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宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

一、选择题(每小题 1 分,共 30 分)

1.In the United States real GDP is reported each quarter.

a. These numbers are adjusted to make them measure at annual and seasonally

adjusted rates.

b. These numbers are adjusted to make them annual rates, but no adjustment for

seasonal variations are made.

c. These numbers are quarterly rates that have been seasonally adjuste

d.

d. These numbers are at quarterly rates and have not been seasonally adjusted.

2.The price of CD players increases dramatically, causing a 1 percent increase in the CPI. The price increase will most likely cause the GDP deflator to increase by

a. more than 1 percent.

b. less than 1 percent.

c. 1 percent.

d. It is impossible to make an informed guess without more information.

3.If increases in the prices of U.S. medical care cause the CPI to increase by 2 percent, the GDP deflator will likely increase by

a. more than 2 percent.

b. 2 percent.

c. less than 2 percent.

d. All of the above are correct.

4.The traditional view of the production process is that capital is subject to

a. constant returns.

b. increasing returns.

c. diminishing returns.

d. diminishing returns for low levels of capital, and increasing returns for high

levels of capital.

5.Which of the following is correct?

a. Political instability can reduce foreign investment, reducing growth.

b. Gary's Becker proposal to pay mothers in developing countries to keep their children in school has

not worked very well in practice.

c. Policies designed to prevent imports from other countries generally increase economic growth.

d. All of the above are correct.

6.Use the following table to answer the following question.

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

Assume that the closing price was also the average price at which each stock transaction took place. What was the total dollar volume of Gillette stock traded that day?

a. $912,840,000

b. $91,284,000

c. $9,128,400

d. $912,840

7.Suppose that in a closed economy GDP is equal to 10,000, taxes are equal to 2,500 Consumption equals 6,500 and Government expenditures equal 2,000. What are private saving, public saving, and national saving?

a. 1500, 1000, 500

b. 1000, 500, 1500

c. 500, 1500, 1000

d. None of the above are correct.

8.Risk-averse people will choose different asset portfolios than people who are not risk averse. Over a long period of time, we would expect that

a. every risk-averse person will earn a higher rate of return than every non-risk averse person.

b. every risk-averse person will earn a lower rate of return than every non-risk averse person.

c. the average risk-averse person will earn a higher rate of return than the average non-risk averse

person.

d. the average risk-averse person will earn a lower rate of return than the average non-risk averse

person.

9.The natural rate of unemployment is the

a. unemployment rate that would prevail with zero inflation.

b. rate associated with the highest possible level of GDP.

c. difference between the long-run and short-run unemployment rates.

d. amount of unemployment that the economy normally experiences.

10.Suppose that the reserve ratio is 5 percent and that a bank has $1,000 in deposits. Its required reserves are

a. $5.

b. $50.

c. $95.

d. $950.

11.Suppose a bank has $200,000 in deposits and $190,000 in loans. It has a reserve ratio of

a. 5 percent

b. 9.5 percent

c. 10 percent

d. None of the above is correct.

12.The inflation tax

a. transfers wealth from the government to households.

b. is the increase in income taxes due to lack of indexation.

c. is a tax on everyone who holds money.

d. All of the above are correct.

13.In 1898, prospectors on the Klondike River discovered gold. This discovery caused an unexpected price level

a. decrease that helped creditors at the expense of debtors.

b. decrease that helped debtors at the expense of creditors.

c. increase that helped creditors at the expense of debtors.

d. increase that helped debtors at the expense of creditors.

14.Ivan, a Russian citizen, sells several hundred cases of caviar to a restaurant chain in the United States. By itself, this sale

a. increases U.S. net exports and has no effect on Russian net exports.

b. increases U.S. net exports and decreases Russian net exports.

c. decreases U.S. net exports and has no effect on Russian net exports.

d. decreases U.S. net exports and increases Russian net exports.

15.Suppose that the real exchange rate between the United States and Kenya is defined in terms of baskets of goods. Which of the following will increase the real exchange rate (that is increase the number of baskets of Kenyan goods a basket of U.S. goods buys)?

a. an increase in the number of Kenyan shillings that can be purchased with a dollar

b. an increase in the price of U.S. baskets of goods

c. a decrease in the price in Kenyan shillings of Kenyan goods

d. All of the above are correct.

16.Use the (hypothetical) information in the following table to answer the next question.

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

In real terms, U.S. goods are more expensive than goods in which country(ies)?

a. Brazil and Mexico

b. Japan, Sweden, and Thailand

c. Japan and Sweden

d. Thailand.

17.Which of the following would tend to shift the supply of dollars in foreign-currency exchange market of the open-economy macroeconomic model to the left?

a. The exchange rate rises.

b. The exchange rate falls.

c. The expected rate of return on U.S. assets rises.

d. The expected rate of return on U.S. assets falls.

18.The real exchange rate equals the relative

a. price of domestic and foreign currency.

b. price of domestic and foreign goods.

c. rate of domestic and foreign interest.

d. None of the above is correct.

19.In the open-economy macroeconomic model, if the supply of loanable funds increases, the interest rate

a. and the real exchange rate increase.

b. and the real exchange rate decrease.

c. increases and the real exchange rate decreases.

d. decreases and the real exchange rate increases.

20.For the following question, use the graph below.

The initial effect of an increase in the budget deficit in the loanable funds market is illustrated as a move from

a. a to

b.

b. a to

c.

c. c to b.

d. c to d.

21.When the government spends more, the initial effect is that

a. aggregate demand shifts right.

b. aggregate demand shifts left.

c. aggregate supply shifts right.

d. aggregate supply shifts left.

22.Suppose the economy is in long-run equilibrium. In a short span of time, there is a sharp increase in the minimum wage, a major new discovery of oil, a large influx of immigrants, and new environmental regulations that reduce electricity production. In the short run, we would expect

a. the price level to rise and real GDP to fall.

b. the price level to fall and real GDP to rise.

c. the price level and real GDP both to stay the same.

d. All of the above are possibl

e.

23.Suppose the economy is in long-run equilibrium. In a short span of time, there is a large influx of skilled immigrants, a major new discovery of oil, and a major new technological advance in electricity production. In the short run, we would expect

a. the price level to rise and real GDP to fall.

b. the price level to fall and real GDP to rise.

c. the price level and real GDP both to stay the same.

d. All of the above are possibl

e.

24.According to liquidity preference theory, the money supply curve is

a. upward sloping.

b. downward sloping.

c. vertical.

d. horizontal.

25.When the Fed buys government bonds, the reserves of the banking system

a. increase, so the money supply increases.

b. increase, so the money supply decreases.

c. decrease, so the money supply increases.

d. decrease, so the money supply decreases.

26.According to the theory of liquidity preference, an increase in the price level causes the

a. interest rate and investment to rise.

b. interest rate and investment to fall.

c. interest rate to rise and investment to fall.

d. interest rate to fall and investment to ris

e.

27.If the stock market crashes,

a. aggregate demand increases, which the Fed could offset by increasing the money supply.

b. aggregate demand increases, which the Fed could offset by decreasing the money supply.

c. aggregate demand decreases, which the Fed could offset by increasing the money supply.

d. aggregate demand decreases, which the Fed could offset by decreasing the money supply.

28.If the MPC = 3/5, then the government purchases multiplier is

a. 5/3.

b. 5/2.

c. 5.

d. 15.

29.If the government raises government expenditures, in the short run, prices

a. rise and unemployment falls.

b. fall and unemployment rises.

c. and unemployment rise.

d. and unemployment fall.

30.If the long-run Phillips curve shifts to the left, for any given rate of money growth and inflation the economy will have

a. higher unemployment and lower output.

b. higher unemployment and higher output.

c. lower unemployment and lower output.

d. lower unemployment and higher output.

二、判断题(每小题 1 分,共 20 分)

31.When an American doctor opens a practice in Bermuda, his production there is part of U.S. GDP.

32.In countries where women are discriminated against, policies that increase their career and educational opportunities are likely to increase the birth rate.

33.Michael Kramer found that world growth rates have increased as population has.

34.Suppose a small closed economy has GDP of $5 billion, Consumption of $3 billion, and Government expenditures of $1 billion. Then domestic investment and national saving are both $1 billion.

35.According to the efficient markets hypothesis, at any moment in time, the market price is the best guess of the company's value based on available information.

36.According to the efficient markets hypothesis, stocks follow a random walk so that stocks that increase in price one year are more likely to increase than decrease in the next year.

37.In the United States, blacks and whites have similar labor force participation rates, but blacks have a higher unemployment rate.

38.According to the theory of efficiency wages, firms operate more efficiently if they can pay wages that are below the equilibrium level.

39.In the months of November and December, people in the United States hold a larger part of their money in the form of currency because they intend to shop for the holidays. As a result, the money supply increases, cerise parousia.

40.In the 1990s, U.S. prices rose at about the same rate as in the 1970s.

41.According to the theory of purchasing-power parity, the real exchange rate defined as foreign goods per unit of U.S. goods will equal the domestic price level divided by the foreign price level.

42.Net capital outflow represents the quantity of dollars supplied in the foreign-currency exchange market.

43.If policymakers impose import restrictions on automobiles, the U.S. trade deficit would shrink.

44.Most economists believe that classical theory explains the world in the short run, but not the long run.

45.Because not all prices adjust instantly to changing conditions, an unexpected fall in the price level leaves some firms with higher-than-desired prices, and these higher-than-desired prices depress sales and induce firms to reduce the quantity of goods and services they produce.

46.All explanations for the upward slope of the short-run aggregate supply curve suppose that output supplied increases when the price level increases more than expected.

47.Both the multiplier and the investment accelerator tend to make the aggregate demand curve shift farther than the increase in government expenditures.

48.During recessions, the government tends to run a budget deficit.

49.If macroeconomic policy expands aggregate demand, unemployment will fall and inflation will rise in the short run.

50.The analysis of Friedman and Phelps argues that any change in inflation that is expected has no impact on the unemployment rate.

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

三、名词解释(每小题 2 分,共 10 分)

51.diminishing returns: 52.nominal exchange rate: 53.crowding-out effect: 54.stagflation: 55.automatic stabilizers: 四、简答题( 8题中任选6题;每小题 5分,共 30 分)

56.Why are property rights important for the growth of a nation's standard of living? 57.Suppose that you are a broker and people tell you the following about themselves. What

sort of bond would you recommend to each? Defend your choices. a. "I am in a high federal income tax bracket and I don't want to take very much risk." b. "I want a high return and I am willing to take a lot of risk to get it."

c. "I want a decent return and I have enough deductions that I don't value tax breaks

highly."

58.Draw a simple T-account for First National Bank of Me, which has $5,000 of deposits, a

reserve ratio of 10 percent, and excess reserves of $300.

59.What are the costs of inflation?

60.Make a list of things that would shift the long-run aggregate supply curve to the right. 61.Illustrate the classical analysis of growth and inflation with aggregate demand and

long-run aggregate supply curves.

62.Why do economists think that the wealth effect and exchange-rate effect are not very

important factors in explaining why aggregate demand slopes downward, at least in the

United States?

63.Describe the process in the money market by which the interest rate reaches its equilibrium value if it starts

above equilibrium.

五、讨论题(2题中任选1题;每小题 10 分,共 10 分)

64. Assume the economy is in a recession. Explain how each of the following policies would affect consumption and investment. In each case, indicate any direct effects, any effects resulting from changes in

total output, any effects resulting from changes in interest rate, and the overall effect. If there are conflicting effects making the answer ambiguous, say so. a). a reduction in taxes; b) an expansion of the money supply. 65. In 1939, with the U.S. economy not yet fully recovered from the Great Depression, President Roosevelt proclaimed that Thanksgiving would fall a week earlier than usual so that the shopping period before Christmas would be longer. Explain this decision, using the model of aggregate demand and aggregate supply.

《宏观经济学》答题纸

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

一、选择题 (每小题 1 分,共 30 分)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

二、判断题(正确用“T”;错误用“F”;每小题 1

分,共 20 分)

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

三、名词解释(每小题 2分,共 10 分) 51.catch-up effect:

52.depreciation:

53.capital flight: 54.recession:

55.automatic stabilizers:

四、简答题( 8题中任选6题;每小题 5分,共 30 分;答题时

请标明题号)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

宏观经济学期末考试试卷2(附答案)

五、讨论题(2题中任选1题;每小题 10 分,共 10 分;答题时请

标明题号)

《宏观经济学》试卷B参考答案

1.a

2.d

3.c

4.c

5.a

6.b

7.b

8.d

9.d 10.b 11.a 12.c 13.d 14.d 15.d 16.d 17.c 18.b 19.b 20.c 21.a 22.d 23.b 24.c 25.a 26.c 27.c 28.b 29.a 30.d

31.F 32.F 33.T 34.T 35.T 36.F 37.T 38.F 39.F 40.F 41.F 42.T 43.F 44.F 45.T 46.T 47.T 48.T 49.T 50.T

51.the property whereby the benefit from an extra unit of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases.

52.the rate at which a person can trade the currency of one country for the currency of another.

53.the offset in aggregate demand that results when expansionary fiscal policy raises the interest rate and thereby reduces investment spending.

54.a period of falling output and rising prices.

55.changes in fiscal policy that stimulate aggregate demand when the economy goes into a recession without policymakers having to take any deliberate action.

56.Property rights are an important prerequisite for the price system to work in a market economy. If an individual or company is not confident that claims over property or over the income from property can be protected, or that contracts can be enforced, there will be little incentive for individuals to save, invest, or start new businesses. Likewise, there will be little incentive for foreigners to invest in the real or financial assets of the country. The distortion of incentives will reduce efficiency in resource allocation and will

reduce saving and investment which in turn will reduce the standard of living.

57. a. A municipal bond, because generally they have low credit risk and are not subject to federal income tax.

b. A junk bond. Because of their high risk, they have a high return.

c. A corporate bond that isn't a junk bon

d. Because they have more risk than

government bonds and have no special tax treatment, they pay moderate rates

of return.

58.First National Bank of Me

Assets Liabilities

Reserves $800 Deposits $5,000

Loans $4,200

59.The costs of inflation include "shoeleather costs," the cost of reducing your money holdings to reduce your inflation tax; "menu costs," the costs of price adjustments; the costs of resource misallocation that result from the relative-price variability induced by inflation; the costs of inflation-induced tax distortions; the costs of confusion and inconvenience; and the costs associated with the arbitrary redistribution of wealth that accompany unexpected inflation.

60.Examples in the text (or variations) include increased immigration, a decrease in the minimum wage, more generous unemployment insurance, an increase in the capital stock, an increase in the average level of education, a discovery of new mineral deposits, technology, and removal of barriers to international trade.

61.See graph. Over time technological advances cause the long-run aggregate supply curve to shift right. Increases in the money supply cause the aggregate demand curve to shift right. Output growth puts downward pressure on the price level, but money supply growth contributes to rising prices.

62.The wealth effect is not very important because it operates through changes in the real value of money, and money is only a small fraction of household wealth. So it is unlikely that changes in the price level will lead to large changes in consumption spending through this channel. The exchange-rate effect is not very important in the United States because trade with other countries represents a relatively small fraction of U.S. GDP.

63. If the interest rate is above equilibrium, there is an excess supply of money. People with more money than they want to hold given the current interest rate deposit the money in banks and buy bonds. The increase in funds to lend out causes the interest rate to fall. As the interest rate falls, the quantity of money demanded increases, which tends to diminish the excess supply of money.

64. a) 税收减少增加了储蓄的收益、减少了投资的成本,但税收减少对储蓄和投资的影响要视情况而定。储蓄的增加取决于储蓄的税收弹性,如果储蓄的税收弹性大,则消费会大量减少,反之,消费不会减少许多;投资的增加也取决于投资的税收弹性,如果投资的税收弹性大,则投资会大量增加,反之,投资不会增加多少。它的总效应不确定,这要看储蓄的税收效应和投资的税收效应的大小。

b) 货币供给的扩张减低了利率,利率下降意味着投资成本和消费下降,因而会刺激消费和投资增加,这是一种产生于利率变动的间接效应。它的总效应是增加社会总需求。

65. 当罗斯福总统宣布感恩前一周时,刺激了居民的消费支出,经济中对物品与劳务的需求会增加,

从而总需求曲线从AD1右移到AD2.随着经济从A点变动到B点,产量从Y1增加到Y2,物价水平众P1升至P2.

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