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高中英语动词时态语态

动词的时态与语态2—题型研究(学生版)

一、命题

动词的时态和语态是高考中出现频率最高的语法项目。考题创设的语境比较明确,通常是根据所设置的语境中的信息判断时态以及主谓语之间的主谓或动宾关系。

题型:语法填空、短文改错。

在具体语篇中,综合考查时态语态知识。1. 了解并能正确运用常考的时态;2. 熟练运用一般过去时、现在完成时等高考高频时态;3. 掌握几种易混时态的区别,如现在完成时和一般过去时等。

二、高考真题考向题型研究

题型研究一:语法填空

(一)考点1:现在完成时

1.(2019全国I卷)In recent years some Inuit people in Nunayut (report) increases in bear sightings around human settlements, leading to a belief that populations are increasing.

2.(2018全国II卷)Since 2011, the country (grow) more corn than rice.

3.(2018·浙江)While regularly eating out seems to 61 (become) common for many young people in recent years, it’s not without a cost.

4.(2017全国III卷)Sarah (tell) that she could be Britain's new supermodel, earning a million dollars in the next year.

5.(2016·上海)In recent years, stress(33) (regard) as a cause of a whole range of medical problems, from high blood pressure to mental illness.

【考点总结】

现在完成时是高考中的高频考点

1.现在完成时的构成为“have/has+done”。表示发生在过去的动作或存在的状态到说话时刚刚完成或结束。现在完成时常与up to now, so far, already, yet, now, recently, in the past few years, just, since then等表示时间的词连用,表示过去的动作对现在的影响。

2.用于时间、条件状语从句中,表示将来要完成的动作或一个动作先于另一个动作。

3.在“It/This is the best (worst, most interesting等)+名词+从句”中,从句中的谓语用现在完成时。4.在“It/This the first/second/third...time+that从句”中,that从句中的谓语动词用现在完成时。

(二)考点2:一般过去时

1.(2019全国III卷)Our hosts shared many of their experiences and (recommend)wonderful places to eat,shop,and visit.

2.(2019全国II卷)Picking up her “Lifetime Achievement” award, proud Irene (declare) she had no plans to retire from her 36-year-old business.

3.(2018全国III卷)I quickly lower myself,ducking my head to avoid looking directly into his eyes so he doesn't feel (challenge).

4.(2018全国III卷)True to a gorilla's unaggressive nature,the huge animal (mean) me

no real harm.

5.(2018全国II卷)The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005-when the government _________ (start) a soil testing program which gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers-and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons.

6.(2019浙江卷)One study in America found that students' grades __________ (improve) a little after the school introduced uniforms.

7.(2018浙江卷)I still remember visiting a friend who'd lived here for five years and I (shock) when I learnt she hadn't cooked once in all that time.

8.(2017全国II卷)Steam engines (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been fairly unpleasant for the passengers,with all the smoke and noise.

9.(2017全国II卷)Later, engineers (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道), which became known as the Tube.

10.(2017·浙江卷6月)Pahlsson and her husband 62.__________ (search) the kitchen, checking every corner, but turned up nothing. “I gave up hope of finding my ring again,” she says. She never replaced it. Pahlsson and her husband now think the ring probably got 63.__________ (sweep) into a pile of kitchen rubbish and was spread over the garden.

11.(2016·全国新课标I)So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not-for-profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research, I 62. (allow)to get up close to these cute animals at the 600-acre centre.

12.(2016·全国新课标III)Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and 49 (be) too violent for use at the table.

【考点总结】

一般过去时

1.表示在过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。

常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last year, last night, the other day, just now, then, two days ago, in 1999, at that time等。

2.表示过去一段时间内完成的动作。

3.表示过去经常、反复发生的动作。

4.在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句中,表示过去将来的动作。

(三)考点3:一般现在时

1.(2018全国I卷)While running regularly can't make you live forever,the review says it (be) more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming.

2.(2017全国III卷)But at the moment, school (come) first.

3.(2017全国I卷)When fat and salt(remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something.

4.(2016·四川)The giant panda 41 (love) by people throughout the world.

5. (2015·全国Ⅱ,68)This cycle(go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool

off during the night...

【考点总结】

一般现在时

1. 主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often,always from time to time等时间状语。

2. 表示客观规律、事实和永恒真理。

3. 在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时;常用的引导词有时间:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment/the minute, the day等;条件:if, unless, provided, so/as long as等。

4. 用于here, there开头的倒装句中,一般现在时表示现在正在发生的动作或存在的状态。

题型研究二:短文改错

(四)考点1:一般现在时和一般过去时相互对改

1.(2019全国III卷, 改错)Though it may appear simple, it required a lot of ideas and efforts.

2.(2018全国I卷, 改错)During my last winter holiday, I went to the countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a big change there.

3.(2017全国I卷, 改错)Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the instructor's orders, but once I started the car, my mind goes blank.

4.(2017全国II卷, 改错)When summer came, they will invite their students pick the fresh vegetables!

5.(2017全国III卷, 改错)I had grown not only physically, but also mentally in the past few years.

6.(2017全国III卷, 改错)About one month after this photo was taken, I entered my second year of high school and become a new member of the school music club.

7.(2016·全国新课标II, 改错)We can chose between staying at home and take a trip.

8. (2015·全国Ⅰ, 改错)When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there.

9. (2015·全国Ⅰ, 改错)We must found ways to protect our environment.

10. (2014·全国Ⅱ,短文改错)We can lie on the grass for a rest, or sat by the lake listening to music.【考点总结】

通过对高考短文改错的试题研究发现,高考短文改错中时态的必考点,而且一般现在时和一般过去时的相互对改是改错中出现频率最高的改错,这是考生应该注意的一个考向。

(五)考点2:一般现在时或一般过去式和主谓一致

1.(2018·全国III, 改错)The classroom is a place for learning and that include leaning from textbooks, and mistakes as well.

2. (2016·浙江, 改错)He would ask who we was and pretend not to know us.

3. (2014·全国Ⅱ, 改错)My dream school look like a big garden. There are all kinds of flowers and trees around the classroom buildings.

【考点总结】

主谓一致是高考短文改错中的轮考点,有些年份考查。考查主谓一致就必然要涉及时态问题。这是个连带考点。但设题比较简单,掌握一般的主谓一致的规则即可。

(六)考点3:谓语动词的误用

1.(2018全国II卷, 改错)Still I unwilling to play the game with them sometimes.

2.(2018全国III卷, 改错)It was Monday morning,and the writing class had just begin.

3. (2015·全国Ⅰ, 改错)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem.

4. (2015·全国Ⅱ, 改错)Tony was scared and begun to cry.

5.(2015·全国Ⅱ, 改错)A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside the shop.

6.(2013·全国Ⅱ, 改错)Tea in China was traditionally drank from cups without handles.

【考点总结】

1.解决时态类考题时,首先要判断所需成分是不是句子的谓语动词,因为只有句子才有时态,而句子的时态是通过谓语动词的不同形式来体现的。

2.确定句子的谓语动词之后,再通过在题干中寻找时间状语,观察上下文提供的语境,以及前后时态的呼应等来判断使用怎样的时态,从而正确填写或改正句中谓语动词的时态。

3.被动语态类考题的解题关键在于判断句子的主语与谓语动词之间是否是被动关系,但是被动语态的考查总是与句子时态相结合,即确定是被动语态之后,还要通过相关的时间状语判断出是哪一种时态的被动语态,这样才能确保填写准确的答案或改正相应的错误。