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大学写作课程课后习题答案

Unit 1

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. write a focused topic sentence for the following subjects:

1) looking for jobs

A person can look for a job in several ways.

2) penguins

Penguins resemble human beings in many respects.

3) personality

One’s personality plays an important role in foreign language learning.

4) weather

Living in a place where the weather is always warm has many advantages.

4. Read the following paragraphs and write a topic sentence for each of them in the space provided.

Paragraph 1: All inventions are either basic inventions or improvements on earlier inventions. Paragraph 2: There was a serious accident in the chemistry lab yesterday.

Paragraph 3: Nutritional deficiency is a major problem of the elderly.

5. Read the following paragraphs and 1) underline the topic sentence of each paragraph, and 2) mark out the sentences that do not support the topic sentence in the paragraph.

1) topic sentences

Paragraph 1: The world had enjoyed many benefits from the invetnion of the telephone. Paragraph 2: I had a terrible morning today.

2)sentences that do not support the topic sentence in the paragraph

Paragraph 1: Many people do not like writing letters to each other. And nowadays, the Internet has brought us more convenience.

Paragraph 2: I heard that he was also very strict with his own children.

6. Pick out the topic sentence from the following group of sentences and restore the logical sequence of the others and decide where to put the topic sentence.

Topic sentence: 5) Generally speaking, there are many attractions of living in a city.

Logical sequence of the sentences: 5, 7, 4, 1, 6, 9, 8, 3, 2.

7. Put the following words and phrases in the blankets; each word and phrase can only be used once.

(1) First of all

(2) Secondly

(3) By and by

(4) In addition

(5) In short

8. Read the following paragraph and find out what techniques have been used to achieve coherence.

1) repetition of key words : junk food, students

2) use of transitional signals: for one reason, also, as a result, however

3) use of pronouns: they, their, this

Unit 2

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Here is a list of events in time order with a given topic sentence. Organize them into a coherent paragraph by using linking devices and making some necessary alternations.

Topic sentence: When I was a child, we never varied our Christmas Eve ritual.

1) , when 2) 3) As soon as 4) , 5) 6) Meanwhile, 7) Finally, 8) After 9), 10) and 11) Ad 12) , 13) Then 14) 15)

4. Restore the logical sequence of the following sentences and completer the table.

Logical sequence of the sentences:

4, 10, 5, 12, 3, 7, 15, 9, 14, 2, 11, 8, 13, 6, 1

Topic sentence: My family spent two fun-filled days at Disney World last year.

Concluding sentence: Although we were very tired at midnight, we agreed that our two-day vacation at Disney World was one of the best we had ever had.

5. Put the following words and phrases in the blanks; some can be used twice.

(1) Then (2) morning (3) afternoon (4) Then

(5) After that (6) when (7) already (8) after

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. logical sequence of the sentence:

3, 6, 1, 4, 7, 5, 2

Relationship: Primarily, the organization of the paragraph represents movement in geographical space.

4. Read the following passage and 1) underline the space signals in it; 2) discuss how effectively they help to achieve coherence.

1) in above in front of under through behind

2) The central focus is “a shocking experience.” To support the main idea, the writer uses a lot of descriptions and organizes these details according to the space relationship, and thus coherence is achieved.

5. Put the following words and phrases in the blanks; each word and phrase can only be used once.

(1) into

(2) crosses

(3) In the center of

(4) Outside

(5) inside

(6) On the front

(7) over

(8) down

(9) lined with

(10) At the rear

6. Disscuss in what order this paragraph is developed.

This paragraph is developed in a circular order, i.e. from east to north, and then to south

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Read the following passage and 1) decide in which pattern of process analysis it is organized; 2) complete the table.

1) Pattern: description with supplementary explanations.

2) the table

Steps of the process

Step 1 Wooden casks are first interconnected and then stacked in tiers.

Step 2 Young sherries are poured into the casks at the top wheras the mature sherries are drawn out of the casks at the bottom.

Step 3 Different sherries are constantly mixed up.

Result of the effort

Step 1 no

Step 2 One third of the content is drawn out of one cask in any one year.

Step 3 Special characteristics of the different sherries are maintained year after year.

4. Put the following words and phrases in the blanks; some can be used twice.

(1) with

(2) while

(3) slowly

(4) Gradually

(5) with

(6) By this time

(7) Suddenly

8) final

(9) ending

(10) applause

5. Task One

The following paragraph is written according to the type of the exclusive description of process. Work in groups to identify 1) procedures of the festival in Japan; 2) linking devices that connect these procedures.

Procedures of celebrating the festival:

Step 1: Prepare and lay out food; make the special lanterns.

Step 2: Keep dancing and singing overnight.

Step 3: Throw the food and lanterns into a river or sea.

Step 4: Watch the lanterns drifting way.

Linking words and phrases that connect these procedures:

Firstly, also, afterward, then, signals the end

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Read the following two paragraphs and 1) decide in which pattern of examplification each one is organized; 2) complete the outline for paragraph B.

1) Paragraph A follows Pattern 2, which uses one extended example to illustrate the controlling idea. Paragraph B follows Pattern 1, which uses several examples to illustrate the topic sentence.

2)The outline for paragraph B:

Topic sentence: Working in an apple plant was the worst job I ever had.

Examples:

1. First of all, the work was physically hard.

Specific details:

1) For ten hours a night, I took cartons that rolled down a metal track and stacked them onto wooden skids in a tractor trailer.

2) Each carton contained twelve 32-ounce cans or bottles of apple juice, and they were heavy.

2. The second bad feature of the job was the pay.

Specific details:

I was getting the minimum wage at that time, $1.25 an hour, plus a minimum of a nickel extra for working the night shift.

3. The worst feature of the apple plant job was the working conditions.

Specific details:

1) During work we were limited to two 10-minute breaks and an unpaid half-hour for lunch.

2) The steel floors of the trucks were like ice; the quickly penetrating cold made my feet feel like stone.

Concluding sentence: I felt humiliated by the poverty that forced me to do such a bitter job.

4. Restore the logical sequence of the following sentences and decide in which pattern of exemplification the text is written.

Logical sequence of the sentences:

3, 6, 1, 8, 2, 4, 7, 5,

Pattern: It follows Patten 1 and uses many examples to illustrate the controlling idea.

5. Put the following words and phrases in the blanks; each word and phrase can only be used once.

(1) For example

(2) Furthermore

(3) In still another instance

(4) Even

(5) his

(6) these

(7) contemporary

6. If you want to write a paragraph to prove that some of the laws in Masssachusetts seem

ridiculously funny in today’s world, pick out the effective examples you will use form among the listed seven examples.

Examples 2, 3 and 5 are relevant and specific. They are effective examples that can be used. Examples 1 and 7 are not specific, though relevant.

Examples 4 and 6 are completely irrelevant. They don’t refer to a Massachusetts law.

7. Read each group of the following examples, then write a topic sentence.

1) Topic sentence: I’ve never seen a girl as lazy as Arena.

2) Topic sentence: English teachers are applying different means to teach English language.

3) Topic sentence: Americans have been decreasing their working hours since the early 1900s.

4) Topic sentence: My father has been a generous man to his children.

Uint 6

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. To write a definition paragraph, the first step is usually to place the term in a class or category, and then describe what you think are the special features that distinguish the term from all the other members in the class. Now fill in the table by putting the terms in an appropriate category. Subject

Republic

Class: a form of government

Characteristics: in which power resides in the people (the electorate)

Wolf

Class: a large, dog-like carnivorous mammal

Characteristics: with yellowish or brownish gray and coarse fur, erect pointed ears, and a bushy tail

Jazz

Class: a style of music

Characteristics: that features improvisation and performance

persistence

Class: a kind of quality

Characteristics: not giving up even during rough times

4. Read the following definitions and discuss what problems each has and then improve them.

1) ,2) The expression “is where” and “is when” should not be used to begin the main part of a definiton. The linking verb “is” should be followed by a noun, a pronoun or an adjective. Improved: 1) A stadium is a structure or building in which sports spectaculars are held.

2) Socialism is a theory or system of community organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production, capital, land and so forth, in the community as a whole.

3) This is a circular definition, a practice of defining a term with the term itself.

Improved: Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the energy of light to produce compounds, such as sugar and starch, from a number of substances including water and carbon dioxide.

4) The subject is defined in a language equally or more complex than the original.

Improved: surreptitious means “secret.”

5) Exemplification is mistaken for definition; the examples are good for clarification, but they do not define.

Improved: Political conservatives are people who are dedicated to preserving the existing conditions, such as William F.Buckley, Jr., and Pat Robertson.

6) It is a generalization rather than a precise definiton, for the concept is defined with characteristics without being first put under a class or category.

Improved: Hearing aids are a kind of device which enables deaf people to hear sounds such as

normal speech.

5. Task One

Restore the logical sequence of the following sentences to form a well-ordered definition. Logical sequence of the sentences: 2, 1, 3, 5, 4, 6,

Task Three

Read again the sentences in the arrangement you have established and fill in the following blanks. -- The purpose of the paragraph is to explain a Spanish word which has no exact English equivalent.

-- The two main characteristics of machismo are courageous behavior and earthy sexuality.

-- Also is the transitional word that leads you from the first characteristic to the second one.

6. Following are a topic sentence and some supporting points for a paragraph that defines “rudeness.” Please plan out and write the secondary supporting details using the methods you have learned in this unit to develop the definition.

Unit 7

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Read the following passage and 1) decide in which pattern of cause and effect it is organized;

2)complete the table.

1) pattern: single effect and multiple causes.

2) causes

(1) got drunk at the party

(2) had taken the drug of Accutane

(3) adolescent depression

Effect:

Bart Jr’s suicide

4. Restore the logical sequence of the following sentences and decide in which pattern of cause and effect the text is written.

Logical sequence of the sentences:

2, 4, 1, 3, 6, 5,

Pattern of cause and effect:

single effect and multiple causes.

5.

Task one. The following paragraph is written in a cause-and-effect pattern. Work in groups to identify 1) the topic under discussion; 2) points covered in terms of cause and effect.

Topic: Society itself may be producing the distortions of personality, mental illness, and emotional instability.

1)society’s compartmentalizing

2)society’s competitive demands

3) inability to rebel

Effect

Distortions of personality, etc.

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Complete the following outlines for paragraps of classification. Keep in mind the principles of classification.

1) Topic: University Students’ Entertainment

Topic sentence: Uni versity students’ entertainment can be divided into three categories according to where it takes place.

Division:

a) entertainment at home

b) enterainment on campus

c) entertainment elsewhere

2) Topic: Roles of Young Married Women in Society

Topic sentence: The average young married woman in today’s society has her life divided into three different roles.

Division:

a) the role of life

b) the role of mother

c) the role of self

3) Topic: Neighbors

Topic sentence: Neighbors fall into three categories according to their different attitudes towards you.

Division:

a) those who are friendly

b) those who are indifferent

c) those who hate you

5. Restore the logical sequence of the following sentences and complete the outline.

Logical sequence of the sentences:

7, 3, 10, 9, 1, 5, 8 ,4, 2 ,11, 6,

Subject: Christmas gifts

Topic sentence: Christmas gifts can be divided into three groups, according to their after-Christmas fate.

Division:

a) those that are welcomed and put into use very soon

b) those that are halfway between being hated and loved

c) those that you banish as soon as possible.

Concluding sentence: By New Year’s Day, you have either used, stored or disposed of each of your Christmas gifts.

6. Put the following words and phrase in the blanks; each word and phrase can only be used once.

(1) types

(2) Though

(3) Finally

(4) however

(5) Even though

(6) Before

(7) third

(8) If

(9) Then

(10) these

Part III Follow-up exercises

3. Read the following paragraph and 1) decide in which pattern of comparison and contrast it is organized; 2) complete the table.

Pattern: point-by-point

Subject 1: Western Homes

Point:

Room function: Each room has its own function.

Table: Each home has several tables for different functions.

Door: Western homes have fixed, hinged doors.

Subject 2: Japanese Homes

Point:

Room function: One room serves all the functions.

Table: One low table serves all the purposes.

Door: Japanese homes have lightweight sliding doors.

4. Restore the logical sequence of the following sentences and decide in which pattern of comparison and contrast the text is written.

Logical sequence of the sentences:

5, 3, 6, 2, 4, 8, 7, 1

Pattern of comparison and constrast: subject by subject

5. Put the following words in the blanks; some can be used twice.

(1) similar

(2) although

(3) difference

(4) identical

(5) again

(6) while

(7) But

(8) difference

(9) consistency

(10) completely

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. The following incomplete paragraph leads you to make your own generalization. On the basis of the examples given, write a conclusion of the paragraph.

General Statement: The enormous importance of television news had started the process of change in the printed press.

5. Presenting sufficient details to develop a generalization is one of the basic concerns in paragraphing. The use of a three-level outline is usually helpful. Please complete the outline by arranging the ideas given in the box and providing supporting details.

A. Programs on TV tend to have a high level of maturity.

(1) fostering maturity at early age or hindering maturity

(2) misleading children to imitating scenes on TV

B. TV serials or dramas may oversimplify complex social and psychological problems.

(1) enjoying simple-minded soap operas and stereotyped characters

(2) giving a false picture of reality

C. Informative and cultural programs are frequently interrupted by vulgar advertising.

(1) too many commercials

(2) an insult even to the intelligence of a moron

Generalization: In brief, it is harmful and damaging for children to watch too much television.

6. Put the following words and phrases in the blanks; some can be used twice while some may not be used.

(1) Thus

(2) When

(3) also

(4) however

(5) Moreover

(6) indeed

(7) also

(8) Yet

(9) and

(10) Thus

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Analyze the following sketch and decide how the character is described.

The description centers on one trait of personality: Uncle Amo’s being ordinary and average in life.

4. Read the following passage and 1) find out how many techniques appear in it and which of them stands out; 2) complete the table.

There are obviously three methods used: comparison (1), generalization (2,4), and cause-effect (3).

The one that stands out is generalization.

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Choose some of the following subjects and turn them into thesis statements. Pay attention to

大学写作课程课后习题答案

4. Read the following composition carefully and then point out the details that are not relevant to the thesis statement.

1) For example, some people don’t like to stay at home after work.

2) I once stopped drinking for a while.

3) The world we live in is changing every day.

4) And the price of tobacco has been going up on the international market.

5) A lot of people have successfully given up smoking now.

5. Read the following composition carefully and answer the following questions.

Questions

1) What is the thesis statement? And where is it?

The thesis statement is “there are minor differences between them in three areas.” It is the second sentence in the first paragraph.

2) What is the function of each of the paragraphs in terms of organizational pattern? And what

大学写作课程课后习题答案

3) How does the composition achieve coherence?

By repetition of key words: difference, British English, American English.

By using transitional words and phrases: in terms of, in addition to, second, third, generally speaking.

6. Complete the following two tasks.

Task One

Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word or phrases.

(1) usually

(2) often

(3) Since

(4) on the other hand

(5) also

(6) but

(7) Although

Task Two

大学写作课程课后习题答案

Unit 13

Part III Follow-up Exercises

3. Tell which of the following sentences use the technique of “telling” and which use the technique of “showing” in narrating what happened.

Sentences that tell: 1, 3, 6

Sentences that show: 2, 4, 5

5. Rearrange the following sentences in a chronological order to tell a story.

Logical sequence of the sentences:

8, 3, 7, 1, 5, 9, 13, 2, 6, 12, 4, 11, 10

6. Put the following words and phrases in the blanks; change the form where necessary. Some can be used more than once.

(1) While

(2) in the morning

(3) in the evening

(4) While

(5) until

(6) while

(7) before

(8) at six o’clock

(9) As soon as

(10) Unfortunately

(11) What’s more

(12) After

(13) the next morning

(14) later

(15) Luckily

(16) until

(17) at last