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大学英语四级讲义

第三讲英语写作中常见病句现象

1. 文稿格式问题

题目的大小写和标点符号,文中标点符号,行文格式,人名/地名等专有名词。

2. 拼写问题

拼写是考生应该具备的最起码的基本功,但在考生的作文中却经常能发现很多拼写错误。有拼写错误的作文肯定会被酌情扣分,而且有大量拼写错误存在的作文不仅体现出语言基本功差,同时也直接影响内容的表达,通常会降低作文的档次。

3. 不一致问题

不一致问题主要包括数(单复数)的不一致、时态不一致、代词不一致、主谓不一致、时态/人称/数的搭配错误等。

例1. 误:When one have knowledge, he can do what he want to do.

正:Once one has knowledge, he can do what he wants (to do).

剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has ;同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致。

例2. 误:My father and my mother is all teacher. 正:My father and my mother are both teachers.

例3. 误:When I get to the station the train leave. 正:When I got to the station the train had left.

汉语动词无时态、人称和数的变化,而对英语来说,这些都至关重要。

4. 代词误用

英语中代词的形式很多,包括主格、宾格、物主代词、反身代词等。而汉语中没有主格和宾格、形容词性物主代词和名次性物主代词之分;此外汉语中很多时候不用物主代词,而英语中物主代词是不可省略的,代词的误用是考生最容易发生的错误。

例4. 误:I mother and I went to the shop to buy a present for I father.

正:My mother and I went to the shop to buy a present for my father.

5. 串句

串句,指英语写作中错把两个独立分句硬性地揉在一起而不加任何的标点符号或连词。

例5. 误:She decided to stop smoking she didn’t want to die of lung cancer.

正:She decided to stop smoking. She didn’t want to die of lung cancer.

She decided to stop smoking because (as) she didn’t want to die of lung cancer. Because (as) she

didn’t want to die of lung cancer, she decided to stop smoking.

She didn’t want to die of lung cancer, so she decided to stop smoking as.

She decided to stop smoking; she didn’t want to die of lung cancer.

例6.误:Getting married is easy, staying married is a different matter.

正:Getting married is easy, but staying married is a different matter.

Getting married is easy. However, staying married is a different matter.

Though (Although) getting married is easy, staying married is a different matter.

While getting married is easy, staying married is a different matter.

例7. 误:There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world.”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world

7. 破句

破句,又称残句/句子碎片/句子的不完整性/不完整的句子,是指将一些不能表达完整信息或独立成句的成分独立成句或出现缺少必要成分的假句子。

例8. 误:After I arrived in Chicago by bus. I checked into a room.

正:After I arrived in Chicago by bus, I checked into a room.

I checked into a room after I arrived in Chicago by bus.

例9. 误:He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes. Apparently not noticing that half the class was asleep.

正:He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes, apparently not noticing that half the class was asleep.

Apparently not noticing that half the class was asleep, he talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes.

He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes. He apparently did not notice that half the class was asleep.

例10. 误:A woman to be respected and even feared.

正:She is a woman to be respected and even feared. 或She is respected and even feared.

在英语中,词、词组、短语、从句、同位语是不能单独成句的。一旦它们单独成句便成sentence fragments。

在汉语中没有动词的句子是允许的,但英语中每个完整的句子都必须有动词来构成,如:“我累了。”这个句子没有动词作谓语,而用形容词,但英语形容词不能作谓语,一定要写成:I'm tired.

例11. 误:I happy I can come to Beijing Zoo. 正:I am happy I can come to Beijing Zoo.

例12. 误:The apples cheap. I'll take some. 正:The apples are cheap. I'll take some.

还有一些考生因为没有熟练掌握介词或者冠词的用法,不了解中英文语言习惯的不同,也会出现明显的错误,造成丢分现象。

例13. 误:Because heavy rain, we can't hold the sports meeting.

正:Because of the heavy rain, we can't hold the sports meeting.

有的考生因为对句子结构认识模糊,所以出现只写半句的现象,这也是造成失分的原因之一。

例14. 误:Many students have a hard time passing all the tests to get into college. For example, my friend in high school.

正:Many students have a hard time passing all the tests to get into college, for example, my friend in

high school. (注意for example的用法)

例15. There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on. 剖析:本句后半部分“for example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on.”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句。改为:There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV, radio and newspaper.

8. 错位修饰

错位修饰指由于位置不恰当导致修饰语不能修饰原本应该修饰的对象以致出现语义或逻辑混乱。例16. 误:The monkeys attract the visitors with strange stone faces.

正:The monkeys with strange stone faces attract the visitors.

例17. 误:The rains that the crops had needed badly damaged the roads.

正:The rains that the crops had needed damaged the roads badly.

The rains that the crops had badly needed damaged the roads.

例18. 误:He always tries to efficiently and promptly do his work.

正:He always tries to do his work efficiently and promptly.

例19. 误:He returned the lawn-mower to a neighbor that was broken.

正:He returned the lawn-mower that was broken to a neighbor.

例20. 误:I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.

析:better位置不当,应置于句末.

9. 垂悬修饰

垂悬修饰是指状语成分的逻辑主语与主句/主干的逻辑主语出现文法冲突。

例21.误:While eating my sandwich, five mosquitoes bit me.

正:While eating my sandwich, I was bitten by five mosquitoes.

While I was eating my sandwich, five mosquitoes bit me.

例22. 误:Singing, the doorbell rang.

正:(While) Singing, I heard the doorbell ringing. 或者When I was singing, the doorbell rang.

例23. 误:To play tennis well, a good racquet is needed.

正:To play tennis well, you need a good racquet.

If you want to play tennis well, a good racquet is needed.

所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清。

例24. 误:At the age of ten, my grandfather died.

析:这句中“at the age of ten”只点出十岁时,但没有说明“谁”十岁时。按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了。改为:When I was ten, my grandfather died.

例25. 误:To do well in college, good grades are essential.

析:句中不定式短语“to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚.

正:To do well in college, a student needs good grades.

10. 赘述

例26. 误:In the year 1840 the Opium War broke out. 正:In 1840 the Opium War broke out.

例27. 误:I play badminton equally as well as my brother. 正:I play badminton as well as my brother.

例28. 误:His name is called James Williams. 正:He is James Williams.

例29. 误:He returned back home after he graduated from college.

正:He returned home after he graduated from college.

例30. 误:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

析:本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”可以改为:In spite of his laziness, I like him.

例31. 误:For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

析:整个句子可以大大简化。

正:Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.

11. 转换不稳定性

例32. 误: If all we do in life is complaint, then one shouldn’t be surprised if no one likes you.

正:If all we do in life is complaint, then we shouldn’t be surprised if no one likes us.

If all you do in life is complaint, then you shouldn’t be surprised if no one likes you.

If all one does in life is complaint, then h e shouldn’t be surprised if no one likes him.

例33. 误:A driver should never race your motor without a warm-up.

正:A driver should never race his motor without a warm-up.

例34. 误:When I was in high school, you never knew what to expect.

正:When I was in high school, I never knew what to expect.

例35. 误:When one is sick, you don’ t want company.

正:When one is sick, he doesn’t want company.或者When you are sick, you don’t want company.例36. 误:The photographer was changing film when the building shudders and collapses.

正:The photographer was changing film when the building shuddered and collapsed.

例37. 误:Shirley won the first prize, while her brother was awarded the second.

正:Shirley won the first prize, while her brother won/got the second.

12. 审题不清

若文章内容不切题,则不管语言如何规范、用词如何准确,都会被判为零分。

13. 其他问题

(1)指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)

指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。例38. 误:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid. (玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。)

析:读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。

正:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

例39. 误:And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.

析:句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。

正:We can also know society by serving it ourselves.

(2)措词毛病(Troubles in Diction)

Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。

例40. 误:The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution. (农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。)

析:显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。

正:The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.

不连贯(Incoherence) 不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语,或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。例41. 误:The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.

析:The fresh water 与逗号后的it 不连贯。It 与things 在数方面不一致。

正:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

14. 综合问题

第五讲:英语写作非常技巧

一、措辞技巧

四字诀:记、套、转/换、跳。此四字诀也可以用于文法和篇章结构设计中。

记: 1、核心的、高频的、易记的单词和词组;2、常用的过渡和衔接性的词、词组和句型。利用挑选式记忆法,即对于每种逻辑关系的词、词组和句型只记最熟悉的一两种,短时间内不容易忘。

套:行文表达时一定要套用最拿手最现成最熟悉的已有模式,尤其是句式结构,你需要做的是将部分信息替换成你所需要的信息。这样,既节约时间又确保准确。

换:行文表达时,往往会碰到拿不定主意或不会表达的词、短语和句子,学会马上换辞表达。将其替换成其它的意思相同、或相近的表达,甚至打擦边球亦可,实现“曲线救国”。

跳:行文表达时,若是通过前面的几个技巧以及自己的基本功还无法表达出来,那就跳过这句表达,模糊性转换到下一句表达,不能卡死在死胡同里。但这种方法不宜用于主题句和结尾句。

二、文法技巧

抓大放小、重点突破、前后一致、清楚明了

抓大放小:语法考试不会针对偏、难、涩。学习语法就学会抓大放小,即学习一般性和常考性语法知识,放弃精细语法。检测标准就是:不妨碍阅读和写作表达即可。这样记语法知识来得快。

重点突破:英语语法分很多专题,一一牢记可能来不及,那就实行一般掌握和重点突破相结合,对象是那些常考而自己在写作中常错的语法点。

前后一致:由于作文阅卷存在主观性,那么充分抓住阅卷者的弱点。在阅卷过程中,阅卷人极易产生疲劳,所以随着进度加快加强,他们阅卷深入度越来越浅,所以在文法方面一定确保句式结构的一致性。

清楚明了:结合上述诸多原因,应试写作中只要意思表达清楚,分数一般就不会大量丢失。主旨深度和巧妙设计则成次要(别误解),主要表现在:通俗易懂、读者舒心。

三、观点表达

紧扣指令、教条行文、时刻应题

紧扣指令:英语四级考试中命题作文居多,带有指令。你行文表达时就紧扣指令,实行显性点题。

教条行文:行文中多出现表示逻辑关系的教条式表达,如过渡词、罗列词、条款词、逻辑结构提示词等,给人感觉错落有致,逻辑性强。

时刻应题:将主旨视为灯塔,你的行文始终围绕它。行文过程中,经常点题,给人感觉没有走题。尤其是你已经发现你的行文有点偏题时就必须马上回头点题。

四、篇章结构

三段论(总分总)、点题式(已讲)

三段论(总分总): 1、三大模块;2、总分总结构;3、善于用配对表达和句型

点题式:已讲,此处略。

五、其它技巧

做足表面功夫,加强基本功夫,学会模仿功夫,善于“偷窃”功夫,巧于统筹功夫。