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外研高中英语必修三知识点-语法总结超全超值

必修三知识点汇总Module 1 Europe

重要短语:

because of因为

thanks to由于;多亏了

due to/owing to由于

as a result of由于…的结果be covered by/with

be known for/as/to

make A out of B用B制成A make A into B/be made of work on从事/做…工作;忙于

have…in common

refer to参考/指的是/涉及/适

用于

have control over/of对…有控

制权

Beyond control无法控制

under control被控制住

out of control 失去控制

in the control of由…控制/管理/

负责

lose control of对…失去控制

have a population of有多少人

little by little渐渐地

in one’s thirties

compare A with/and B比较A和B compare…to…把…比作….

compared with/to…与…比较起来

belong to

increase(reduce) to/by

in terms of根据/从…方面来说/从…的观点in the long/short term就长/短期而言

come to terms=make terms达成协议,和好

bring sb. to terms使某人接收条件

be on good/bad terms with sb.与某人交情好/不好

be faced with面临,面对

face to face

along the coast

off the coast在(离开海面的)海岸上

ever since自从/一直

on the one /other hand一方面/另一方面

be located in=lie in=be situated in坐落于There+be/exist/lie/stand/appear+主…有…存在

(be)opposite to在…对面,与…相反

just the opposite恰恰相反keep a cool head保持头脑清醒

lose one’s head惊慌失措,失去理智

head for朝着…前进

get into a difficult situation陷入困难的状况

get out of a difficult situation摆脱困难的状况

save the situation挽回局势

重要句型:

1. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

one of the +形容词最高级+ 可数名词复数最。。。。之一

2. Portugal is to the west of Spain.

①表示位置: A is/lies in/on/to/off the+方向+of B

A is located/situated in/on/to/off the+方向+of B

②位置+距离: A is (about)+距离+(to the)+方向+of B

in ,on和to表地理方位的区别

(1)表示A在B的范围内(2)强调A和B两地接壤时,用on.(3) A在B的范围之外,两者之间没有所属关系时用to。如:Our school is to the west of the hospital.我们学校在医院的西面。

3. on the coast和off the coast

on表示“位于河畔或铁路,公路及海岸等沿线上”;off表示“稍离陆地,在沿岸的海里”。如:

4. 表示倍数的四种句型:

1)This bridge is 3 times longer than that one.这座桥比那座桥长3倍。

2) This bridge is 4 times as long as that one这座桥是那座桥的4倍长。

3)A is … times the size/length/width/height/depth of B

This room is 3 times the size of that one.这间房间的大小是那间的3倍。

4) A + v. …times as many/much + n.+ as B

The factory has produced 3 times as many cars as it did last year. 这个厂今年的汽车产量是去年的3倍。

语法要求:

一:一般现在时和一般过去时的被动语态

被动语态由“be+及物动词的过去分词(+by) ”构成。被动语态发生时态变化时只变be形式,过去分词不变。

现在时被动语态:am/ is/ are + 过去分词

过去时被动语态:was/ were + 过去分词

二:主谓一致:本单元主要强调第二个原则

语法一致原则。句子的主语是单数,谓语动词用单数形式;主语是复数,谓语动词用复数形式。

注意:(1) something, everybody, nobody , either, neither, each等不定代词作主语时,谓语需用单数。

(2) 当主语后面跟有with, together with, along with, as well as, like, including, except, rather than, but, 等时,谓语动词的单复数形式仍然要与这些词语前面的主语保持一致。

3)表示时间,重量,长度,价格等的复数名词,作主语从整体来看时,谓语动词用单数。

4)非谓语动词,从句或其他短语作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。

例如:Early to bed and early to rise is healthful.

5)如果主语是由and连接的两个单数名词,但前面有each, every, no 等词修饰时,谓语用单数。例如:Every boy and girl in this region is taught to read and write.

6) 谓语动词用单数的情况:

many a …,more than one…,Every… and every…/,no…and no…/each…and each…

one and a half,a…or two,a/the (…and…) 指同一人、事物或概念

the number of…a great d eal of / a large amount of

2. 意义一致原则。

1)一些集合名词,如:family, enemy, class, population, army等作主语时,谓语动词的单复数要根据实际含义而定。当表示整体意义时,用单数;当强调个体成员时,用复数。如:

2)由there或here引起的主语,而又不止是一个时,采取就近原则。例如:

Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.

3. 邻近性原则。neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also, or连接两个名词或代词作主语时;由there, here引导的句子,并且主语不止一个时,谓语动词通常与邻近它的主语保持一致。

Module 2

重要短语:

agree to the plan (suggestion, proposal) 同意(建议,安排) measure sth in/by sth用···来衡量

agree with sb.同意某人的观点或看法,适合 agree on/upon sth达成协议一致意见

make efforts/ an effort to do sth. 努力做某事 spare no effort不遗余力with/without effort 费力地/毫不费力地

get(be) close to靠近,接近,即将发生

as a result of由于

as a result结果

result in导致

result from由…引起

in/during the last ten years receive a good education

be willing to do sth.

make comparisons作比较be connected with

at the top of /at the bottom

of

live with与..住/忍受

up to直到/到…为止/多达

make progress进步

be similar to与…相似

encourage sb to do sth

take measures to do采取措

be crowded with充满,满是

in exchange for交换

achieve one’s goal

on a high/low income高/低

收入

income tax (个人)所得税

with the development of

under development在发展中

figure out算出/解决/理解/弄

明白

be up to=be fit for胜任,适合于

share sth. with sb.与某人分享

share (in)sth.共享

life expectancy预期寿命;平均寿

重要句型:

be important to sb.

of+抽象名词=be+该名词的同根形容词

eg. His advice is of value to us. = valuable This dictionary is of great use. =useful

What he said is of importance for you. = important

2.. till :直到

up to sth be fit for :胜任Li Ping is not up to his job.

be busy in doing sth :忙着做…

be up to sb=be left to sb to decide :由…决定/ 负责

3. sure

1) make sure表示“务必”,“确信”,“弄明白”,后面常接 of/about sth.或that引导的宾语从句。 Make sure(that) you will arrive there on time. 你务必准时到这。

I know there’s a train this afternoon, but I must make sure of the time.

2)be sure of, be sure that 对···有把握,对···确定,确信

Can we be sure of his honesty. /Can we be sure that he is honest? I’m sure of winning the game.

3) be sure to do 说话人推测主语“一定;必然会”或 (常用于祈使句)务必做某事

He is sure to be back soon. 他一定会很快回来。 Be sure not to forget it. 千万别忘了。

注意:be sure of 与be sure to do的区别:

①.He is sure of his success. =He is sure that he will succeed. 他确信他会成功。

②.He is sure to succeed. 他一定会成功。(说话人的看法)

③. Be sure to write and tell me all your news. 务必来信把你所有情况都告诉我。

另外,常见的与sure相关的短语还有:be sure of oneself 有自信心,for sure的确;确实地, sure enough 果真,果然。用于口语,此时的“Sure.”相当于“Of course.” 与“Certainly.”。

4. From the agreement came the Human Development Report.

表示方位或方式的副词和介词短语放在句首用完全倒装, 即谓语动词完全置于主语之前。

At the foot of the mountain lies a small village. Out rushed the children.孩子们冲了出去。Here comes the bus. 车来了。(To the) south of our school stand many shops.

【部分倒装】

①only修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句,放于句首

②否定副词never, nor, not, hardly, little, seldom等放于句首

③ so+adj/adv+(倒装)+ that

1. Only when he returned did we find out the truth (We found out the truth only when he returned.)

2. Never before have I seen such a moving film.(I have never seen such a moving film before)

3. So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood.(He speaks English so clearly that~)

5. S.+ be + adj. + to do

easy/ good/ safe/comfortable/ dangerous/hard/ difficult…

1).The water is not pure to drink (drink)

2).He needs a chair comfortable to sit on.(sit )

3).The young man felt the room cold to live in (live)

语法要求:

1.but和however的联系和区别

however作副词用时,表示“然而;但是”,可以位于句首、句中和句末;位于句首时,要用逗号与句子其它部分隔开;位于句中时,其前后都要用逗号;位于句末时其前用逗号分开.

however与but 两者都做“但是,然而”讲,而且都引出并列句.从语义上看,but所表示的是非常明显的对比,转折的意味较however要强.从语序上看,but总是位于所引出的分句之首,而however却可位于句首、句中和句末,同时从标点符号上看,but之后一般不得使用逗号,而however则必须用逗号与句子其它部分分开. 2. although引导状语从句

Module3

重要短语:

pick up

at sea迷茫

on average

natural disaster catch fire失火/着火pour down倾泻而下set fire to放火烧manage to do sth.put out熄灭

report on报道…

fall down

from side to side

in all总共,合计

not at all一点也不,别客气

after all毕竟,终究

above all首先,尤其是

first of all首先

come to an end结束,完结

turn over移交; 翻转

according to

take place

a total of总数为

in ruins严重受损,破败不堪

fall into ruin已成废墟

bring sb. to ruin毁灭某人

end up到达或来到某处

end up with sth.以某事作为结束

end up doing sth.以做某事为结束

bury oneself in sth.埋头于、专心致志于某事物

be buried in埋头于,专心致志于 to sb.某事被某人想起

it occurs to sb. + that-clause某人突然想到…it occurs to sb. to do sth.某人突然想到做某事

on the same latitude在同一纬度

warn sb. (not)to do sth.警告某人(不)干某事

warn sb. of sth.警告某人当心某事

be experienced in/at在…方面有经验

重要句型:

good idea suddenly struck me. 我忽然想到一个好主意

strike sb.+介词+the +具体部位打某人的某个部位

eg. strike him on the back打某人的背 hit sb in the face打某人的脸

pat sb on the shoulder 拍某人的肩膀 be struck by被…所打动,被…迷住【注意区分】strike, hit, beat, knock

str ike “(钟)敲打,撞击,袭击”,表示有力的打一下。

beat 连续地打,心脏的跳动,在游戏、竞赛或战争中击败对方,也可表示殴打,体罚。hit 瞄准某物而击中。也可表示“袭击”

knock 用拳头或硬的东西“敲、击、打

2.

外研高中英语必修三知识点-语法总结超全超值

was the possibility of…

It is possible that…

语法要求:

1. by the time意为“到……时候(为止)”,是一个介词短语,在句中经常起连词作用,引导时间状语从句。它的主要用法如下:

1).如果从句中的谓语动词是一般过去时,那么主句中的谓语动词通常用过去完成时,表示“截止到从句动作发生时,主句动作已经完成,即过去的过去”。

By the time…did…, sb. had done sth.

By the time he returned home,the rain had stopped.

2).如果从句中的谓语动词为一般现在时/或现在完成时(表示将来),那么主句中的谓语动词常为将来完成时,表示“截止到将来某一时间为止,主句动作将已经完成”。

By the time…do/does…, sb. will have done sth.

By the time you get back,I shall have finished the work.

3).如果主句动作不强调已经完成,只是说明某个时候的状况,(主句是be的系表形式或者是表示像know, find, believe等表示认知的持续性动词,则往往用一般时态,不用完成时态。)此时主句不用完成时,而应根据实际需要选用适当的时态,此时by the time相当于when。例如:

He was out of breath by the time he reached the top. 登上顶端时,他气喘吁吁。

2. 过去完成时的被动语态:had+过去分词

3. 间接引语。英语中常用两种方式引用别人的话。一种是直接引述别人的原话,把它放在引号内,叫直接引语;另一种是用自己的话转述别人的话,叫间接引语。如果把直接引语变为间接引语,从句中的人称、时态、代词、时间状语和地点状语等一般都要作相应的改变。

3. 定语从句。

Module 4

重要短语

cut out剪除;切掉;割掉cut up切碎;使伤心cut of切断;停掉;隔绝

cut in插嘴

cut down砍掉;消减

dig up挖出

be caught in被困在(风、雨、雪…)中 catch up with赶上;跟上 catch hold of抓住,握住catch sight of看见 walk up to认识到/意识到 sweep away扫除/清除/冲走/刮走

take in吸入(空气);欺骗;体会;收容 give out分发;发出(气味、热气);用尽

take away带走

take off 脱下,拿掉,起飞take on承担take up举起,开始做;占据

give up放弃

give in屈服;让步,投降

give off送出;发出(光等)

give away赠送;放弃;泄漏;出卖

have an effect on …

complain to sb向…诉苦/发牢骚

complain about/of sth抱怨某事one after another一个接一个

look through仔细检查

be part of成为…的一部分

masses of/a mass of许多,大量

the masses群众,平民

in the mass大体而论,总体上

a weather forecast天气预报

give/make a forecast预言,预报

solve problems

if possible如果可能if any如果有的话if necessary如果需要的话

if so如果是这样的话

if ever如果曾经有的话

if not不这样的话

think seriously about认真考

prevent/stop/keep…(from)doing

in a nutshell/ in a word/ in brief/ in short 一言以蔽之

be concerned fo r/about/over …对…关心,担心,忧虑be concerned with/in与…有关as far as concerned就某事而言

重要句型

1. appear to…似乎,好像/ It appears that…

① He is only forty , but appears to be (be) quite old.

② It appears to me thatThe girl appears to have known (know) it.

这女孩好像已经知道了这件事。

③It appears to me that you are all mistaken. 我觉得你们全错了。

2.

外研高中英语必修三知识点-语法总结超全超值

3. so…that…/ such… that…. 引导结果状语从句

【注意】1)such 与 so 2)little少/小

3)当so 或such 置于句首时,主句要用倒装语序。

The boy was so frightened that he didn’t know what to do.

改为倒装句:So frightened was the boy that he didn’t know what to do. couldn’t agree with you more / it couldn’t be worse

if possible

语法要求:

一:to do不定式

(一)结构: to do (否定) not to do

(二)不定式的各种时态

外研高中英语必修三知识点-语法总结超全超值

(三)用法

1). 主

To see is to believe.

It’s important to learn .用it作形式主语.

2). 表

My job is to help the patient. Your task is to clean the classroom.

3) 宾

I want to go home.

☆think/ consider/ find /make/feel it + adj.+ to do

常用动词不定式作宾语的动词有:

hope, refuse, learn, set out choose, decide, agree, manage, pretend, plan.

4). 宾

warn, tell, allow, help, ask, force

The teacher told me to clean the blackboard.

I expect you to give me some help.

五看watch see look at observe notice

三使let make have

二听listen to hear

一感觉: feel

不定式用在介词but, except, besides后时,如果这些介词前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么介词后的不

定式不带to,相反则带to.

①She could do nothing but cry.

②I have no choice but to go.

③What do you like to do besides sleep.

注:在can’t but ,can‘t help but ,can’t choose but (意思是不得不,只能,只好),

的结构后,不定式不带to

5). 定语

I have something to say.

(如果不定式中的动词是不及物动词,则不定式中要有介词.)

不定式作定语时,应放在被修饰词的后面,而且放在其他后置定语之后。

①不定式做定语与所修饰的词之间有三种关系:

?动宾关系

I have a lot of work to do.我有很多工作要做。

?主谓关系

He is always the first to come.他总是第一个来。

?同位关系

We all have a chance to go to college.我们都有上大学的机会。

②不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点工具等,即使是及物动词,不定式后面仍须有相应的介词。

③不定式所修饰的名词如果是time, place或way,不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去。

He had no money and no place to live.他没钱没地方住。

④something, anything, nothing, everything等复合不定代词常用不定式做后置定语。

注意比较:

ⅠDo you have anything to send?你有什么东西要寄吗?(不定式to send的动作执行者是you)

ⅡDo you have anything to be sent?你有什么要(我或别人)寄的东西吗?

(不定式to be sent的动作执行者是已被省略的me或someone else)

6) 状

I came here to see you.

in order to , so as to ,enough to ,only to , too….to.,

(7).独立结构

To tell the truth, I don’t agree with you.

to be frank, to be honest, to tell the truth

不定式与疑问词who,which, when, how, what 等连用,在句中起名词作用,可充当主语、表语、宾语等。

He didn’t know what to say.他不知道说什么。(宾语)

How to solve the problem is very important.如何解决这个问题很重要。(主语) My question is when to start.我的问题是什么时候开始。(表语)

注意:

在与why连用时,只用于why或why not开头的简短疑问句中,后面紧跟的动词不定式不带to。Why not have

a rest?

固定句型:

①had better/had best + (not) do sth. 最好(不)做某事

②Why (not) do sth.?

③…prefer to do/prefer doing

④…prefer n./doing … to n./doing …

⑤…prefer to do … rather than(to) do …

⑥…would rather (not) do sth.

⑦…would rather do … than (do) …

⑧…would rather sb. did

(虚拟语气)要做……

(1).They pretended not to see us.

(一般式表示与谓语的动作同时/几乎/发生在它之后.)

(2). He pretended to be sleeping.

(在谓语动词发生的同时,不定式的动作也正在进行)

(3).She pretended to have known it before.

(完成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前)

(4).We’re happy to have been working with you.

(完成进行式表示谓语动作发生之前,不定式的动作一直在进行而且可能之后也继续)

Module 5

重要短语:

be related to与..有关

be equal to等于

human being

be born good人之初,性本善tell the time报时

bring up养育,教育;提出;呕吐

bring down使倒下,消减

bring back恢复,使想起

bring in收(庄稼);引进

be at war with与…..交战

live a (n)…life

follow / take one’s advice

a sense of responsibility责任感make sense 有意义,讲的通make sense of懂,理解

There is no sense in doing sth做某事不明智/没意义 reach /arrive at/ draw/ come to a conclusion 得出结论

in conclusion最后,总之make a contribution to …

in some ways在某些方面

lay stress on sth. 强调某事put stress on sth.

place stress on sth.

stress the importance of…

have an influence on/upon sth.

对某事有影响

influence sb. to do sth. 影响

某人做某事

be influenced It is/was a time when那是一个…的时期

travel from state to state 周游列国

The reason why … is that …的理由是…

The reason for sth. is that …某事的理由是…argue with sb about/over sth某人争论

argue for 据理力争argue against反对

in good/ poor condition状况良好(不好) on one condition有一个条件

on condition that如果,条件是,只要

on no condition决不

no faster than和…一样不快= as slowly as

重要句型:

n. & v. 秩序,顺序,命令,订购,

Then they called out our names in order and we answered yes or no . (翻译)

然后他们按顺序点我们的名字,我们回答对错。

out of order 无序的,杂论无章的 in order (of) 以·····顺序in order to 为了

in order that 为了 place an order with sb for sth 向某人订购某

put …in order 按顺序排列,整齐摆放

2. If …,then …

3. No more … than

语法要求:

一:限制性定语从句:用来修饰某个名词或代词的从句,叫定语从句。

引导定语从句的关系代词:that,which,who, whom, whose, as

关系副词:when, where, how, why

注意:1. 介词放在关系代词前面时,介词宾语只能用which代物,用whom代人。

2. 在限制性定语从句中,当关系代词在从句中担任介词宾语而介词在句尾时,关系代词可省略。

3. 有时为了行文需要,定语从句中的关系代词和部分谓语动词可省略。

Module 6

重要短语:

provide sth. for sb. /sb. with sth

date from /back to起源于

out of date过时

up to date最新

fix a date for sth给某事约定日期

have a date with sb和某人约会

hold back阻挡,忍住,抑制(情感hold one's breath屏住气

hold up耽搁;妨碍(交通等)

hold on坚持;(电话)请等一下

dream of梦想

dream a…dream做一个…梦

work out

come true

global warming

of all time有史以来

think of

hear from

now that ..

make a note /notes作笔记

bring an end to结束

a large amount of …

on the spot

be pleased with

crash into撞上,坠毁

freezing point冰点

in a sense 就某种意义而言

重要句型:

takes sb. Time to do sth.

of + n. = be + adj.

sb. with sth.提供某人某物

accommodate to sth. 适应,顺应……accommodate oneself to sth.使自己适应于……accommodate sb. for (the night) 留某人(过夜) provide accommodations for 为……提供膳宿

语法要求:

非限制性定语从句

引导词

非限定性定语从句即“引导定语从句的关系词”

①引导非限定性定语从句的关系代词:as,which,who

②引导非限定性定语从句的关系副词主要有:when,where。

非限定性定语从句注意

不能用that作为关系代词的两种情况:

①非限定性定语从句

②介词+关系代词

who引导

Our guide,who was a French Canadian,was an excellent cook.

whom引导

关系代词whom用于指人,在句中作动词宾语和介词宾语,作介词宾语时,介词可位于句首。

which引导

关系代词which在非限制性定语从句,中所指代和修饰的可以是主句中的名词、形容词、短语、其他从句或整个主句,在从句中作主语、动词宾语、介词宾语或表语。

when引导

关系副词when在非限制性定语从句中作时间状语,指代主句中表示时间的词语。

as引导

as引出非限定性定语从句时,代替整个主句,对其进行说明但通常用于像as we all know, as it is known, as is known to all, as it is, as is said above, as always mentioned above, as is usual, as is often the case, as is reported in the newspaper等句式中。as在非限定性定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,且引出的从句位置比较灵活,可位于句首或句末,也可置于主句中间。通常均由逗号将其与主句隔开。as有“正如……,就像……”之意。

区别

1、as引导的定语从句可以放在句首、句中和句尾,which引导的定语从句可置于句中或句尾。

2、当as后面有“is或was+过去分词”构成的被动语态时,be动词is或was可省略。

3、 as有时也可用作关系代词。若as在从句中作主语,其引导的句子可以放在句首或句中。但which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放句中。

4、as有正如…一样、按照、正像、因为的意思,所以常用于肯定句,而which则用于肯定,否定都可以。

5、在固定结构中使用as 例如:the same … as 、as … as。

注意事项

1. which引导的非限定性定语从句是用来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分。

2. as有时也可用作关系代词。as引导非限制性定语从句,若as在从句中作主语,其引导的句子可以放在句首,也可以放在句中。但which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放句中。

例句:

As is reported in the newspaper ,some artistic treasures(艺术珍品) will be on show at the exhibition (展览品)on the weekend.

3. 在非限定性定语从句中,关系词不能用that,和those。

非限定性定语从句从句区别

1.限定性定语从句:从句不能省略,如果省略整个句子意思不完整。

非限定性定语从句:从句可以省略,如果省略整个句子意思仍然完整。

2.限定性定语从句:先行词可以用that引导。

非限定性定语从句:先行词不可以用that引导。

3.限定性定语从句:引导词有时可以省略。

非限定性定语从句:引导词不可以省略。

4.限定性定语从句:主句与从句不需要用逗号隔开。

非限定性定语从句:主句与从句需要用逗号隔开。

5.限定性定语从句:从句只修饰先行词。

非限定性定语从句:从句既可以修饰先行词,也可以修饰整个句子或句子的一部分。

6.限定性定语从句:不能修饰一个事件。

非限定性定语从句:可以修饰一个事件。[2]