My experience is very different.

When I was younger, I seemed to form friendships much more quickly with Asian children and classmates. I think it was probably because their behavior was quiet, shy and polite. My non-Asian classmates always seemed much wilder and I felt less comfortable with them. My high school was near a Chinatown and 40% of the student body was Chinese. I was attracted to my wife, a classmate, for the same reason I formed friendships with other Asian classmates. She was bright, kind, and thorough and we shared common interests. Her mother had a horrible marriage to a man with an Asian background similar to her own. Many of my own relatives and family members had ended up divorced from partners of the same particular racial background. But I think a marriage can fail or a marriage can succeed no matter whether the couple are of the same race or not.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. How is marriage defined according to many dictionaries?

12. What does the tone of the article suggest?

13. Why did the speaker find it easier to make friends with Asians?

14. What does the speaker think about inter-racial marriage?

15. How is the speaker's marriage probably different from that of his many relatives?

Key: 11. T 12. T 13. F 14. F 15. T

Listening Task 2 Passage1

Elizabeth was a very pretty girl, and her parents were rich. Quite a lot of the young men in the town wanted to marry her, but she was not satisfied with any of them. Every night she was taken to parties, to the theatre, to the films or to dinners but none of the young men who took her out was ever good enough. Even when her parents especially liked a young man and felt sure they had found their future son-in-law, Elizabeth didn't agree. She was always waiting for someone better to come along.

One evening, one of the handsome young men who wanted to many Elizabeth came to visit her in her parents' house and asked her to become his wife. She answered, "No, William, I won't marry you. I want to marry a man who is famous, who can play music, sing and dance very well, who can tell really interesting stories, who does not smoke or drink, who stays at home in the evenings and who stops talking when I’m fired of listening."

The young man got up, took his coat and went to the door, but before he left the house, he turned and said to Elizabeth, "It isn't a man you're looking for. It's a television set."

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard:

1. Why did so many men want to marry Elizabeth?

2. What were Elizabeth's parents' attitudes towards her getting married?

3. According to the speaker, what kind of man would Elizabeth like to marry?

4. What did William think of Elizabeth when she did not accept his offer of marriage?

5. What can be understood about Elizabeth from the talk?

Key: 1. (D) 2. (A) 3. (C) 4. (A) 5. (B)

Passage 2

Everyone agreed that Diana could not have been more beautiful. Several, however, doubted whether she was the tight gift for the Prince of Wales. Some of his friends also had doubts, which they expressed. Attractive, beautiful, delightful, kind and real as Diana was, they feared that the pair would not have enough in common to keep the relationship interesting. For a start there was the age difference: Diana was very young and only nineteen, while Charles was thirty-two and in some ways had had more experience than most men of fifty-two. He was a deep and reflecting person, while she was always on the go. He was interested in reading history and philosophy; she enjoyed women's magazines and television. He loved classical music, and a treat for him was a night at the opera. She liked pop music, had no interest for opera, but enjoyed ballet. Charles could enjoy himself in the country, while Diana preferred the exciting activities of London. He could happily spend all day fishing; Diana would rather be in the city centre shopping. His other great love was horse riding, which Diana hated. Her sister Sarah had been an eager horsewoman, but Diana had fallen off and broken her arm as a child and had never had any desire to repeat the experience. Her sport was tennis, which Charles had never much cared for.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard:

6. According to the speaker, what did some people think about Diana?

7. What does the speaker say about Charles?

8. How was Diana different from Charles in hobbies?

9. According to the speaker, which of the following is not true?

10. What was one reason Diana did not care for horse tiding?

Key: 6. (D) 7. (D) 8. (A) 9. (D) 10. (A)

Passage 3

More surprising, perhaps, than the present difficulty of the customs of marriage is the fact that marriage itself is alive and active. As research colleagues find, Americans are a marrying people: compared with Europeans, more of us marry and we marry at a younger age. In addition, after a drop in the early 1970's, the rate of marriage in the United States is now increasing. Even the divorce rate needs to be considered in this pro-marriage situation: some 80 percent of divorced people remarry. Thus, marriage remains, by far, the preferred way of life for the vast majority of people in our society.

What has changed more than marriage is the basic family unit. Twenty-five years ago, the usual American family was made up of a husband, a wife and two or three children. Now, there are many marriages in which couples have decided not to have any children. And there are many marriages where at least some of the children are from the wife's former marriage, or the husband's, or both. Sometimes these children spend all of their time with one parent from the former marriage; sometimes they are shared between the two former spouses.

Therefore, one can find every type of family unit. There are marriages without children; marriages with children from only the present marriage; marriages with "full-time" children from both the present and former marriages; marriages with "full-time" children from the present marriage and "part-time" children from former marriages. There are stepfathers, stepmothers, half-brothers, and half-sisters. It is not all that difficult for a child to have four parents and eight grandparents! These are huge changes from the usual basic family. But even so, even in the middle of all this, there remains one truth: most Americans spend most of their adult lives married.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard:

11. Why are the Americans called "marrying people"?

12. What do most divorced Americans do?

13. Which of the following can best describe American families?

14. What does the speaker say about the "part-time" children in an American family?

15. What is most probably usual for American children?

Key: 11. (D) 12. (A) 13. (B) 14. (B) 15. (D)

Unit 7 FACE TO FACE WITH GUNS

UNDERSTANDING WORDS

Listening Task 1

1. cautious

2. foundation

3. additional

4. current

5. span

6. victim

7. attach

8. unusual

9. mercy 10. unexpectedly

Key: 1.(B) 2.(C) 3.(A) 4.(B) 5.(A) 6.(A) 7.(C) 8.(A) 9.(B) 10.(A)

Listening Task 2

1. encounter

2. temple

3. offenders

4. folks

5. emerged

6. polished

7. focuses

8. grabbed

9. stocking 10. faded

UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES

Listening Task 1

l. The man with the gun took a bus to the park and ran into his partner there.

2. The robbery was explained to the police yesterday.

3. The man failed to rip the watch from my wrist.

4. The robber is not difficult for John to identify.

5. George wishes he were able to use this pistol.

6. The three uniformed officers walked to the railway station and ran into the criminal on the way.

7. Frank forgot the name of the robber standing by the door.

8. The police officer is taking a sick leave from work for the summer.

9. Bill can't use a pistol and Susan can't either.

10. The policeman had the truck stopped.

Key: 1.(A) 2. (B) 3. (B) 4. (B) 5. (A) 6. (B) 7. (B) 8. (A) 9.(A) 10. (A)

Listening Task 2

1. The train pulled into the station at 10:00 a. m. sharp.

2. Like most city folks, I'm cautious in the evening.

3. He moved behind me and put his gun on my neck.

4. The robber had no mercy on the lonely old woman.

5. The officer phoned for additional details.

6. The criminal finally went to the police station to give himself up.

7. He is a poet rather than a novelist.

8. The police car went out of control.

9. She got to her feet and called 110.

10. All his attention focused on how to escape.

Key: l.(B) 2.(A) 3.(B) 4.(B) 5.(A) 6.(B) 7.(B) 8.(B) 9.(C) 10.(A)

UNDERSTANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1 Passage 1

A sudden and terrible sad event has again struck an American school: Fifteen lives were lost and a city and a nation left with wounds that cannot be removed. Because guns were used to cause this sad event, the immediate public response is for gun control laws.

Most likely the shotguns and even the handguns used were bought within the law and registered, and probably the guns belonged to the fathers of the boys who used them. Shotguns are the most common guns used in the sport of hunting small game animals and birds.

The possibility of passing laws preventing sports people from owning shotguns would be very slight. A large number of people would be against such laws. On the other hand, laws refusing to allow handguns have a greater chance of passing. But then the familiar saying would become fact: "When guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns."

Many crimes in America are committed by people using guns. Most of these people have a criminal record. By law these criminals are not allowed to buy or own guns. Do they care? No. They do not obey laws and find other ways to get guns.

The problem is a people problem, not just a gun problem. In America, we have become a nation that has almost turned away from the original rules and values of Western society that have helped it become a society of progress and the rule of law. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard,

1. How many people were killed in the sad event?

2. How did the public react to the sad event?

3. Is it easy to pass laws preventing sports people from owning shotguns?

4. Are many crimes in the United States committed by people using guns?

5. What does the speaker think about the nature of the problem?

Key: 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F

Passage 2

Different people have different ideas about whether being poor causes crime. It is certainly true that there is a very strong relation between low social class and economic status and this sort of violent street crime. Persons of low social class and economic status are probably more likely than others to turn to violent street crime for money or adventure. Y et it is also true that most of the poor are not violent criminals. And in some crimes, such as computer crimes and white-collar crimes, we find that the criminals are not short of money: they simply need more than they can gather and they will be happy to get more without having to work. Therefore, it is simply wrong to think that being poor "causes" crime.

It follows that being poor is neither a suitable nor a necessary cause of crime. Being poor may make the choice to obey the law more difficult, but the poor have a choice whether to engage in crime, and most of them choose to obey the law. Can we get rid of crime by getting rid of being poor? Improving the economic conditions of the poor does not reduce the level of crime in periods of rising wealth. The "poor cure" does not work.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. What is the talk mainly about?

7. What does the speaker think about being poor in relation to crime?

8. Are the criminals engaged in white-collar crimes short of money?

9. Is being poor a necessary cause of crime?

10. Do crime levels drop when the economic conditions of the poor are improved?

Key: 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. T

Passage 3

In 1996 there were 200 million handguns in the US, and a total of 9, 390 Americans (in a population of about 260 million people) were murdered with handguns. If the 27.5 million Canadians, who have severe laws on owning handguns, had shot each other up as their southern neighbors did, they would have suffered the loss of about 990 souls. In fact, handguns were used to kill only 106 Canadians that year.

What accounts for this difference? Do Canadians perhaps prefer other instruments of murder such as shotguns and knives? Apparently not: Canadian murder rates as a whole are much lower than the American ones. Are the Canadians then a nation of heavenly spirits? Not likely: Canada is filled with the very same violent films, TV programs, and video games as the US is.

Let's compare the Americans with another closely related nation, Germany. Here is a society with a high rate of long-term unemployment, a large body of unpopular working-class foreigners, and plenty of political radicals and violent neighborhoods. In Germany it is hard to get a handgun. With its 80 million people, there were only 211 handgun murders in 1996. There was a much lower murder rate in Germany than in the US. If the Germans had shot each other up at the American rate, they would have killed 2,900 people.

So it goes. Compare America with any nation similar to it culturally and economically, and the result is always the same: Americans own many more handguns, and many more murders are committed with the guns, even though Americans as a whole obey just as much as their European, Australian or North American cousins.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. How many people were killed with guns in the United States in 19967

12. How many Canadians were killed with guns in 19967

13. Are Canadian murder rates as a whole much lower than the American ones?

14. Is Germany a society with a high rate of long-term unemployment?

15. Do Americans obey just as much as their European, Australian or North American cousins?

Key: 11. T 12. F 13. T 14. T 15. T

Listening Task 2 Passage 1

Who killed Kayla Rolland? The society in which the boy lived has to be partly the key cause because it helped produce an angry, confused child. The boy was said to have played normal street games. He was also known to have started fights. Boaz said the boy was made to stay after school nearly every day for his bad behavior. Some weeks before, he had attacked a girl with a pencil. He had attacked Kayla before. On the day before the killing, he tried to kiss her and was pushed away.

Early on the morning of the shooting, he and his brother got into a fight with Boaz's 10-year- old uncle. When Boaz's uncle hit back, the boy said, "Do you want me to take my gun and shoot you?" The boy's father once asked his son, "Why do you fight?" The boy replied, "I hate them."

With a record of behavior like this, one might ask why no one was paying more attention to him. The teacher and the school head did not pay enough attention to him. There is no sign that any social service organization was watching. His parents were worse than trash to him. His mother admitted that she once let children take drugs regularly. She even tried to comfort her son, who felt more and more sorry for the killing and did not want to return to school. She explained that the boy who did the shooting "cried out for help, and nobody helped him".

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you've just heard.

1, What kind of boy was the killer?

2. What is one of the key causes for the boy's behavior?

3. What did the boy and his brother do early on the morning of the shooting?

4. What did the boy say when his father once asked him why he fought?

5. Which of the following is true according to the talk you have just heard?

Key: 1. (A) 2. (C) 3. (D) 4. (A) 5. (C)

Passage 2

Capital punishment, which means punishment by death according to law, used to be a major influence preventing crimes.

It made the violent robber think twice before firing a gun. It gave the cold-blooded killer something to think carefully about while he was in the act of killing. It prevented unarmed policemen from being killed, while on duty, by killers armed with automatic weapons. Above all, it protected the weakest members of society, young children, from being attacked by very cruel people. It is terrible to think that a criminal can actually get way with murder. All of us know that "life sentence" does not mean what it says. After ten years or so of good behavior, the most harmful criminal is free to return to society where he will live very comfortably on the money he gained from his crime, or he will go on committing crimes until he is caught again. People are always willing to hold relaxed opinions at the cost of others, It's always in style to play the defender of the weak, so long as you are not affected.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. What does "capital punishment" refer to?

7. What kind of role did capital punishment play in the past?

8. What is the speaker's attitude toward capital punishment?

9. What does "life sentence" mean?

10. What is always in style for people to do in the face of crime so long as they remain unaffected?

Key: 6. (B) 7. (A) 8. (D) 9. (B) 10. (A)

Passage 3

More and more, the operations of our businesses, governments, and economic organizations are controlled by information that exists only inside computer memories. Anyone clever enough to change this information very slightly can get very large rewards. Even worse, a lot of people who have done this and been caught at it have managed to get away without punishment.

In most cases, computer crimes are not easy to be noticed if no one checks up on what the computer is doing. But even if the crime is noticed, the criminal may walk away not only unpunished but with the support of his former bosses. In most cases, computer criminals who have been caught may have been the victims of uncommonly bad luck. Unlike other criminals, who must leave the country, or go to prison, computer criminals sometimes escape punishment, demanding not only that they not be charged but also that they be given good handling. All too often, their demands have been met. Why? Because company managers do not want the public to find out that their computer has been misused. If the public found out what had happened to their computer, it would ruin their position in the community. And so a criminal often leaves with good supporting letters from his company and continues his crimes in other places.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. Who or what controls more and more the operations of our businesses, governments, and economic organizations?

12. What often happens to computer criminals?

13. How can we continually notice computer crimes?

14. What does the speaker think about those computer criminals who have been caught?

15. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

Key: 1. (C) 12. (A) 13. (C) 14. (A) 15. (A)

Unit 8 BIRTH OF BRIGHT IDEAS

UNDERSTANDING WORDS

Listening Task 1

1. miracle

2. glow

3. contrast

4. element

5. dramatic

6. enthusiasm

7. observe

8. highly

9. representative 10. logic

Key: 1. (C) 2. (A) 3. (A) 4. (B) 5. (C) 6. (A) 7. (B) 8. (C) 9. (A) 10. (B)

Listening Task 2

1. philosophy

2. Creative

3. orchestral

4. organized

5. mathematical

6. existence

7. combination

8. recognized

9. concepts 10. genius

UNDERSTANDING SENTENCES

Listening Task 1

1. My brother composed music for the film.

2. The teachers said that my work was satisfactory, but there was still room for improving it.

3. He's got plenty of ability, but he's got no personality.

4. The result of the medical test can change from individual to individual.

5. The sound came from an unknown source, far away in the distance.

6. They hope to expand their business, particularly in South China.

7. Factory owners spend huge sums of money on publications that show their goods to the public.

8. The police are enquiring into the mysterious disappearance of a young schoolteacher.

9. We are still in the process of painting the house.

10. I was always reading when I was a child, but my daughter is, by contrast, just watching television all day long.

Key: 1.(A) 2.(B) 3.(15) 4.(A) 5.(B) 6.(A) 7.(A) 8.(B) 9.(A) 10.(A)

Listening Task 2

1. The computer game kept the children occupied for hours.

2. Sickness, combined with terrible weather, worked together to prevent the trip to Hangzhou.

3. When your temperature becomes stable you can stop taking the medicine.

4. The country depends heavily on its tourist trade.

5. Let's take the example of Einstein to show how hard work can determine success.

6. We could see how Mother was glowing with pride as the headmaster presented the first prize to my brother.

7. Some people are likely to fall into a sleeplike condition when they are in deep thought.

8. We have received a flood of complaints from shoppers recently.

9. After three long hours of discussion, a solution to the problem began to take shape.

10. The talk between the two presidents has arrived at no result.

Key: 1.(A) 2.(A) 3.(B) 4.(A) 5.(C) 6.(A) 7.(B) 8.(C) 9.(A) 10.(B)

UNDERSTANDING PASSAGES

Listening Task 1 Passage 1

When the Americans were getting ready to send their first men to the moon, an old Irishman was watching them on television in the bar of a hotel.

There was an Englishman in the bar too, and he said to the Irishman, "The Americans are very clever, aren't they? They are going to send some men to the moon. It's a very long way from our world."

"Oh, that's nothing," the Irishman answered quickly. "The Irish are going to send some men

to the sun in a few months' time. That's much farther away than the moon, you know."

The Englishman was very surprised when he heard this. "Oh, yes, it is." he said, "but the sun's too hot for people to go to."

The Irishman laughed and answered. "Well, the Irish aren't so stupid, you know. We won't go to the sun during the day, of course. We'll go there during the night."

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard.

1. What was the old Irishman doing when the Americans were ready to send their first men to the moon?

2. Who was in the hotel bar according to the story?

3. What did the Englishman think of the Americans?

4. What did the Irishman think of the Americans?

5. What can be understood/inferred about the Irishman?

Key: 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. T

Passage 2

The wails in Mrs. Miller's bedroom were beginning to get a little dirty, so she decided to have the room painted again. She waited until the summer because she wanted to spend a week at the seaside then, and she thought that it would be better if the room was painted while she was away.

Before she left for her holiday, she called a painter in, showed him a purple ashtray which she liked very much, and asked him to paint the bedroom exactly the same color. She told him that she would be away for a week, and that she wanted the work to be finished before she came back.

For three days the painter mixed purple paint and blue paint and red paint and white paint together, but unfortunately he was unable to get exactly the same purple as the ashtray. "What could I do?" he thought to himself. Suddenly he had an idea. "Why couldn't I paint the ashtray?"

When Mrs. Miller came back, the bedroom and the ashtray were exactly the same color. She looked at the purple walls and felt very happy.

Several evenings later, the painter was having a drink with a friend. This friend asked him if it was sometimes difficult to

please the people for whom he worked, so the painter told him the story of Mrs. Miller. "Do you know," he said proudly, "it's a very strange thing, but she still hasn't realized that I painted her ashtray with the same paint which I used for her walls." Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. Why did Mrs. Miller wait until the summer to have her bedroom painted again?

7. What did Mrs. Miller want the painter to do?

8. How did the painter follow Mrs. Miller's instruction?

9. What did the painter decide to do?

10. What could be said about Mrs. Miller?

Key: 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. F

Passage 3

A young man was called up for army service, but he didn't want to become a soldier. When he went for his medical checkup, a bright idea came to him: he could pretend that his sight was very bad.

The doctor pointed to the eye chart on the wall and said, "Please read the top line."

"The top line of what7" the young man asked.

"The top line of the chart," the doctor replied.

"What chart?" the man asked.

"The one on the wall," the doctor said.

"What wall?" the man asked.

Finally, the doctor decided that the man's eyes were not good enough for army service.

That evening the same young man was at a film when another man came in and sat next to him in the dark. When the lights went on, the young man saw that his neighbor was the doctor who had examined him earlier. He thought for a moment and had another good idea. He said, "Excuse me, ma'am, but does this bus go to the Main Street?"

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. What did the young man want to do?

12. What did the doctor use the chart for?

13. Why did the young man keep asking the doctor questions?

14. How did the doctor and the young man arrive at the film?

15. Why did the young man ask if the bus would go to the Main Street?

Key: ll. F 12. T 13. F 14. F 15. T

Listening Task 2 Passage 1

The 3M Company encourages creativity from its workers. The company allows its researchers to spend 15 percent of their time on any project that interests them. This attitude has brought great benefits not only to the workers but to the 3M Company itself. Many times, an exciting idea has turned into a successful result and has made big money for the company.

Some years ago, a scientist in 3M's office took advantage of this 15 percent creative time. This scientist, called Art Fry, came up with an idea for one of 3M's best-selling goods. Every Sunday Art Fry sang in his church choir and every Sunday he dealt with the same small annoying event. He would mark the pages in his hymn book with small pieces of paper but every time they would fall out onto the floor.

Suddenly, an idea struck Fry. He remembered a glue invented by a colleague that everyone thought was not a success because it did not stick very well. He put the glue on the edge of a paper example, and he found that it was not only a good bookmark, but also it was great for writing notes. It will stay in place as long as you want it to, and you can remove it when you want without damage.

The resulting object was called Post-it and has become one of 3M's most successful goods for the office.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you've just heard.

1. How does the 3M Company encourage its workers to be creative?

2. How has 3M's attitude towards creativity helped the company?

3. What encouraged Art Fry's idea for a new invention?

4. How did Art Fry design his invention?

5. What is the "Post-it" used for?

Key: 1. (B) 2. (D) 3. (A) 4. (D) 5. (A)

Passage 2

Let's talk about creativity in the largest sense of the word. It does not just mean creating works of art. It means living a life which is free and spontaneous so that new and bright ideas are continuously occurring. The Chinese understand that creativity can happen in every element of life: not just in music, books and paintings but even in drinking tea and arrow shooting. Everything we do can be art and can be creative and beautiful.

One of the ways this Chinese creativity exhibits itself is in martial arts which are now well known in the West. Martial arts commenced in China and then spread to all of the other Eastern countries, such as Japan and Korea. Martial arts like Kong Fu uses the idea of creativity for self- defense. The creative process has been used by the Chinese in many other fields as well, including medicine, religion, psychology and even political affairs.

The way creativity can be used in psychology and political affairs can be seen best in the very old Chinese book, the Yijing(易经), which is also called "The Book of Changes". Many wise masters consider it the oldest book on Earth. Confucius said that by following this book, and studying it continuously, a person could become aware of his creativity in any situation. Understanding "The Book of Changes" is the key to understanding Chinese creativity.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard.

6. What is the talk mainly about?

7. What does creativity mean in the broad sense?

8. Where have martial arts spread to?

9. What does the Y i ,ling show?

10. What did Confucius suggest?

Key: 6. (C) 7. (C) 8. (C) 9. (C) 10. (C)

Passage 3

When King Solomon was at his most famous, the Queen of Sheba came to Egypt to ask him some questions and, thus, learn about his famous wise quality. Their meeting was a great occasion: the handsome king's good looks were only matched by the queen's beauty. Everyone watching was amazed at the sight of them.

Then the queen showed Solomon the beautiful and unusual treasures of her land and promised that they would be his. But first she set King Solomon a test. She ordered her servants to bring in two vases of flowers saying, "One vase contains real flowers. The other contains flowers made by my skilled artists from precious stones. In your wise way, say which are the real flowers." No words can tell how beautiful these flowers were. Each group of flowers looked as real and freshly opened as the other.

Solomon looked as closely as he could at these flowers, but could not see a single difference: even the dead leaf in each vase was the same. He knew that if he made a mistake the world would laugh at him. Everyone was silent as they waited for his decision. In silence Solomon heard the sound of bees outside so he ordered the window to be opened. Immediately a bee flew in and made straight for one of the vases. Solomon then pointed to show these were the real flowers. The queen then knew that Solomon was truly wise for he knew when to turn to others and who to turn to even if it was only a lowly bee.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

11. Why did the Queen of Sheba come to Egypt?

12. What did the queen promise to Solomon?

13. What was her test for him?

14. Why was it important for Solomon to make the right decision?

15. Why did the queen think Solomon was wise?

Key: 11. (C) 12. (B) 13. (D) 14. (A) 15. (B)

UINT 9 LOOKING TO THE 21ST CENTURY

UNDERSTANDING WORDS

Listening Task 1

1. arithmetic

2. protect

3. publish

4. emission

5. purchase

6. carbon

7. fate

8. percentage

9. worldwide 10. security

Key: 1. (A) 2. (C) 3. (A) 4. (A) 5. (B) 6. (A) 7. (C) 8. (A) 9. (A) 10. (C)

Listening Task 2

1. recorded

2. volunteers

3. connections

4. imposed

5. careers

6. Protection

7. reducing

8. groceries

9. alternatives10. output