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主谓一致

主谓一致

雷建军

主谓一致基本知识讲解:

(一)主谓一致的种类:(A、语法一致B、意义一致C、邻近一致)

(二)主谓一致的用法:

1、语法一致原则

(1)不定代词anyone, anybody, somebody, something, nobody, each, the other做主语时,谓语动词用单数。

Everything is ready.

(2)不定式短语,动名词短语,从句作主语,谓语用单数。

To work hard is necessary. Reading aloud is very important in learning a foreign language.

Whether she comes or not is of no matter.

(3)一个人身谦两种身份,谓语用单数

The professor and author is very famous.

(4)each/ every/ no +单数名词+ and each/ every/ no +单数名词作主语,谓语用单数。

No teacher and no student is allowed to break the school rules.

Every boy and every girl has the right to education. No boys and no girls are admitted.

(5)More than one, many a 作主语修饰单数可数名词时,谓语用单数。

Many a soldier was wounded in the battle.

(6)某些以复数形式出现的名词作主语时谓语用复数,如clothes, trousers, glasses, socks, stockings, shorts, arms, goods, wages等。

My trousers are being washed.

(7)关系代词,who, that, which在定语从句中作主语时,谓语与先行词保持一致。但当先行词有the only, the very修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

Those who want to go please sign their names here.

He is the only one of the two foreigners who knows Chinese.

2、意义一致原则

(1)时间、重量、距离、金钱、度量衡等作主语时,被看作一个整体,谓语用单数。

Three years is not a long time. Five thousand dollars is more than he can afford.

(2)表示学科的名词maths, physics, politics或以s结尾的表示疾病等的名词(diabetes, measles)等作主语,谓语用单数。

Politics is very interesting. Every possible means was tried to language teaching.

All available means have been tried to language teaching.

(3)表总称意义的名词如people, police, cattle作主语时,谓语用复数。

The police have looked into the murder.

(4)集体名词如family, team, group, class, crow, public, audience, government, committee作主语时,作整体看待时,谓语用单数。侧重其中个体成员时,谓语用复数。

His family are worried about him. My family is a big family.

(5)the+形容词/分词指一类人作主语时,谓语用复数。

The old need to be taken good care of.

The injured have been taken to the hospital.

3、邻近一致原则

(1)either……or, neither……nor, not only……but also, not……but, whether……or, or等作主语时,谓语与邻近的主语保持一致。

Either you or I am right.

(2)由there或here引导的句子,主语是两个或两个以上时,谓语与邻近主语一致。

There is a desk, two books and three chairs in the room.

注意:主语后接as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, but, except, besides, with, along with, together with等时,谓语不受此类短语的影响,应和这些词前面的名词保持一致。

The teacher together with his students is going there on foot.

省略

1、状语从句中的省略

在when, while, whenever, till ,as soon as, if , unless, as if, though, as, than等引导的状语从句中,若谓语有be动词,而主语又与主句主语一致或主语是it时,从句的主语和be动词常被省略。

unless (I am) invited, I won’t go to the party.

2、不定式的省略

单独使用不定式符号to,用来代替动词不定式后被省略的动词,to常在be, afraid, glad, happy, want, prefer, expect, forget, hope, intend, like, love等后边。

——Will you join in the game? ——I’d be glad to.

[注意] 如果不定式中含有be, have, have been,通常保留be, have和have been.

——Are you a sailor? ——No, but I used to be.

1、每一个努力学习他们的功课的学生都希望上学。

Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons, . (hope)

2、听音乐同阅读一样对高中生的放松是很重要的。

Listening to music, along with reading to relax, to senior students. (important)

3、绵羊和其他的温血动物一样,在冬天过着积极的生活。

Sheep, like any other warm-blooded animal in the world, in winter. (active)

4、除了经理外,所有的雇员被鼓励重视在家里的网上工作。

All the employees except the manager to

working online at home. (attach)

5、——Hey! Here is a message on my cell-phone, telling me to send money to……

删掉它,这是骗局,很多已受骗。

——Delete it! It’s a trick. Many a person by such tricks. (cheat) 6、他是不关心自己的收入和名誉的老科学家之一。

He is one of the old scientists who his personal income and fame. (care)

7、所有的成员和教练一样已经离开了比赛现场。

All the members, as well as the captain, the match scene. (leave) 8、每天妈妈似乎都忙到晚上10点,这个时候家里的其他成员已经入睡了。

Every day the mother seems to be busy until 10 o’clock at night, by which time the rest of the family . (fall)

9、她是唯一一位专心写儿童故事的女作家。

She is the only one of the woman writers who stories for children. (devote)

10、老师同一些学生一道现在正在参观那家位于学校东面的工厂。

The teacher, together with some students, located east of the school. (visit)

11、不是他的兄弟而是他的父亲惩罚了他。

It is not his brothers but his father who . (punish) 12、有一两件事我想知道。

There I’d like to know about. (thing)

13、这所学校大量的学生来自农村。

A large number of students of this school . (come)

14、说实话,她是否来无关紧要。

T o tell the truth, whether she comes or not . (matter) 15、全班正在认真听老师(讲课)。

The whole class the teacher attentively now. (listen) 16、老师和选手对胜利都没有信心。

Neither the teachers nor the player himself of victory. (confident) 17、他们安全着陆在太平洋的岛上,一切进展得比预期的好。

They landed safely on the island in the pacific. Everything went on . (expect) 18、虽然见到我们很吃惊,这个教授还是热烈欢迎我们。

, the professor gave us a warm welcome.

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