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I. Multiple Choices: Choose one right answer from the four choices:

1. The highest mountain in Britain is ____.

A. Scafell

B. Ben Nevis

C. the Cotswolds

D. the Forth

2. The longest river in Britain is _____.

A. the Clyde

B. the Mersey

C. the Severn

D. the Thames

3. The largest lake in Britain is _____.

A. the Lough Neage

B. Windermere Water

C. Coniston Water

D. the Lake District

4. Which part of Britain is always fighting?

A. England

B. Scotland

C. Wales

D. Northem Ireland

5. The immigrants coming to Britain are mainly from _____.

A. Europe

B. the United States

C. Africa

D. the West Indies,

6. The first inhabitants 居民in Britain were _____.

A. the Normans

B. the Celts

C. the Iberians

D. the Anglo-Saxons

7. British Recorded history began with _____.

A.Roman invasion

B. the Norman Conquest

C. the Viking and Danish invasion

D. the Anglo-Saxons invasion

8. In 829, _____ actually became the overlord of all the English.

A. John

B. James I

C. Egbert

D. Henry I

9. Christmas Day ____, Duke William was crowned in Westminster Abbey.

A. 1056

B. 1066

C. 1006

D. 1060

10. Henry II was the first king of the _____ dynasty.

A. Windsor

B. Tudor

C. Malcolm

D. Plantagenet金雀花王朝

11. In 1265 ____ summoned the Great Council, which has been seen as the earliest parliament.

A. Henry III

B. the Pope

C. Barons

D. Simon de Montfort

12. The Hundred Years’ war sta rted in ____ and ended in ____, in which the English had lost all the territories of France except the French port of ____.

A. 1337, 1453, Flanders

B. 1337, 1453, Calais

C. 1346, 1453, Argencourt

D. 1346, 1453, Brest

13. The Wars of Roses lasted for _____ years and king _____ was replaced by king _____.

A.30, Richard III, Henry Tudor

B. 50, Richard III, Henry Tudor

B. C. 30, Richard I, Henry Tudor D. 50, Richard I, Henry Tudor

14. The Renaissance新民主思潮began in ____ in the early ____ century.

A. England, 14

B. England, 15

C. Italy, 14

D. Italy, 15

15. The English Civil War is also called _____.

A. the Glorious Revolution

B. the Bloody Revolution

C. the Catholic Revolution

D. the Puritan Revolution 清教徒

16. In _____, a small group of Puritans sailed from _____ in the Mayflower to be the first settlers in the North America.

A. 1620, London

B. 1620, Plymouth普利茅斯

C. 1720, London

D. 1720, Plymouth

17. In the 18th century, there appeared ____ in England, which owed a great deal to the invention of machines.

A. the Industrial Revolution

B. the Bourgeois Revolution

C. the Wars of the Roses

D. the Religious Reformation

18. English colonial 殖民地expansion began with the colonization of _____ in 1583.

A. Canada

B. Australia

C. India

D. Newfoundland

19. _____ was famous for his abdication辞职because of his marriage with a divorced American:

A. Edward VIII

B. Edward VII

C. George VI

D. George VII

20. In January _____ Britain became a member of the European Economic Community.

A. 1957

B. 1967

C. 1973

D. 1979

21. soon after _____, Britain not only gave up its econmic hegemony but also suffered a deep loss of its position of industrial leadership.

A. 1900

B. the First World War

C. t he Second World War

D. 1960

22. In the 1970s among the developed countries, Britain maintained the lowest _____ rate and the highest _____ rate.

A. inflation, growth

B. growth, inflation膨胀

C. growth, divorce

D. growth, birth

23. The following are all reasons of British decline of coal industry except _____.

A.the exhaustion of old mines

B. costly extraction

B. C. little money being invested D. the labour shortage

24. Britain’s foreign trade is mainly with _____.

A. developing countries

B. other Commonwealth countries

C. other developed countrie s


25. The House of Lords is presided over by _____.

A. the Lord Chancellor大法官

B. the Queen

C. the Archbishop of Canterbury

D. the Prime Minister

26. A General Election is held every _____ years and there are _____ members of Parliaments are elected.

A. five, 600

B. five, 650

C. five, 651

D. four, 651

27. The Prime Minister is appointed by _____ and he or she always sits in _____.

A. the Archbishop of Canterbury, the House of Commons

B. the Archbishop of Canterbury, the House of Lords

C. the Queen, the House of Commons

D. the Queen, the House of Lords

28. The ultimate 最终的authority权力for law-making resides in _____.

A. the Queen

B. the Cabinet

C. the House of Lords

D. the House of Commons 下议院

29. The sources of British law include _____.

A. statutes, common law, equity law and European Community law

B. statutes, common law and equity law

C. statutes, common law and European Community law

D. a complete code and statutes

30. In criminal trials by jury, _____ passes sentenced and _____ decide the issue of guilt or innocence.

A. the judge判官, the jury陪审团

B. the judge, the judge

C. the jury, the jury

D. the Lord Chancellor, the jury

31. ____ tries the most serious offences such as murder and robbery.

A. Magistrates’ courts

B. Youth courts

C. district courts

D. The Crown Court 英国形势法庭

32. London’s Metropolitan大都市的Police Force is under the control of _____.

A. the England secretaries

B. the Scottish Secretaries

C. Northern Ireland Secretaries

D. the Home Secretary 部长大臣

33. The National Health Service was established in the UK in _____ and based at first on _____.

A. 1948, Acts of Parliament

B. 1958, Acts of Parliament

C. 1948, the Bill of Rights

D. 1958, the Bill of Rights

34. The non-contributory social security 安全benefits include the following except _____.

A. war pension

B. child benefit

C. family credit

D. unemployment benefit

35. Except that _____ may not be a Roman Catholic, public offices are open without distinction to members of all churchs or of none.

A. the lord Chancellor总理

B. the Prime Minister

C. the Speaker

D. the ministers of all departments

36. About 90 per cent of the state secondary school population in the UK attend _____.

A. independent schools

B. junior schools

C. independent schools

D. primary schools

37. There are some ____ universities, including the Open University.

A. 900

B. 290

C. 90

D. 50

38. In Britain, children from the age of 5 to 16 can _____ by law.

A. receive completely free education

B. receive parly free education

C. receive no free education if their families are rich

D. receive no free education at all

39. With regard to its size, the USA is the _____ country in the world.

A. largest

B. second largest

C. third largest

D. fourth largest

40. In the following rivers, _____ has been called the American Ruhr. 鲁尔区

A. the Mississippi

B. the Missouri

C. the Hudson

D. the Ohio 俄亥俄州

41. Among the following rivers, _____ forms a natural boundary between Mexico and the U.S.

A. the Potomac

B. the Columbia

C. the Rio Grande River格兰德

D. the Colorado

42. All the following universities and colleges are located in New England, except _____.

A. Yale

B. Harvard

C. Oxford

D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 麻省理工学院

43. The nation’s capital city Washington D.C. and New York are located in _____.

A. the American West

B. the Great Plains

C. the Midwest

D. the Middle Atlantic States大西洋中部

44. The Midwest in America’s most important _____ area.

A. agricultural

B. industrial

C. manufacturing

D. mining in dustry

45. In the case of Brown versus Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that _____.

A. separate educational facilities had been illegal

B. educational facilities had been separate but equal

C. educational facilities had been equal

D. separate educational facilities设施were inherently unequal 内在不平等的

46. The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in _____.

A. 1882

B. 1883

C. 1900

D. 1924

47. The first immigrants 移民in American history came from ____ and ____.

A. Ireland/France

B. England/China

C. Scotland/England

D. England/Netherland

48. Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Roots are two novels which give a vivid description of the miserable life of the _____.

A. early settlers

B. Puritans

C. native Indians

D. black slaves

49. According to American historians and specialists in demography人口统计学, there are _____ great population movement in the history of the United States.

A. two

B. three

C. four

D. five

50. Many early Chinese immigrants worked in the mining industry, especially in the _____.

A. gold mines

B. silver mines

C. coal mines

D. copper mines

51. The Declaration of Independence was drafted by _____.

A. James Madison

B. Thomes Jefferson

C. Alexander Hamilton

D. George Washington

52. On July 4, 1776, _____ adopted the Declaration of Independerce.

A. the First Continental Congress

B. the Second Continental Congress 第二次大陆会议

C. the Third Continental Congress

D. the Constitutional Convention

53. The victory of _____ was the turning point of the War of Independence.

A. Saratoga

B. Gettysburg

C. Trenton

D. Yorktown

54. Ten amendments introduced by James Madison in 1789 were added to the Constitution宪法. They are knows as _____.

A. the Articles of Confederation

B. the Bill of Right

C. the Civil Rights

D. Federalist Papers

55. President Jefferson bought _____ from France and doubled the country’s territory.

A. New Mexico

B. the Louisiana Territory

C. Kansas

D. Ohio

56. The Declaration of Independence came from the theory of British philosopher _____.

A. Paul Revere

B. John Locke洛克

C. Cornwallis

D. Frederick Douglass

57. During the WWII, the Axis powers were mainly made up by __.

A. Germany, France and Japan

B. France, Japan and Britain

C. Germany, Italy and Britain

D. German, Italy and Japan

58. The Progressive Movement is a movement demanding government regulation of the _____ and _____ conditions.

A. economy/political

B. social/political

C. economy/social

D. political/cultural

59. As a result of WWI, _____ was not one of the defeated nations.

A. Germany

B. Austro-Hungary

C. Ottoman

D. Russia

60. The aim of President Roosevelt’s New Deal was to “save American _____.”

A. economy

B. politics

C. society

D. democracy 民主


II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Ceographically speaking, the north and west of Britain are __highlands_____, while the east and south-east are mostly____lowlands__.

2. Welsh is located in the __west____ of Great Britain.

3. The ancestors of the English ___Anglo-saxons___, while the Scots, Welsh and Irish the ______.celts

4. In the mid-5th century, three Teuronic tribes _Jutes_____, Saxons_____, and _Angles____ invaded Britain. Among them, the _Angles____ gave their name to English people.

5. The battle of ____Hastings___ witnessed the death of Harold in October, 106


6. Under William, the ___feudal___封建制度的system in England was completely established. 确立的

7. The property record in William’s time is known as _Domesday Book_____,土地志which was compiled in __1806___.

8. _Thomas Becket____’s grave became a place of pilgrimag e 朝拜in and beyond chaucer’s time after he was murdered.

9. __Black Death____ was the deadly bubonic plague, which reduced England’s population from four million to ___two___ million by the end of the 14th century.

10. One of the consequences of the Uprising of 1381 was the emergence 出现of a new class of __yeomen____ farmers自耕农

11. James I and his son Charles I both believed firmly in __the Divine Right of Kings____. 君权神授

12. During the Civil War, the Cavaliers 骑士supported _____the king___, while the Roundheads 国颅党supported _the Parliament______.

13. After the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell克伦威尔declared England a _commonwealth_____, later, he became ___Lords__Proctector____. 护国公

14. In 1707, the Act of ___Union____ united England and ___Scotland___.

15. The two parties originated with the Glorious Revolution were _Whigs_辉格党___ and __Tories___托利党__. The former were the forerunners先驱者of the __Liberal____ Party自由党, the latter were of the __Conservative____ party. 保守党

16. In 1765, the Scottish inventor _James watt____ produced a very efficient __steam engine___蒸汽机that could be applied to textile and other machinery.

17. After the Industrial Revolution, Britain became the “__workship____” of the world.

18. During the Second World War ___Winston churchill_____ led Britain to final victory in 1945.

19. In 1974 and 1977, the two __oil____ shock caused inflation to rise dramatically. 引人注目的

20. Natural gas was discovered in 1965 and oil in 1970 under the North Sea_______.

21. __Scotland_____ has Europe’s largest col lection of foreign owned chip factories.

22. New industries in Britain include___microprocessors___, __computer__and biotechnology__ and other high-tech industries.

23. The party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the official Opposition______, with its own leader and “___shadow___ cabinet”.影子内阁

24. The Prime Minister is appointed by __the QUEEN____, and his/her official residence is ____NO 10 Downing_.

25. There are two tiers of local government throughout England and Wales:country councils _____ and _district councils_____.

26. The criminal law in Britain presumes the _innocence____ of the accused until he has been proved guilty beyond reasonable doubt.

27. The jury usually consists of ___12____ persons in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and ___15__ persons in Scotland.

28. The ultimate court of appeal in civil cases throughout the UK is ___the HOUSE of Lords____.

29. In Britain the welfare 福利state applies mainly to _the National heathy service____, national insurance and social security______. 社会安全

30. The two established churches in Britain are _the Church of England___ and _the Church of Scotland____.

31. Education in the UK is compulsory for all between the ages of (__5,4____ in Northen Ireland) and __16___.

32. In the past children in Britain were allocated to different secondary schools on the basis of selection tests known as __eleven-plus___升学考试__, which was replaced by __comprehensive schools____综合学校.

33. Education after 16 in the UK is divided into further education_____继续进修and _high education_____.

34. The most-known universities in Britain are _Oxford____ and __Cambridge___ which date from the _12th____ and __13th___ centuries.

35. In _1959___, Alaska阿拉斯加州and Havaii became the 49th and 50th states.

36. In the Great Lakes, only _Machigan____ belongs to U.S. completely while the other four are shared with Ganada.

37. __Alaska_____ is separated from the main land by Canada.

38. The Rockies, the backbone of the North American Continent, is also known as __the continental Divide___. 美国大陆落基山脉分水岭

39. _Texas____ is the largest continental state in area in the U.S. 德克萨斯州

40. The West can be divided into three parts: the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains and _the Intermountain Basin盆地and plateau__高原__.

41. The South is the headquarters 总部of a large segment划分of the __rocket____ and ____missile___导弹_ industry.

42. New England is sometimes called the _birthplace_____ of America.

43. __Mobility__迁移率___ is considered to be one of the characteristics of the American people since one in five moves to a new home every year.

44. The first blacks were brought to north America as slaves in 1619_____.

45. The largest group of Asian-Americans are the _Chinese-Americans_____.

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. highlands, lowlands

2. west

3. Anglo-Saxons, Celts

4. Jutes, Saxons, Angles, Angles

5. Hastings

6. feudal

7. Domesday Book, 1086

8. Thomas Becket

9. Black Death, two 10. yeomen 11. the Divine Right of Kings 12. the king, the Parliament 13. Commonwealth, Lord Protector 14. Union, Scotland 15. Whigs Tories Liberal Conservative 16. James Watt steam engine 17. workship 18. Winston Churchill

19. oil 20. the North Sea 21. Scotland 22. microprocessors and computer, biotechnology 23. Opposition, shadow 24. the Queen, No. 10 Downing 25. country councils, district councils 26. innocence 27. 12, 15 28. the House of Lords 29. the National Health Service, social security 30. the Church of England, the Church of Scotland 31. 5, 4, 16 32. eleven-plus, comprehensive schools 33. further education, high education

34. Oxford, Cambridge, 12th, 13th 35. 1959 36. Lake Michigan 37. Alaska 38. the Continental Divide 39. Texas 40. the Intermountain Basin and Plateau 41. rocket/missile 42. birthplace 43. Mobility 44. 1619 45. Chinese-Americans

III. Explain the following terms.

IV. Answer briefly the following questions:

1. What do you know about the Roman invasion of Britain?

2. Why did the William the Conqueror invade England after Edward’s death?

3. What were the consequences of the Norman Conquest?

4. What were the contents and the significance of the Great Charter?

5. What do you know about the English Renaissance?

6. Why did the Restoration take place?

7. How did the “Glorious Revolution” break out? What was the significance of it?

8. What is your comment on land enclosures in England?

9. How did the English Industrial Revolution proceed?

10. What do you know about the Chartist Movement and the People’s Charter? What’s your comment on them?

11. How did the Labour Party come into being?

12. What is a constitutional monarchy? When did it begin in Britain?

13. What is the role of the Monarchy in the British government?

14. What are the main functions of Parliament?

15. Why do the criminal convicts like to be tried first before the magistrate s’ courts?

16. What does the civil courts system do?

17. What is meant by the term “welfare state” in Britain?

18. What is the most important established Church in Britain? How is it related to the Crown and linked with the State?

19. What distinguishes the Open University from all other British Universities?

20. Say something about the three immigration waves.

21. Why did the early settlers come to America? Who were the Pilgrims? Who were the Puritans? What were the features in the colonial period which had influence on later American development?

22. What were the causes of the War of Independence?

23. What was unusual about the Article of Confederation? What was the struggle at the Constitutional Convention? How was the conflict solved?

24. Why did the Civil War break out? How did the war end?

25. What were the contents of the New Deal?

26. What was the impact of the Vietnam War-on American society?

27. Who was McCarthy and what was McCarthyism?

28. What is counterculture? What are some of the forms of counterculture?

29. What are the functions of the Congress?

30. What are some of the characteristics of American education?

III. Explain the following terms.

1. the Hardian’s Wall: It was one of the two great walls built by the Romans to keep the Picts out of the area they had conquered.

2. Alfred the Great Alfred was a strong king of the wisemen. It was created by the Anglo-Saxons to advise the king. It’s the basis of the Privy Council which still exists today.

3. William the Conqueror William was Duke of Normandy. He landed his army in Oct, 1066 and defeated king Harold. Then he was crowned king of England on Christams Day the same year. He established a strong Norman government and the feudal system in England.

4. the battle of Hastings In 1066, King Edward died with no heir, the Witan chose Harold as king. William, Duke of Normandy, invaded England. On October 14, the two armies met near Hasting. After a day’s battle, Harold was killed and his army completely defeated. So this battle was very important on the way of the Roman conquest.

5. Domesday Book Under William, the feudal system was established. William sent officials to compile a property record known as Domesday Book, which completed in 108

6. It was the result of a general survey of England made in 1085. It stated the extent, value, the population, state of cultivation, and ownership of the land. It seemed to the English like the Book of doom on Judgement Day.

6. the Great Charter King John’s reign caused much discontent among t he barons. In 1215, he was forced to sign a document, known as Mangna Cara, or the Great Charter. It has 63 clauses. Though it has long been regarded as the foundation of English liberities, its spirit was the limitation of the king’s powers, keeping them within the bounds of the feudal law of the land.

7. the Hundred Years’ War It referred to the intermittent war between France and England that last from 1337 to 1453. The causes were partly territorial and partly economic. When Edward III claimed the French Crown but the French refused to recognize, the war broke out. At first the English were successful, but in the end, they were defeated and lost almost all their possessions in France. The expelling of the English was a blessing for both countries.

8. Joan of Arc She was a national heroine of France during the Hundred Years’ War. She successfully led the French to drive the English out of France.

9. the Black Death It was the deadly bubonic plague who spread through Europe in the 14th century. It swept through England without warning and any cure, and sparing no victims. It killed between half and one-third of the population of England. Thus, much land was left untended and labour was short. It caused far-reaching economic consequences.

10. the Wars of Roses They referred to the battles between the House of Lancaster and the House of York between 1455 and 1485. The former was symbolized by the red rose, and the latter by the white one. After the wars, feudalism received its death blow and the king’s powe r became supreme. Thdor monarchs ruled England and Wales for over two hundred years.

11. Bloody Mary Henry VIII’s daughter and a devout Catholic. When she became Queen, she persecuted and burnt many Protestants. So she was given the nickname “Bloody Mary”. Mary is also remembered as the monarch who lost the French port of Calais.

12. Elizabeth I One of the greatest monarchs in British history. She reigned England, Wales and Ireland for 45 years and remained single. Her reign was a time of confident English nationalism and of great achievements in literature and other arts, in exploration and in battle.

13. Oliver Cromwell The leader during the Civil War who led the New Model Army to defeat the king and condemned him to death. Then he declared England a Commonwealth and made himself Lord of Protector. He ruled England till the restoration of charles II in 1660.

14. the Bill of Rights In 1689, William and Mary accepted the Bill of Rights to be crowned jointly. The bill excluded any Roman Catholic from the succession, confirmed the principle of parliamentary supremacy and guaranteed free speech within both the two Houses. Thus the age of constitutional monarchy began.

15. Whigs and Tories It referred to the two party names which originated with the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The Whigs were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Noncomformists. The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Whigs formed a coalition with dissident Tories and became the Liberal Party. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party.

16. James Watt The Scottish inventor who produced an efficient steam engine with rotary motion that could be applied to textile and other machinery.

17. Winston Churchill Prime Minister of Britain during the Second World War. He took over Chamberlain in 1940 and received massive popular support. He led his country to final victory in 1945. He was defeated in the general election of 1945, but returned to power in 1951.

18. Agribusiness It refers to the new farming in Britain, because it’s equipped and managed like an industrial business with a set of inputs into the farm of processes which occur on the farm, and outputs or products which leave the farm. The emphasis is upon intensive farming, designes to give the maximum output of crops and animals.

19. the British Constitution There is no written constitution in the United Kingdom. The British Constitution is not set out in any single document, but made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The Judiciary determines common law and interpret statues.

20. Queen Elizabeth II The present Sovereign, born in 1926, came to the throne in 1952 and was crowned in 1953. The Queen is the symbol of the whole nation, the center of many national ceremonies and the leader of society.

21. the Opposition In the General Election, the party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the offcial Opposition, with its own leader and “shadow cabinet”. The aims of the Opposition are to contribute to the formulation of policy and legislation, to oppose government proposals, to seek amendments to government bills, and to put forward its own policies in order to win the next general election.

22. the Privy Council Formerly the chief source of executive power. It gave the Sovereign private (“privy”) advice on the government of the country. Today its role is mainly formal, advising the Sovereign to approve certain government decrees and issuing royal proclamation. Its membership is about 400.

23. common law A written law gathered from numerous decisions of the courts and other sources.

24. the jury A legal system established in England since king Henry II. The jury consists of ordinary, independent citizens summoned by the court: 12 persons in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and 15 persons in Scotland. In criminal trials by jury, the judge passes sentence but the jury decide the issue of guilt or innocence.

25. the NHS The National Health Service was established in the UK in 1948 and based first on Acts of Parliament. This Service provides for every resident a full range of medical services. It is based upon the principle that there should be full range of publicly provided services designed to help the individual stay healthy. It is now a largely free service.

26. comprehensive schools State secondary schools which take pupils without reference to ability and provide a wide-ranging secondary education for all or most of the children in a district. About 90 per cent of the state secondary school population in GB attend comprehensive school.

27. public schools Fee-paying secondary schools which are longestablished and have gained a reputation for their high academic standards, as well as their exclusive ness and snobbery. The boys’ public schools include such well-known schools as Eton and Harrow, and girls’ famous schools include Roedean. Most of the members of the British Establishment were educated at a public school.

28. the Great Lakes The Great Lakes are the most important lakes in the United States. They are Lake Superior, which is the largest fresh water lake in the world, Lake Michigan —— the only one entirely in the U.S. —— Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. They are all located between Canada and the United States except Lake Michigan.

29. New England New England is made up of six states of the North-East. They are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is sometimes called the birthplace of America.

30. baby boom “baby boom” refers to the great increase of birth rate between 1946 and 1964. People born in this period are called baby bammers.

31. the Chinese Exclusion Act It was passed by the U.S. Congress in may, 1882. It stopped Chinese immigration for ten years.

32. the Bill of Rights In 1789, James Madison introduced in the House of Representations a series of amendments which later were drafted into twelve proposed amendments and sent to the states for ratification. Ten of them were ratified in 1791 and became the first ten amendments to the Constitution —— the Bill of Rights.

33. the Emancipation Proclamation During the Civil war, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to get more support for the Union at home and abroad. It granted freedom to all slaves.

34. the Constitutional Convention In 1787, a conference was held in Philadelphia to consider what should be done to make the Articles of Confederation adequate. All the delegates agreed to revise the Articles of Confederation and draw up a new plan of government. After struggle, the Constitution was ratified at last. This conference is called the Constitutional Convertion.

35. the Progressive Movement The Progressive Movement is a movement demanding government regulation of the economy and social conditions. It spread quickly with the support of large numbers of people across the country. It was not an organized campaign with clearly defined goals.

36. the Peace Conference The Peace Conference or the Paris Conference, began on January 18, 1919. The conference was actually a conference of division of colonies of Germany, Austro-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire and the grabbing of as much as possible from the defeated nations. It was dominated by the Big Four (the United States, Britain. France, and Italy) 37. the Truman Doctrine: On March 12, 1949, President Truman put forward the Truman Doctrine in a speech to the joint session of Congress. The Truman Doctrine meant to say that the U.S. government would support any country which said it was fighting against Communism.

38. the Marshall Plan On June 5, 1947, the Secretary of State George Marshall announced the Marshall Plan, which meant that in order to protect Western Europe from possible Soviet expansion, the United States decided to offer Western European countries economic aid.

39. the New Frontier It was the President Kennedy’s program which promised civil rights for blacks, federal aid to farmers and to education, medical care for all and the abolition of poverty.

40. checks and balances:

The government is divided into three branches, the legislative, the executive and the judicial, each has part of the powers but not all the power. And each branch of government can check, or block, the actions of the other branches. The three branches a re thus in balance. This called “checks and balances”.

IV. Answer briefly the following questions.

1. What do you know about the Roman invasion of Britain? —— In 55 BC and 54 BC, Julius Caesar, a Roman general, invaded Britain twice. In AD 43, the Emperor Claudius invaded Britain successfully. For nearly 400 years Britain was under the Roman occupation, though it was never a total occupation. British recorded history begins with the Roman invasion.

2. Why did the William the Conqueror invade England after Edward’s death?—— It was said that king Edward had promised the English throne to William but the Witan chose Harold as king. So William led his army to invade England. In October 1066, during the important battle of Hastings, William defeated Harold and killed him. On Christmas Day, William was crowned king of England, thus beginning the Norman Conquest of England.

3. What were the consequences of the Norman Conquest?——The Norman Conquest of 1066 is one of the best known events in English history. It brought about many consequences. William confiscated almost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England. Relations with the Continent were opened, and civilization and commerce were extended. Norman-French culture, language, manners, and architecture were been introduced. The church was brought into closer connection with Rome, and the church courts were separated from the civil courts.

4. What were the contents and the significance of the Great Charter?—— The Great Charter, or the Magna Carta, was document signed in 1215 between the barons and king John. It had altogether 63 clauses, of which the most important contents were these: (1) no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council; (2) no freeman should be arrested, imprisoned, or deprived of his property except by the law of the land; (3) the church should possess all its rights and privileges;

(4) London and other towns should retain their ancient rights and privileges; (5) there should be the same weights and measures throughout the country. The Great Charter was a statement of the feudal and legal relationship between the Crown and the barons, a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a limitation of the powers of the king. The spirit of the Great Charter was the limitation of the powers of the king, but it has long been regarded as the foundation of English liberties.

5. What do you know about the English Renaissance?—— Renaissance was the revival of classical literature and artistic styles in European history. It began in Italy in the early 14th century and spread to England in the late 15th century. The English Renaissance had 5 characteristics: (1) English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics; (2) England as an insular country followed a course of social and

political history which was to a great extent independent of the course of history else where in Europe; (3) Owning to the great genius of the 14th century poet chaucer, the native literature was vigorous enough and experienced in assimilating foreign influences without being subjected by them; (4) English Renaissance literature is chiefly artistic, rather than philosophical and scholarly; (5) the Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England. The English Renaissance was largely literary, and achieved its finest expression in the so-called Elizabethan drama. Its finest exponents were Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, and William Shakespeare.

6. Why did the Restoration take place?—— When Oliver Cormwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwell’s gene rals occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660, and to resolve the crisis, it asked the late king’s son to return from his exile in Fran ce as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration.

7. Ho w did the “Glorious Revolution” break out? What was the significance of it? —— In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James, who was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic, He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious views. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, no any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution. William and his wife Mary were both protestants and became co-monarchs. They accepted the Bill of Rights. It’s the beg inning of the age of constitutional monarchy.

8. What is your comment on land enclosures in England?—— Agricultural enclosure became frequent in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It has good as well as bad results: (1) Farms became bigger and bigger units as the great bought up the small; (2) more vegetables, more milk and more dairy produce were consumed, and diet became more varied; (3) enclosure was a disaster for the tenants evicted from their lands by the enclosures. They were forced to look for work in towns, which rapidly became hopelessly over crowded. It also lead to mass emigration, particularly to the New World; (4) a new class hostility was introduced into rural relationships. Concentration of land in fewer hands increased the price of land and dashed the labourers’ hopes of even owning his own land. Many became wage labourers, earning low rates in spite of agriculture’s new prosperity.

9. How did the English Industrial Revolution proceed?—— The Industrial Revolution began with the texti le industry. It’s characterized by a series of inventions and improvements of machines, such as John Ray’s flying shuttle, James Hargreaves’ spinning Jenny, Richard Arkwright’s waterframe and Samuel Cropton’s mule. The Scottish inventor James Watt produced a very efficient steam engine in 1765, which could be applied to textile and other machinery. The most important element in speeding industrialization was the breakthrough in smelting iron with coke instead of charcoal in 1709. Similar developments occurred in the forging side of the iron industry which enabled iron to replace wool and stone in many sectors of the economy. Improved transporation ran parallel with production. As a result of the industrial revolution, Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”; no other country could compete with her in industrial production.

10. What do you know about the Chartist Movement and the People’s Charter? What’s your comment on them? ——The Chartist Movement was an industrial working class movement that happened in England from 1836 to 1848. In 1836 a group of skilled workers and small shopkeepers formed the London Working Men’s Association. They drew up a charter of political demands (known as the People’s Charter) in 1838, which had six points: (1) the vote for all adult males, (2) voting by secret ballot, (3) equal electoral districts, (4) abolition of property qualifications for members of Parliament, (5) payment of members of Parliament, and (6) annual Parliament, with a General Election every June. Support for these six demands was loudly voiced all over the country. Other working men formed Chartist groups throughout the country to press Parliament to accept the 6 points. But Parliament rejected them for three times. In the end, the Chartist Movement failed. It failed because of its weak and divided leadership, and its lack of coordination with trade-unionism. The working class was still immature. The

Chartist Movement, however, the first nation wide working class movement and drew attention to serious problems. The 6 points were achieved very gradually over the period of 1858-1918, although the sixth has never been practical.

11. How did the Labour Party come into being? —— As the new working class became established in the industrial towns in the late 18th century, they became aware of the power which they could possess if they acted together instead of separately. So various working class organizations were formed which brought about the formation of the Labour Party. The Labour Party had its origins in the Independent Labour Party, which was formed in January, 1893 and Led by Keir Hardie, a Scottish miner. The foundation of an effective party for labour depended on the trade unions. In 1900, representatives of trade unions, the ILP, and a number of small societies set up the Labour Representation Committee (LRC). The LRC changed its name to be Labour Party in time for the general election which was called for 1906. The Labour Party remains one of the two major parties in Britain until today.

12. What is a constitutional monarchy?When did it begin in Britain? —— A constitutional monarchy is a governmental system in which the head of State is a king or a queen who reigns but does not rule. The country is namely reigned by the Sovereign, but virtually by Hi s or Her Majesty’s Government ——a body of Ministers who are the leading members of whichever political party the electorate has voted into office, and who are responsible to Parliament. The Constitutional Monarchy in Britain began in 1689, when king William and Queen Mary jointly accepted the Bill of Rights, which guaranteed free speech within both the House of Lords and the House of Commons and constitutional monarchy, of a monarchy with power limited by Parliament began.

13. What is the role of the Monarchy in the British government?—— The sovereign is the symbol of the whole nation. In law, he/she is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the crown and the “supreme governor” of the established church of England.

14. What are the main functions of Parliament?—— The main functions of Parliament are: (1) to pass laws; (2) to provide the means of carrying on the work of government by voting for taxation; (3) to examine government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure; (4) to debate the major issues of the day.

15. Why do the criminal convicts like to be tried first before the magistrates’ courts? ——A Magistrates’ court tries summary offe nces and “either way” offences. It is open to the public and the media and usually consists of three unpaid “lay” magistrates. A magistrates’ court sits without a jury. The criminal law presumes the innocence of the accused until he has be en proved guilty beyond reasonable doubt; every possible step is taken to deny to the prosecution any advantage over the defence. No accused person has to answer the questions of the police before trials; he is not compelled to give evidence or to submit to cross-examination in court.

16. What does the civil courts system do?—— The civil courts system does the following jurisdiction: (1) actions founded upon contract and tort; (2) trust and mortgages cases; (3) actions for the recovery of land; (4) cases involving disputes between landlords and tenants; (5) admiralty cases and patent cases; and (7) divorce cases and other family matters.

17. What is meant by the term “welfare state” in Britain?—— The welfare state is a system of government by which the state provides the economic and social security of its citizens through its organization of health services, pensions and other facilities. The system is funded out of national insurance contributions and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to National Health Service (NHS), national insurance and social security.

18. What is the most important established Church in Britain? How is it related to the Crown and linked with the State? —— The most important established Church in Britain is the Church of England. It is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that church and, as “Defender of the Faith”, must promise on his or her accession to uphold it.

Church of England archbishops, bishops and deans of cathedrals are appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Church is also linked with the State through the House of Lords, in which the two archbishops (of Canterbury and York), the bishops of London, Durham and Winchester, and 21 other senior bishops of London, Durham and Winchester, and 21 other senior bishops have seats

19. What distinguishes the Open University from all other British Universities?——The Open University is non-residential university which is “open” to all to become students. It offers degree and othe r courses for adult students of all ages in Britain and other member countries of the EU. It was founded in 1969 and began its first courses in 1970. It was a combination of specially produced printed texts, correspondence tuition, television and radio broadcasts and audio/video cassettes. For some courses, there are residential schools. There is a network of study centers for contact with part-time tutors and counselors, and with fellow students.

20.Say something about the three immigration waves.——The first immigration wave began in the mid 1810s, grew steadily during the 1830s and 40s and reached the highest point in 1845. The second wave covered the period between 1860 and 1890. The third wave was the largest of the three. It happeded between 1890 and 1914.

21. Why did the early settlers come to America? Who were the Pilgrims? Who were the Puritans? What were the features in the colonial period which had influence on later American development? ——The early settlers came to America either for the opportunity to realize their dreams and better their lives or for the freedom from religious and governmental persecution. The Pilgrims were persons who suffered religious persecution in England and went to Holland and later moved to America in 1620. The Puritans were the members of a Protestant group in England who wanted to purify the Church of England. Dissatisfied and threatened in England, they saw America as a refuge and migrated to America since 1630. There were a number of features in the colonial period which had influence on later American development. They were: representative form of government, rule of law, respect of individual rights, religious tolerance and a strong spirit of individual enterprise.

22. What were the causes of the War of Independence?—— The economy in the thirteen colonies developed very fast and people wanted more power to detemine their own business. But the policy of the British government was to bring the development under control and to collect more taxes from the colonies. On April 19, 1775, on their way to Concord to seize the military supplies of the militia there, the British soldiers met armed militiamen. The shots were fired, the War of Independence began.

23. What was unusual about the Article of Confederation? What was the struggle at the Constitutional Convention? How was the conflict solved? —— The Article of Confederation was unusual in many ways. First, it provided for no king. The drafters blamed the troubles with Britain on king George III. So they decided not to have a king but to have a republic. This was revolutionary. Second, while the Articles created a central government in the form of a Congress, the emphasis was still on state powers. Third, the Articles of Confederation was a written constitution for the United States. No important country in the world at that time, including Britain, had a written constitution. At the Constitution Convertion the delegates all agreed it was impossible to try to patch up the Articles of Confederation, and decided to ignore them and draw up a new plan of government. Here contradictions emerged between the bigger states and smaller states, between the industrial commercial interests and landed interests, etc. In the end, the conflict was resolved by the “Great Compromise” of J uly 16, giving each state and equal vote in the Senate but making representation in the House reflect the size of each state’s population.

24. Why did the Civil War break out?How did the war end? —— In the early 1800s, the Northern states turned from farming to manufacturing. Black slavery soon disappeared in the North. But things were different in the South. The South expanded both its agriculture and its slavery. The problem of slavery became a serous political issue. The abolitionists tried to abolish slavery while the South tried to keep it. When Abraham Lincoln was elected President, the Southern states broke away

and formed a new nation. Then Lincoln was determined to maintain the Union and the war broke out on April 12, 1861, Lincoln realized that he could win support for the Union at home and abroad by making the war a just war against slavery. So he issued Emancipation Proclamation. Thus England and France stood by the Union’s side. Many black slaves joined the Union Army. After a series of battles, Robert Lee could no longer hold Richmond. He surrendered on April 9, 1865. The Civil War ended.

25. What were the contents of the New Deal?—— The New Deal included the following contents; (1) establishment and strengthening of government regulation and control of banking, credit and currency systems, overcoming the financial crisis and restriction of certain extreme practices of financial capital; (2) federal government management of relief and establishment of social security system such as the formation of the Civilian Conservation Crops and the setting-up of the Tennessee Valley Authority; (3) stimulation of the recover of industry and agriculture; (4) formulation and implementation of federal labour laws to raise the role of labour in the relations of production; (5) improvement of the situation of minorities and members of certain religious groups.

26. What was the impact of the Vietnam War-on American society? ——The Vietnam War had a great impact on American society. (1) The United States was weakened as a result of the long war. (2) American society had never been so divided since the Civil War. (3) There was serious disagreement with in the ruling circle. (4) The image of the United States, especially the image of the American armed forces, was discredited.

27. Who was McCarthy and what was McCarthyism? —— Joseph R. McCarthy was U.S. Senator. He started his campaign by saying on Feb. 9, 1950 that he had the names of over 200 Communists in the State Department. His campaign of accusation and anti-Communist hysteria was called McCarthyism.

28. What is counterculture? What are some of the forms of counterculture? —— Counterculture is a movement of revolt against the moral values, the aesthetic standards, the personal behavior and the social relations of conventional society. Revolutionaries became models for some people. Many young people experimented with drugs. Music, especially rock music, became the chief vehicle for the counterculture attack on the status quo.

29. What are the functions of the Congress? —— The Congress has many functions, but the most central is the passage of law. One of the most important non-legislative functions of the Congress is the power to investigate. A second important power is to compel testimony from unwilling witness and to cite for contempt of Congress witness who refuse to testify, and for perjury those who give false testimony.

30. What are some of the characteristics of American education? ——(1) Formal education in the United States consists of elementary, secondary and higher education. (2) Public educations is free and compulsory. (3) Diversity is considered to be an outstanding characteristic of American education. (4)Education is a function of the states, not the federal government.

V. Write about 150 on the following topic.

1. Why and how did the English Parliament come into being? —— After king John died in 1216, his son became Henry III. He filled the most important offices with foreigners, undertook an expensive war which ended in the loss of a large land and demanded more money to enable his son to be king of Sicily. So the barons rebelled. Under the leadership of Simon de Montfort, they defeated the king in 1264. In 1265, Simon de Montrort summoned the Great Council to meet at Westminster, together with two knights from each country and two citizens from each town. This meeting has been considered as the earliest parliament. The Great Council developed later into the Lords and the Commons known as a parliament. Both Houses were called to agree to taxation. The Commons could present petitions to the king which were the first parliamentary bills. But

Parliament only met by royal invitation. Its role was to offer advice, not to make decisions. The most important part of Parliament was the House of Lords.

2. How did the Civil Wars break out? What were the consequences of the Civil Wars? ——Charles I, also believed “the Divine Right of kings”. His prerogative rights should not be challenged by anyone. It encouraged confrontation with Parliament, whose members had become increasingly Puritan in sympathy. He managed to rule England for 11 years without Parliament. But in 1640, Charles needed money and feared the invasion of the Scots and had to call the Long Parliament. Then a whole series of measures were introduced by the Parliament limiting the authority of the Crown while increasing its own. Thus, by 1642, the king and the commons were at each other’s throats, war was inevitable. In 1642, the first Civil War broke out. By autumn 1646, Parliament held most of England and next year Charles was captured but escaped. He made a deal with the Scots who invaded England but were defeated by Cromwell. Thus was the beginning of the Second Civil War. In November 1648, the king was captured again and condemned to death. The English Civil Wars have been seen a conflict between Parliament and the king, but also as a conflict between the economic interests of the urban middle classes and the traditional economic interests of the Crown. The English Civil Wars not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.

3. Tell briefly the history of the two-party system in the United States. What are the characteristics of the two major parties in the United States today? —— Political parties are the basis of the American political system. In general, America has a two-party system. This means that two major political parties-now the Democrats and the Republicans-dominate politics at the federal, state and local levels. There have been four periods in the history of political parties in America. The first periods of the party system began with the first two major parties or camps —— the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists led by Alexander Hamilton. Most of the Anti-Federalists later accepted the Constitution with the Bill of Rights, and began to call themselves Democratic-Republican. After the 1828 election of Andrew Jackson, the Democratic-Republican Party split. The main faction, led by Andrew Jackson, called themselves the Democratic Party, while the faction opposed to Jackson formed the Whig Party in 183

4. As the struggle over slavery intensified, the majority of the Whig Party, part of the democrats, and other anti-slavery elements founded in 1854 the Republican Party. The third phase of the two-party system ran from the 1860s to the 1920s with the Republican Party dominating the political scene for most of the time. The fourth period began with Franklin D. Roosevelt’s coming into power and lasted till the 1980s. In this period, for about 50 years, with short interruptions, the Democratic Party was dominant. The Two major parties are really not very different today. But this does not mean there is not difference between them. On economic issues, the Democrats traditionally favour government intervention while the Republicans stress the role of the market more. On social issues the Democrats support a strong social security system while the Republicans oppose large government social security programs. In spite of these differences, the two parties both believe in individualism, defend capitalism and uphold private ownership of means of production. In terms of organization the two parties are actually loose political coalitions.

4. What were the causes and consequences of the War of 1812? —— The causes leading to the war were the following: (1)

A war between Britain and France was going on in Europe. First the American government adopted a policy of not allowing trading with both countries. Later the U.S. government changed its policy by stating that if any of the two countries gave up its blockade against American shipping, the U.S. world lift the prohibition. In 1811, the U.S., on the condition that France would drop its blockade against American shipping, lifted the ban. This angered the British. (2) The Americans resented the British practice of impressing or forcibly removing seamen from American ships on the grounds that they were British subjects. (3) The U.S. wanted to take advantage of the War in Europe, when Britain and France had no time to look after their interests in the New World, to expand into Canada or Spanish Florida. This harmed the interests of the British. —— The war had great impact on the development of the Unite States. Firstly, the war made people realize the importance of a strong national government. Secondly, the war strengthened the feeling of national unity and patriotism. Thirdly, for almost 10 years after the war, the Americans turned their attention to the devlopment of the western part of the continent. Fourthly, it made both Britain