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高一定语从句专项练习题

定语从句语法归纳及练习

一、语法知识归纳

一、基本概念

(一)定语从句

在复合句中作定语,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。

(二)先行词

被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。一般情况下,定语从句紧跟先行词。但也有因各种原因定语从句与先行词被分割的现象。(三)关系代词和关系副词

定语从句的引导词。与先行词关系密切,因此紧跟先行词,并在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系代词有:

who,whom,which,that和whose,另外,as也可充当关系代词。关系代词在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。关系副词有:when,where和why。在定语从句中充当状语。

二、关系代词的用法

(一)基本用法

根据先行词的不同,和在从句中所充当的成分不同,选用不同的关系代词。如下表:

高一定语从句专项练习题

例如:(注意关系代词在定语从句中所充当的成分)

①Doyouknowtheprofessor who/thatwillgiveusaspeechnextweek?(作语)

②Ireadareportabouthisnewnovel that/whichwillsoonbepublished.(作语)

③Theplan that/whichtheyarguedabout wassettledatlast.(作语)

④Thisisthenewsecretary(who/whom/that)Iwouldliketointroducetoyou.(作语)

⑤Thesoldier whoselegswerebadlywounded wasoperatedonwithoutdelay.(作语)

注意:关系代词在定语从句中充当宾语时可以省略,充当主语时则不能。(见上例③④)

(二)关系代词that代替which的一些情况

which,that在代替物时,一般可以通用。

但在有些情况下,只用that。

⑴先行词是最高级形容词或它的前面有最高级形容词修饰时。例如:

①Thisisthebest thathasbeenusedagainstpollution.②

Englishisthemostdifficultsubject thatyouwilllearnduringtheseyears.

⑵先行词是序数词,或它前面有一个序数词时。例如:

①Thisisthelastplace(that)Iwanttovisit.②ItisthefirstAmericanmovieofthiskind that I’veeverseen.

⑶先行词是all,much,little,something,everything,anything,nothing,none等代词时。例如:

①Youshouldhandinall thatyouhave.②Wehaven’tgotmuch thatwecanofferyou.

⑷先行词前面有theonly,thevery,any,few,little,no,all,much,every等修饰时。例如:

①Theonlything thatwecando istogiveyousomemoney.

②Thelittlemoney(that)hehad wasstolen.

(三)宜用who,而不用that的一些情况

⑴先行词是one,ones,anyone时。例如:

①One whohasnothingtofearforoneself darestotellthetruth.②Don’ttellanyoneaboutthenews whooughtn’ttoknowit.

⑵先行词是those时。例如:

①Those whowerenotfitfortheirwork couldnotseethebeautifulclothesmadeofthemagiccloth.

(四)其它情况

⑴先行词既有人又有物时。例如:

①Doyouknowthethingsandpersons thattheyaretalkingabout?②

Thebikeanditsrider thathadrunoveranoldman weretakentothepolicestation.

⑵主句已有疑问词who或which时。例如:

①Whichisthebike thatyoulost?②Whoisthewoman thatwaspraisedatthemeeting?

(五)与whose有关的问题

⑴whose是代词的所有格,它既可以代人也可以代物。例如:

①Isawawoman whosebagwasstolen.②Pleaseshowmethebook whos e coverisred.

⑵当whose表示物与物的所有格关系时,亦可用ofwhich的形式。例如:

①Thebuilding whoseroofyoucanseefromhere isanewrestaurant.

→Thebuilding,theroofofwhichyoucanseefromhere,isanewrestaurant.或

→Thebuilding,ofwhichtheroofyoucanseefromhere isanewrestaurant.

三、介词前提的问题

关系代词在定语从句中充当介词宾语时,介词可以前提至关系代词前。

例如:

Haveyouseenthepen(which)Iwrotethenotewithjustnow?(which作介词with的宾语)

→Haveyouseenthepen withwhichIwrotethenotejustnow?

但是,要注意的是:

⑴介词前提后,先行词是人或物,关系代词分别只能用whom和which,而不再用that或who。

⑵介词前提后,关系代词不再能省略。

⑶有些含有介词的短语动词中的介词不能前提,如:lookfor,lookafter,takecareof等。

例如:

①错误:Whoistheoldman tothatyouweretalkingto?

正确:Whoistheoldman towhomyouweretalking?或Whoistheoldman(that/whom)youweretalkingto?

②错误:Thesearethesheep ofwhichtheboytookcare.

正确:Thesearethesheep(which/that)theboytookcareof.

四、关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句中的主谓一致

关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词在人称和数上应与先行词一致。

例如:

①Whoistheguy thatisreadingoverthere?

②Thenumberofpeople thataregoingtotheexhibition isexpectedtobeover25,000.

③Allthatneedstobedone hasbeendone.

④Heisoneofthestudents whousecomputeralotforstudy.

⑤Timmyistheonlyoneofthepupils thathasfailedtheexam.

例③中的all意为“一切”,作单数。例⑤中没通过考试的学生事实上只有一人,因此谓语动词也用单数。

that与which,who,whom的用法区别:

高一定语从句专项练习题

定语从句专项练习(1)

19.'sPalace.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.'llneverforget.

25.'llvisitnextweekisnotfarfromhere.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.''minterestedin______youhavesaid.

36.

37.'tsuchaman______heusedtobe.

38.

39.

40.'tlike______asyouread.

'retheonlyperson______I'veevermet______coulddoit. ;/B./;;/D./;who

,______Ican'tremembernow.

;;when

;;when

.

'tcometothemeeting.

'tcomewas______hewasill.

;;why

;;what

,______willmakehimpassthefinalexam.

A./

A./

---Yes,hetoldmeall_______heknew. ;;;;that

,_______hasagreateffectonmylife.

;;;;which

.

;;;;are

,heworkedasaservantattheBrowns.

./

;;what

;;that

?

定语从句专项练习(2)

,.

;;who ;;that

’shadallhismoneystolen.—Howdidyougetintouchwiththetravelagent,Robin?

—Oh,that’.

定语从句专项练习(3)

?

./

.

,isHelen______youwanttointroducemeto?

.

A./

?

’Union.

’sthedog______.

’’vebeenlooking

’’vebeentakingcarefor

’llgiveyoualesson.

,thebranches_____arealmostbare,isaveryoldone.

.

D./

.

(4)真题回顾.(2008上海)

.(2007重庆)

.(2008江西)

浙江)

;youcannotbesureofsomething_____youmightgetinthefuture .(2007安徽)

;;/;thatD./;that

,/ B./;who ,who

D./;/greaterchanceofhavingheartdiseasethanthose-

_____don’t.(2006北京)

camefromLivepool.(2006)

,wecantraveltoplaces_____wouldhavetakenourancestorsday storeach.(2006上海)

(2006重庆卷)

福建)

11.–Mom,whatdidyourdoctorsay?

-Headvisedmetolive____theairisfresher.(2006四川)江西)

’spartywasagreatsuccess.(2004全国)

,____wasEricArthur,wrotemanypoliticalnovelsandessays.( 2004全国)

,80%________aresoldabroad.(2004辽宁)