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2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

情态动词表示说话人的语气和情绪,本身词义不全,不能单独作谓语,后面必须与动词原形一起构成谓语。情态动词没有人称和数的变化,有的情态动词有过去式。常见的情态动词有can, could, may, might, must, have to, shall, should, will, would, ought to, need, dare等。

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


He could read books in English when he was only five.他只有五岁的时候就会读英文书籍了。


Anybody can make mistakes.任何一个人都有可能犯错误。

3.表示请求建议,用could 比can语气更委婉 (回答用原形)

Could you be here at eight o’clock tomorrow morning?你可不可以明天上午8点钟来这儿呢?

4.表示允许、许可,用could 比can更委婉客气。

Could/Can I borrow your reference books?我可以借用一下你的参考书吗?


Can it be true? 难道这是真的?

You can't be serious!你怕不是在开玩笑吧!

Oh, dear, what on earth can this mean? 哎呀,亲爱的,这究竟是意味着什么?

2.表示“经过努力后终于能……”用be able to

The fire spread the building quickly but everybody was able to escape.


注意:be able to比can有更多的形式变化

When he grows up, he will be able to support his family.他长大后就能养家了。

Frank is ill. He hasn't been able to go to school for one week.弗兰克病了,已经一周没去上学了。

I'm sorry for not being able to help you in time.对不起,不能及时帮你的忙。

3.惯用形式“can not (can't)…too/over/enough”。表示“无论怎么……也不(过分)”,用来加强语气

You can not be too careful.你无论怎么小心都不为过(你越小心越好)。

4.can not but do sth. 不得不;只好。

I couldn’t but choose to wait.我只好选择等待。


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


“Might I…?”比“May I…?”语气更为委婉和有礼貌。对于“Might I …?”的回答用“… may”;

“May I …?”的否定回答常用“… mustn’t / can’t”

— May I watch TV after supper? 晚饭后我可以看电视吗?

— Yes, you may.可以。

或No, you may not.不,不可以。

或You mustn't.绝对不可以。

2.表示可能性,表示“或许”,“大概”。用于肯定句或否定句中,用might 比may语气更加不肯定。

He may be very busy these days.这些天也许他很忙。

He might come tomorrow.明天他也许要来的。

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

1.惯用形式may (might)as well+动词原形:不妨做……

If that is the case, we may as well try.如果情况是这样的话,我们不妨试试看。


May the friendship between our two peoples last forever! 祝愿我们两个民族的友谊源远流长!

3.may或might可和as well连用,表示“建议”,译为“还是……的为好”

You may as well keep a certain distance from that mad man. 你们还是离那疯子远点为好。You might as well go home now.你还是现在回家为好。

(三)must和have to

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

1.must 表示“必须”。强调主观看法,只有现在时形式,否定式是must not/mustn’t,表示“禁止、不准”。

Everybody must obey the rules. 人人都得遵守规则。

You mustn't speak like that to your mother. 不准你那样对你母亲说话。

— Must I be home before eight o'clock? 八点之前我必须回家吗?

— Yes, you must.是的,必须的。

— No, you needn't./No, you don't have to.不,没必要/不必啦。


You must be hungry after the long walk.跑了这么远的路,你一定是饿了。

Home cooking must be more delicious.家常菜一定更可口。

3.have to表示“必须,不得不”,着重强调客观需要,能用于更多时态(过去式和将来式)。The students today will have to know how to use computers.现在的学生必须懂得如何使用电脑。

As he had his leg broken, he had to lie in bed.由于腿断了,他不得不躺在床上。

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

1.must 还表示主语主观的坚持,有“偏偏,偏要,一定要”之意

If you must know how old I am, I tell you that I’m twice my son’s age.



Michael ______be a policeman, for he’s much too short.

A. needn’t

B. can’t

C. wouldn’t

D. mustn’t


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


I will do my best to help you.我愿意尽力帮助你。

They said that they would help us.他们说他们愿意尽力帮助我们。

2.用于第二人称的疑问句中表示有礼貌的询问和请求,would 比will更委婉。其回答用“will”

—Would you pass me the book?请把那本书递给我,好吗?

—Yes, I will.好的。

Will you please give him a message when you see him? 你见到他时给他带个口信,好吗?

3.表示习惯性、经常性、倾向性,意为“总是”,“惯于”。will指现在,would指过去。Fish will die without water.鱼儿离开了水会死亡的。

He would come to see me on Sunday when he was in Beijing.他在北京的时候,每逢星期日他常来看我。

The wound would not heal.伤口老是不能愈合。

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

would 与used to 的区别:

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/b7090490dd88d0d233d46ae3.htmled to表示过去的某种习惯,现在已经没那样的习惯了;would 表示过去有某种习惯,不与现在对比

We would sit in the yard every evening and listen to his story. (过去会这样,不与现在对比) We used to sit in the yard every evening and listen to his story. (过去是这样的,但现在不这样了)

2.表示过去的状态,只能用used to,不能用would

There used to be a park here.这儿过去有个公园。(言下之意:现在没有了)

(五)shall, should和ought to

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


What shall we do this evening? 我们今天晚上做什么呢?

Shall he come in? 他可以进来吗?

2.should 表示“应该”,表义务,责任,也可表示劝告,建议

You should keep your promise.你应该信守诺言。


They should arrive by one o’clock.到了一点钟,他们该回来了。


I should think you are mistaken.我倒是认为你弄错了。

5.ought to表示责任和义务,意为“应该”,语气比should强;还可表推测

You ought to obey your parents when they are right.父母亲对的时候,你就该服从他们。You have practiced for a long time. There ought to be no difficulty for you.


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


You shall fail if you don’t work harder.你不更加努力工作,你就不会成功。(警告)

You shall have the book when I finish reading.我读完了,你就可以拿走这本书。(允诺)He shall be punished.他一定会遭到惩罚。(威胁)

2.Why/How +should结构表示说话人对某事不能理解、感到意外、惊异等意思,意为“竟会”。Why should you be so late? 你今天来得怎么这么晚?

How should I know? 我怎会知道!(意为:我不知道。)


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


时态用“have to”的相应形式代替

You needn't come tomorrow. 你明天没必要来了。

— Need he come now? 他现在就需要来吗?

— Yes, he must. 是的,必须来。/ No, he needn't / he doesn't have to.不必啦。

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

1.“Must…?”一般疑问句的否定回答要用:No, …needn't.

— Must I finish my homework now? 我现在就必须把作业做完了?

— No, you needn’t.不,不必啦.


We need to have a rest.我们需要休息一下。[来源21世纪教育网]

The house needs repairing.=The house needs to be repaired.这栋房子需要修理。


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


She dare not go there.她不敢去那儿。

How dare he do such a thing? 他怎么敢做重要的事呢?

If he dare come, I will kick him out. 如果他胆敢来,我就把他踢出去。

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

1.惯用短语“I dare say”意为“我敢说、我想、或许”。

I dare say he is right.我敢说他是对的。


The girl didn't dare to go home.那个女孩不敢回家。

Do you dare to jump into the ocean? 跳进海洋里,你敢吗?


I don't dare (to) ask her. 我不敢问她。

(八) can ,may ,must皆可用来表示推测


2.在否定句中只能用“can和may”。所以“can’t”(不可能)语气比“may not”(可能不、也许不)更强。


①Peter ______come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet.

A. must

B. may

C. can

D. will

②Mary is in poor health. She can be ill at any times.

Michael ______be a policeman, for he’s much too short.

A. needn’t

B. can’t

C. should

D. may

③He may be very busy now. → Can he be very busy now?

He must be very busy now. → Can he be very busy now?

④They can’t be cleaning the room now. 他们现在不可能在打扫房间。

注意:could ,might 表示推测时不表示时态,其推测的程度不如can ,may。

(九)情态动词+have done的用法

1.could+have done:过去本可以做而实际上未能做

You could have done better, but you didn’t try your best.你本来能做得更好的,但你没有尽力。

2.cannot+have done:表示对过去行为的否定推测

He cannot have been to that town. 他不可能去过那个小镇。

3.can+主语+have done:(用于疑问句)表示对过去行为的怀疑或不肯定

Can he have got the book? 他可能得到那本书了吗?

4.might(may)+ have done:对过去发生的行为不太肯定的推测

He may not have finished the work. 他可能没有完成工作。

If we had taken the other road, we might have arrived earlier.


5.must+have done:对过去发生的行为肯定的推测。其否定式为:cannot have done

You must have seen the film. 你肯定看过那部电影。

You cannot have seen the film. 你不可能看过那部电影。

6.needn’t+have done:本来不必要做的而实际上又做了

You needn’t have watered the flowers, for it is going to rain.你本没必要浇花的,因为就要下雨了。

注意:didn’t n eed to(have to)do :没有必要做而实际上也没有做

I didn’t need to clean the windows. My sister did it 2 hours ago.我没必要擦窗户。我姐姐两小时前刚擦过。

7.should(ought to)+ have done:本来应该做而实际上又没有做。


You should have started earlier, but you didn’t.你应该早点开始的,但是你没有。

S he shouldn’t have taken away my measuring tape, for I wanted to use it.


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)







had+过去分词should/would/could/might +have+过去分词







If he were here, he would help us.如果他在这里,他会帮助我们的。

If I had been free at that time, I would have visited you.如果那时我有空的话,我就拜访你了。

If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping.如果明天下雨的话,我们就不去野营。(二)省略“if”的虚拟条件句


Should he come, tell him to ring me up.如果他来,告诉他让他给我打电话。

Were I you, I would not do it.如果我是你,我就不做。

Had I been free, I would have visited you.如果我有空的话,我就拜访你了。



If he had listened to me, he would not be in trouble now.


If he had told me yesterday, I should know what to do now.



If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.



He could have passed the exam, but he wasn’t careful enough. 他本来能通过考试的,但他不够细心。

You should have come earlier. The bus left a moment ago. 你应该早一点来的,汽车刚走一会儿。


1.用“but for+名词”表示虚拟条件

—Did you make it at last? 你们最后成功了吗?

—Y es. But for your help, it would have caused a serious loss.成功了,要不是你的帮助,我们的损失就大了。


Without electricity, human life would be quite different today.



It would be only partly right to follow in this way. 如果这样做,仅仅对了一半。


Having known in time ,we might have prevented the accident.



Given more attention, the tree could have grown better.如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的更好。


I was too busy at that time. Otherwise, I would have called you.我当时太忙,否则我就给你打电话了。


He _________fatter but he eats too little.

A. would become

B. would have become

C. must become

D. must have become 【解析】答案为A。从后句“但是他吃得太少”来看,隐含着虚拟即:如果他吃得多点,就会胖些了。


1.suggest, order, propose, request, require, demand, advise, insist+ 宾语从句(should )do

He suggested that we (should)not change our mind.他建议我们不要改变主意。

He insisted that he (should) go to work in the south.他坚持要到南方去工作。


His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision.他的沉默说明了他同意我的决定。

He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s health.他坚持认为做早操对人的身体有益。

2.It is sugges ted/advised/ordered/requested/required…+ that从句(should) do

It is suggested that more students should go to university.有人建议应该有更多的学生去上大学。

3.My advice/suggestion/request/requirement/order/proposal…+ is +表语从句(should)do

My advice is that you should practice speaking English as often as possible.


4.His suggestion/advice/request/requirement…+ 同位语从句(should )do+ is..

The request that they should get more is reasonable.他们得到更多的要求是合理的。

5.It is natural/necessary/strange +that从句(should) do表惊奇、怀疑、惋惜、不满、理应如此等。

It’s strange that he should have missed the train. 真奇怪,这样的一个人竟然是我们的朋友。(表竟然)

It is important that we should learn from others.重要的是我们理应向他人学习。(表理应如此)

It is a pity that he should not go with us.真遗憾,他不肯跟我们一起走。(表惋惜)

6.wish + that clause (did/were 与现在相反)

wish + that clause (would/could/might + do与将来相反)

wish + that clause ( had done 与过去相反)

I wish I were a doctor. 我希望我是个医生就好了。(现在)

I wish that the rain would stop. 我希望雨能停下来。(将来)

I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it. 我希望他不要把事情搞大了。(过去)

7.It is (high) time + 从句(did或should do )

It is (high) time we went/should go home. 我们真该回家了。

8.would rather + 从句(did 与现在或将来相反);(had done 与过去相反)

I would rather you came tomorrow. 我宁愿你现在呆在家里。

I would rather you hadn’t told her the news.我宁愿你没有把这个消息告诉她。



You could have washed your clothes yourself. 你本可以自已洗衣服的。

(省去了“If you had wanted to”,事实是:你自己没洗衣服,因为你不想洗。)

②省去主句(常用以表示愿望)If only + 从句( did/were与现在相反)/

(would/could/might + do与将来相反) /( had done 与过去相反) “要是……就好了”

If my grandmother were with me! 如果我的祖母与我在一起多好啊!(事实是:祖母已不在世了。)

If only she had not left! 如果她没走就好了!(事实是:她已经走了。)

If only he would come tomorrow!要是他明天能来该多好啊!

注意:only if是“只要”的意思,从句中用陈述语气。

10.as if +从句(did/were 与现在相反) / (would/could/might + do与将来相

反)/( had done 与过去相反)

I’ve loved you as if you were my relative.我一直爱你仿佛你是我的亲人。

They talked as if they had been friends for years.他们交谈起来就像是处了多年的朋友。

注意:“as if/as though”引导的状语从句中也可以用陈述语气:当说话者认为所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时:

It sounds as if it is raining. 听起来像是在下雨。

He talks as if he is drunk. 从他谈话的样子来看他似乎是喝醉了。

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

①If it were not for the fact that she _______ sing, I would invite her to the party.

A. couldn’t

B. shouldn’t

C. can’t

D. might not


②The World Wide Web is sometimes jokingly called the World Wide Wait because it

_________be very slow.

A. should

B. must

C. will

D. can


③We hope that as many people as possible join us for the picnic tomorrow.

A. need

B. must

C. should

D. can


Helen _______ go on the trip with us, but she isn’t quite sure yet.

A. shall

B. must

C. may

D. can


①—I think I’ll give Bob a ring.

—You _______. You haven’t been in touch with him for ages.

A. will

B. may

C. have to

D. should


②There ____ be any difficulty about passing the road test since you have practiced a lot in the

driving school.

A. mustn’t

B. shan’t

C. shouldn’t

D. needn’t


①—What’s the name? [来源21世纪教育网]


—_______I spell that for you?

A. Shall

B. Would

C. Can

D. Might


②一What does the sign over there read?

一No person ________smoke or carry a lighted cigarette,cigar or pipe in this area.

A. will

B. may

C. shall

D. must


①In crowded places like airports and railway stations, you___ take care of your luggage.

A. can

B. may

C. must

D. will


②—Could I have a word with you, mum?

—Oh dear, if you _______.

A. can

B. must

C. may

D. should


①—What do you think we can do for our aged parents?

—You _______do anything except to be with them and be yourself.

A. don’t have to

B. oughtn’t to

C. mustn’t

D. can’t


②Some aspects of a pilot’s job _______be boring, and pilots often ________work at convenient hours.

A. can; have to

B. may; can

C. have to; may

D. ought to; must


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

①You be hungry already— you had lunch only two hours ago!

A. wouldn’t


C. mustn’t

D. needn’t


②There’s no light on—they ______be at home.

A. can’t

B. mustn’t

C. needn’t

D. shouldn’t


③—I’ve take someone else’s green sweater by mistake.

—It _____ Harry’s. He always wears green.

A. has to be

B. will be

C.mustn’t be

D. could be


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

①The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I the trouble to carry my umbrella with me.

A. should have taken

B. could have taken

C. needn’t have taken

D. mustn’t have taken


②As you worked late yesterday, you ______have come this morning.

A. mayn’t

B. can’t

C. mustn’t

D. needn’t


③I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I have driven her there.

A. could

B. must

C. might

D. should


④—I’m sorry. I ________at you the other day.

—Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself.

A. shouldn’t shout

B. shouldn’t have shouted

C. mustn’t shout

D. mustn’t have shouted


⑤—Guess what! I have got A for my term paper.

—Great! You ______read widely and put a lot of work into it.

A. must

B. should

C. must have

D. should have


⑥He _____ have completed his work; otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside.

A. should

B. must

C. wouldn’t

D. can’t


⑦—Where is my dictionary? I remember I put it here yesterday.

—You it in the wrong place.

A. must put

B. should have put

C. might put

D. might have put


⑧She have left school, for her bike is still here.

A. can’t

B. wouldn’t

C. shouldn’t

D. needn’t


⑨Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we it without you.

A. can manage

B. could have managed

C. could manage

D. can have managed


⑩He paid for a seat, when he _________ have entered free.

A. could

B. would

C. must

D. need



2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

①If there were no subjunctive mood, English ______ much easier.

A. will be

B. would have been

C. could have been

D. would be 【解析】

②________he had not hurt his leg, John would have won the race.

A. If

B. Since

C. Though

D. When 【解析】

③If it _______ tomorrow, we________ put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.

A. rains; would have had to

B. were to rain; will have to

C. should rain; would have to

D. rained; should have had to



④________fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off.

A. Would you be

B. Should you be

C. Could you be

D. Might you be


⑤______for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often.

A. If it is not

B. Were it not

C. Had it not been

D. If they were not


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

If Newton lived today, he would be surprised by what________in science and technology.

A. had discovered

B. had been discovered

C. has discovered

D. has been discovered


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

①They ________two free tickets to Canada, otherwise they’d never have been able to afford to go.

A. had got

B. got

C. have got

D. get


②But for the Party, he _______ of hunger 30 years ago.

A. would have died

B. must have died

C. would die

D. died


③Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night__, too cold for us to live.

A. would be freezing cold

B. will be freezing coldly

C. would be frozen cold

D. can freeze coldly


④Having known earlier, we __________such a thing from happening again.

A. would stopped

B. should have stopped

C. would have stopped

D. need have stopped


⑤— He _________ in the experiment last time. — Luckily he followed your advice.

A. failed

B. was failing

C. might have failed

D. would have failed


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)

①Eliza remembers everything exactly as if it________ yesterday.

A. was happening

B. happens

C. has happened

D. happened 【解析】

②—I’m going to see the victim’s brother.

—I’d rather you__________________.

A. didn’t

B. do not

C. don’t

D. do


③—Don’t you think it necessary that he _______to Miami but to New York?

—I agree, but the problem is ________ he has refused to.

A. will not be sent; that

B. not be sent; that

C. should not be sent; what

D. should not send; what


④I wish that you _____ such a bad headache because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert.

A. hadn’t

B. didn’t have had

C. hadn’t had

D. hadn’t have


2012届高考英语语法精讲精练学生版(第八讲 情态动词和虚拟语气)


1. (全国卷I)What do you mean, there are only ten tickets? There be twelve

A. should

B. would

C. will

D. shall



2. (全国卷II) I can’t leave. She told me that I stay here until she comes back.

A. can

B. must

C. will

D. may


3. (北京卷) One of the few things you ___ say about English people with certainty is that they

talk a lot about the weather.

A. need

B. must

C. should

D. can



4.(上海卷)It_____ have been Tom that parked the car here, as he is the only one with a car.

A. may

B. can

C. must

D. should 【答案】


5.This printer is of good quality. If it _______ break down within the first year, we would repair it at our expense.

A. would

B. should

C. could

D. might



6.(重庆卷)—Hi, Tom. Any idea where Jane is?

—She in the classroom. I saw her there just now.

A. shall be

B. should have been

C. must be

D. might have been



7.(安徽卷)Some people who don’t like to talk much are not necessarily shy;they just be quiet people.

A. must

B. may

C. should

D. would



8.(安徽卷)But for their help,we the program in time.

A. can not finish

B. will not finish

C. had not finished

D. could not have finished


9.(福建卷)But for the help of my English teacher, I the first prize in the English Writing Competition.

A. would not win

B. would not have won

C. would win

D. would have won 【答案】


10.(湖南卷)—It’s the office! So you know eating is not allowed here.

— Oh, sorry.

A. must

B. will

C. may

D. need



11.(江苏卷)He did not regret saying what he did but felt that he it differently.

A. could express

B. would express

C. could have expressed

D. must have expressed



12.(辽宁卷)The traffic is heavy this day, I arrive a bit late, so could you save me a place?

A. can

B. must

C. need.

D. might 【答案】


13.(四川卷)—I don’t care what people think. —Well, you _______ 21世纪教育网

A. could

B. would

C. should

D. might 【答案】


14.(浙江卷)The doctor recommended that you swim after eating a large meal.

A. wouldn’t

B. couldn’t

C. needn’t

D. shouldn’t