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现代竹建_还远吗_郝琳访谈_郝琳

40WA : 您的昆明 “竹屋”项目(发表在2010年《世界建筑》杂志的“低碳设计”专辑中)和四川的毕马威社区中心(本期发表的项目)是您首次将竹材运用在建筑设计中的项目吗?为什么您会选择使用这种材料,又是以这样一种创新的方式呢?郝琳:我们的设计和建造团队认为,竹子是性能极佳的可持续性建筑材料。竹子生长迅速,并且整个生命周期中都在吸收co 2。在中国南方的绝大多数省份, 都有竹子生长。竹结构在住屋的应用,为乡村房屋的建造提供了一种低碳、安全、经济可负担的解决途径,也为乡镇和农村经济的发展创造了良好的机会。而就这个村镇社区中心项目而言,其目的不仅仅是建造,还在于要在中国的欠发展地区,将公共建筑的可持续性和地域发展高度融合起来,通过充满想象力的社会、环境和社区发展计划促使一些公司、个人及慈善基金会为该区域的发展提供资金、服务和志愿者支持。

WA : 昆明 “竹屋”项目是第一个采用胶合竹建造的多层建筑。您是怎样看待这项技术今后的发展呢?将其运用在房屋建造中的优点和局限性又有哪些?郝琳:下一步要做的应该是促成在乡镇村房屋的建筑中运用竹结构的相关国家设计规范的确立。我们需要对该种材料进行进一步的测试,并且监测乡村竹屋样板房的使用性能。

竹结构的强度和美学特征都是极为独特的。竹子的大部分物理性能都优于木材(表1是经国家建筑材料检测中心检测的竹集成材性能——指标由Bamboo Era 提供)。本质上讲,竹子就是草,如果不能妥善处理,竹材也会产生和木材同样的问题,诸如虫害、潮气控制和防火问题等。原竹碳化、蒸煮以求消除其淀粉成分,是质量控制的关键。WA : 磁峰的“毕马威社区中心”是第一栋采用胶合

竹梁建造的大跨度建筑。您觉得在该建筑的实现过程中有哪些困难呢?

郝琳:在中国的建筑史上,虽然木材的使用有着悠久传统,但木构建筑在中国当下还是极为少见的。困难就在于,人们对竹/木建筑在制造和施工方面专业实践的匮乏,以及防火规范等问题。日本的竹结构专家,作为设计及建造的承包商和供应商,在工厂和工地现场监督和指导生产及施工进程,并控制质量。虽然说,榫眼和榫卯的连接技术对中国人来说并不是什么新鲜事物。

WA :你认为工程竹材可能有着和工程木材同样的发展和应用吗?

郝琳:从技术上讲,这是一样的。在房屋设计上,我们主张采用最新技术生产的约5cm×10cm (2×4英寸)的复合竹板,来建造竹屋的一、二层。房屋的结构是基于一个平台式框架而搭建的(类似于轻骨结构),这种木构建筑在澳大利亚和北美较为常见。国内大学和机构的研究人员对这种复合竹材进行了多种抽样破坏测试,包括抗拉、抗压、翘曲测试等等。工程师测量了屋体结构构件的尺寸,并参照加拿大木构建筑的建造标准设计了连接构件。房屋拥有一个采用竹制嵌口接合板搭建而成的雨幕覆盖系统。当然,我们也对竹材是否可用于建造公共建筑的大跨结构进行了潜力测试。梁柱结构的建造工艺与木构建筑是类似的,在毕马威社区中心这个项目中,我们就在梁柱体系中使用了榫卯结合的传统工艺。

WA : 竹建筑需要哪些保护措施?与木建筑有何不同?郝琳:从技术上来说,如果竹制建材投入使用前在工厂里加工和预制完善过,那么后期维护其实是和木构建筑一样的。但是竹制构件还是要尽量避免暴露在雨水中。所以我们为了更好地防护,建造了悬

挑屋顶。

WA : 您认为竹结构可能会传播到那些没有竹材使用传统的地区吗?

郝琳:从中国出口的竹制饰面板已经应用在一些重要的国际项目中了,例如RIBA 的获奖作品西班牙的巴拉哈斯机场。在美国,被称为竹集成材的材料也不算是新鲜物了。然而,相比于混凝土和钢材,竹结构的使用成本仍然需要降低,以便更好地通过性价比体现竞争力。在中国现阶段,被广泛应用于家具制造、艺术品以及竹胶合板的竹子就达上百种之多。竹材的最终强度,取决于它的品种及处理加工和制造工艺。因此,有必要对竹子的种类及制造工艺进行多样的测试,以划定适合建筑结构用竹的范围与等级。测试结果将会成为竹材使用规范的基础。至于如何制定竹材建筑的设计规范,方案是先采用木构建筑的设计规范和当前的胶合木设计规范,再根据竹子的特性做相应调整。竹示范建筑就是在现实的生活环境中测试应用规范的重要一环。经过高级行业标准反复测试及监控后,知识转让,进而大量投入生产,这将会大大降低投入成本。竹地板在公共和民用建筑中愈加广泛的应用,证明了这样路径的可行性。

WA : 从毕马威社区中心项目以及您的其他作品中,不难看出您对可持续性的关注,在这些项目中包含了哪些设计理念呢?

郝琳:我的想法是把自然和生活中原本普通的物料和物件变成具有真正意义的社会创新和独特且赋有意义的创意。永续创意引领驱动和原创,拥有可持续工艺性和环境想象力。我特别强调可持续性的建筑实践应该和那些最为基本的社会发展、经济模型和环境议程呼应起来。好的设计应该是可持续性的设计,是引发共鸣和激励人心的设计。□

现代竹建,还远吗?—— 郝琳访谈

Modern Bamboo, Still Far Away? Interview with HAO Lin

郝琳/HAO Lin

王冰 译/Translated by WANG Bing

防火级别Fire rating

B1

性能

Performance

竹集成材

reconstituted bamboo 红松 cedar 橡木 Oak 干缩系数(%)

coefficient of

Shrinkage 0.255

0.459 0.392

抗拉强度(MPa) Tensile Strength

324

98.1 153.55

抗弯强度(M Pa) Flexural Strength 364

65.3 110.03

抗压强度(MPa) compression Strength 194

32.8 62.23

甲醛释放量 Formaldehyde Emission (mg/m 3)

0.1

表1 竹集成材与木材性能对比

作者单位:欧华尔建筑都市事务所/Integer 绿色智能设计事务所收稿日期:2013-10-11

WA: One of your projects, the "bamboo House" in Kunming ( published in WA's 2010 "Low Carbon Design" issue) and the KpMG Community Centre in Sichuan (featured in this issue), are these first projects in which you used bamboo? What reasons have driven you to use this material and to do so in such an innovative way?

Lin: Our design and construction team believes that bamboo is the ultimate sustainable building material. It is fast growing and absorbs carbon dioxide during its lifetime. bamboo grows in most parts of the southern China provinces. The use of structural bamboo will provide a low carbon, safe and affordable solution for township and village housing and will generate economic opportunities for the villages. The rural community centre project is not simply about construction. It aims to incorporate sustainability in a public building and develop programme assisting companies, individuals, and charitable foundations reach out to imaginative social, environmental and community schemes in less developed areas in China with funds, services and volunteer effort.

WA: The "bamboo House" in Kunming is the first multistory building made of laminated bamboo. What developments do you see for this technology? What are the advantages and the limitations for its use in construction?

Lin: The next step is to facilitate the establishment of a Chinese National Code of practice for the Structural Use of bamboo for township and village housing. We need to conduct further testing of the material and to monitor its performance when used in a prototype village house.

The strength and aesthetic characteristics of such a bamboo structure are unique. Most of the physical material properties of bamboo are better than timber. (See comparison below-between reconstituted bamboo and timber-data supplied by bamboo Era). Technically, bamboo is grass. If not properly treated, bamboo would have the same problems as timber, problems such as fireproofing, pest and moisture control. Carbonization and the boiling of raw bamboo are key steps to removing starch from the material and are important in terms of quality control. WA: The "KpMG Center" in Cifeng is the first

building to use bamboo laminated beams over such

a long span. Did you find any difficulties during its

realization?

Lin: Although China's architectural history clearly

shows a strong tradition of using timber, timber

construction is seldom seen in China in the modern

era. The difficulties lie in the lack of expertise in

the manufacturing and construction of bamboo/

timber buildings as well as the fire code regulations.

A Japanese bamboo specialist was the design

and build contractor and supplier for the project.

He supervised the processing and quality of the

components in both the factory and on site. It is

worth noting, however, that the mortise and tenon

technique is in no way new to China.

WA: Do you think that engineered bamboo may

have the same development as engineered wood?

Lin: Technically, it should be the same. In housing

design, we have been pushing the use of the latest

technologies to produce reconstituted bamboo poles

with 2 inch by 4 inch sections in order to build the

first two story reconstituted bamboo house. The

construction of the house was based on the platform

framing method for wood construction common in

Australia and North America. In it timber is used as

structure. Researchers at local universities and research

institutes tested reconstituted bamboo samples

to the point of various kinds of failure-tension,

compression, buckling, etc. The engineers sized the

structural members of the house and designed the

connections based on the Canadian Code for Timber

Housing. The house has a bamboo rain screen cladding

system with tongue and groove bamboo panels. but,

for use in public buildings, we have also been testing

bamboo's potential as a long span structural material.

The post and beam construction method is similar to

timber construction. In the case of KpMG, we followed

a traditional technique for mortise & tenon joints and

a post and beam system.

WA: What kind of special maintenance does a

bamboo-building require? Are there significant

differences from wooden buildings?

Lin:Technically, if the bamboo material is

well treated and prefabricated in a factory, the

maintenance of a bamboo building should be the

same as a timber building. bamboo components,

wherever possible, are better not exposed to rain.

That's why we built the cantilever roof overhang-

for better protection.

WA: Do you believe that structural bamboo can be

successfully introduced in areas where there is no

tradition of using this material?

Lin: China has started to export bamboo veneer

for major international projects such as the RIbA

award winning barajas Terminal in Spain. And in

the States, the material called lamboo is not a new

phenomenon. but to compete with concrete and

steel, the cost of using bamboo as structure needs

to be reduced. It will be competitive only when it is

cost effective. There are over 100 species of bamboo

currently being used by Chinese manufacturers

of furniture, artifacts and bamboo ply. The final

strength of the material depends on the species and

the manufacturing process. It is necessary to test a

wide variety of species and manufacturing processes

to define the range that is suitable for structural

use. The result will be the foundation of a bamboo

material code. The best strategy for deriving a

design code for bamboo is to start with a code of

practice for timber and laminated timber, and then

adjust it to suit the special properties of bamboo.

The building of a prototype bamboo village house

is an important step to test the application of such

a code in a real life situation. When well tested and

monitored according to high industry standards,

knowledge transfer and mass production will follow

and will reduce the cost. In fact, the growth and

wider use of bamboo flooring in public and private

buildings proves the viability of this roadmap.

WA: In the "KpMG Center", such as in other projects

of yours, the attention to sustainability is evident.

Can you state your sustainable design philosophy?

Lin: The idea is to transform the ordinary into

something truly green, unique and meaningful. The

driver and initiative come from what we call creative

green-a strong sense of the craft of sustainability

and environmental imagination. The practice of

sustainability should respond to the fundamentals

of social development, economic viability and an

environmental agenda. Good design is sustainable

design. It is also resonant stimulating design. □

WA 2013/1241

Exploring the potentials of bamboo