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21世纪大学英语读写教程第一册Unit 5

Course Name: College English I (21st century)

Level: Band One, Undergraduate

Class hours: 8 hours

Unit Five

Objectives of the course:

Students will be able to

1.grasp the main idea and structure of the text;

2.appreciate the write and reading skills;

3.master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;

4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit.

Time Division for two-hour classes one time:

1)Revision (10 minutes)

2)Course delivery (around 70 minutes)

3)Review and assignment (5-10 minutes)

I. Revision:

1. Reviewing the previous units;

2. Reviewing what has been learnt about this unit in the course of learning it.;

2. Testing the students‘ mastery of the key language points including the writing skill;

3. Doing some dictating and having quizs.

II. Course delivery

i. Study of Text A “The Washwoman”

i) Pre-reading activities

1. Ask Ss to think about a recent quarrel and then to tell the class, their or a partner a) what the quarrel was about; b) who was the other side(s) of the quarrel; c) how it came to an end, and d) what has been learnt from the insident; and sum up Ss‘ talk and present the text by pointing out that compromise is an effective way to settle an argument.

2. Pre-reading listening

Do the listening practice concerning the compromise.

3. Pre-reading questions on P98 of Unit 5.

ii) Words and expressions:

Go through the words and expressions, paying attention to



having in mind synonyms and antonyms

word building: learn word building knowledge to enlarge vocabulary in terms of compound words, suffixes, prefixes and word roots.

compound words: see Ex VIII;

suffixes: -er and –or can be added to verbs to form agent nouns (do Exx. IX); prefixes: un-, in-, im-, il- and ir- (do Exx VIII);

word roots: (part of a word) on which other forms of that word are based,如divid, divis = to divide(分割),fin = to end (结束)

学习2个词根: divid, divis = to divide(分割),fin = to end (结束)

词根: divid, divis = to divide(分割)

●divide v. 分, 划分, 分开, 隔开,分类,分配n.分水岭,分界点

●dividend [?dividend] n. 被除数, 股息, 红利, 额外津贴, 奖金, 年息, 附赠品●division n. 分开, 分割, 区分, 除法, 公司, (军事)师, 分配, 分界线

●divisive [di‘vaisiv] a.离间的,区分的

●divisor[di‘vaiz?] n.除数,约数

●divisory a.划分的,分配的,造成意见不合的

●Text A词汇表中单词:individual a.个体的,个人的,独特的n.个体,个人(不


●individualism n.个人主义,利己主义

●individuality n.个性

●indivisible a.不可分的,不能分裂的,不能整除的n.极微量,不能分割之物

《in-=not》(in + divis + ible = not + divide + adj.)

●subdivide v.再分,细分(下面再分)《sub-=under》

●subdivisible a. 可再分的

词根fin = to end (结束)

●fine a.美好的, 优良的, 杰出的, 精美的, 杰出的, 细, 纤细, 纯粹

n. 罚款, 罚金――(指结束的东西,加以解决的东西)

晴天, 精细

vt. 罚款, 精炼, 澄清,


vi.变清, 变细

adv. <口>很好, 妙, [常用于构成复合词]细微地, 精巧地

●final n.结局, 决赛, 期末考试, <口>报纸(在一天中)最晚版a.最后的, 最终的,


●finale [fi‘na:li] n. (戏剧的)最后一场, 结局, 终了, 最后的一个乐章, 终曲

●finalize [?fain?laiz] v.完成,作最后决定

●finance n.财政, 金融, 财政学vt.供给...经费, 负担经费vi.筹措资金(支付


●financial a.财政的, 金融的

●finish n.完成, 结束, 磨光, 末道漆, 完美vt.完成, 结束, 用完, 毁掉, 使完美

vi.结束, 终结, 停止, 终止

●finite a.有限的

●finitude n.有限,限度《-itude抽象名次词尾》

●infinite [?in finit] a.无限的n.无限《in-=not》

●infinitestimal [ ?infini?tesim?l ] 无限小的,极微的n.无限小的(in + finit +

esimal = not + end + adj.)

●infinitive n.不定式a.不定式的

●infinitude n.无限

●infinity n.无穷尽,无限大,无量

●confine [n. ?k?nfain v. k?n?fain] n. 境界,界限v.限制(共有的界限)

《con- = together》

●confinement n.限制,拘留,分娩(con + fine + ment = together + end + n.)●define vt. 定义, 详细说明(定下界限)《de- = down》

●definite a.明确的

●definition n.明确,定义

●definitive a. 最后的, 确定的, 权威性的,限定的

●indefinite a.不确定的《in- = not》

●refine vt.精炼, 精制, 使文雅高尚(使再度完成) 《re- = again》

●refined a.精制的, 优雅的, 精确的

●refinement n. 精致, (言谈, 举止等的)文雅, 精巧

iii) Language points including text analysis

1.The teacher guides the students to go through the text paragraph by paragraph and

in this process the teacher may mainly focus on the key language points with examples if necessary and give students practice.

1)C o m p r o m i s e n.妥协,和解,折衷;协议,互让了结,妥协方案

vt., vi. (-mised, -mising)妥协,让步,折衷;危害;损害(名誉)


Such conduct will compromise your reputation.如此举动将会损害你的名誉。make compromise with与...妥协

compromise of principle原则上的让步

He did it without compromise of his dignity.他做这事而不损及他的尊严。compromise a lawsuit和解诉讼

compromise sb.'s reputation损害某人的名誉

compromise with a person与人和解

We can not compromise on such terms.我们不能根据这样的条件和解。

I would rather die than compromise.我宁死不妥协。


A bad compromise is better than a good lawsuit.[谚]吃亏的和解强似胜利的诉讼(指诉讼消耗时间及金钱的麻烦)。

A lean compromise is better than a fat lawsuit.[谚]吃亏的和解强似胜利的诉讼(指诉讼消耗时间及金钱的麻烦)。

be compromised by被...危害[连累]

compromise with...on在...方面同...妥协

put to compromise[废]使...受到威胁,危及(名誉、生命、财产等)

strike compromise达成妥协

2)be prepared to do (sth.) 准备好/愿意干(某事)

e.g. I‘m not prepared to listen to all his nonsense.我不愿意听他那一派胡言。

The young man is prepared to face the consequences of his dicision.


prepared a.准备好的, 精制的, 特别处理过的,愿意的

e.g. a prepared statement事先准备好的声明

I'm prepared to be friendly.我愿意和善待人。

prepared tar精制焦油

3) give way -- yield撤退, 让路, 退让, 垮掉, 倒塌, 屈服, 跌价, 让步

e.g. He said he would rather quit than give away to the unreasonable demands of his boss.

―Why do I have to give way to my brother all the time?‖ cried the little to his mother. 附:yield v.出产, 生长, 生产vi.(~to)屈服, 屈从, 放弃,投降,让步; (压得)塌下去,弯了下来;(与to连用)让位于,被…取代n.产量, 收益

e.g. I will not yield a step.我寸步不让。

The army yielded when it was attacked.当这支军队受到进攻时投降了。

The shelf is beginning to yield under that heavy weight.架子被那么大的重量压得弯了下去。

the yield per hectare[?hekta:]每公顷产量

This year's yield from the coal mine was very large.今年这煤矿产量甚丰。

4) go off –depart 离开,出发

e.g. He went off to join a rock band (摇滚乐队) at the age of 16.

The new maid (新来的女仆)was very nice and soon won the trust of the couple. Then one day, she went off with all the cash and jewelry she could get her hands on.

5) be content ――be satisfied, be happy满意,高兴

e.g. The artist seemed very much content with life on the remote island, spending most of his time painting the local people.

After a busy week, the businessman was content to relax with the family.

6) arise – begin to exist, come into being vi.(arose; arisen) 起来, 升起;兴起,出现,发生;产生, 引起, 造成(from);起身, 起立

e.g. A strong wind arose at night and the next morning, we woke up to find that the summer was finally gone.夜间起了大风,次日早晨,我们醒来发现夏季终于过去了。

Numerous problems arose as he went further into the case.当他深入探究这件事情时产生了许多的问题。

Before they could start a mist arose.在他们动身前, 起了雾。

Smoke arose from the chimney.烟从烟筒冒出来。

A new difficulty has arisen.出现了新的困难。

Accidents arise from carelessness.疏忽大意往往会引起事故的发生。

How did this quarrel arise?这场争吵是由于何种原因引起的?


arise from由...而引起, 由...而产生; 从...中产生

arise out of由...而引起, 由...而产生; 从...中产生

7)have sth. in mind---intend or want to do sth.

e.g. The kid never told anyone what he had in mind.

The elderly couple (这对上了年纪的夫妇)have in mind a New Year‘s family get-together(新年家人欢聚一堂), while their daughter has in mind a trip to Tibet(西藏) with her boyfriend.

8) call at―pay a short visit to (a place)短访,访问

e.g. He called at the headquarters of Microsoft, the computer company, while he was in Seattle.

A friend of mine called at my house yesterday.


(1) call vt. vi.



to call for help呼救

Can you hear someone calling in the neighbourhood?你能听见附近有人在喊叫吗? Someone is calling for help.有人在大声呼救。

He called out to the children and threw the ball back to the bank.他大声招呼着那些小孩,并把球抛回到岸上。

There is no call to be anxious.没有焦急的必要。

'Hello,' the young man called.'你好!'年轻人大声招呼道。

The teacher called me over to his desk in class.老师在上课时叫我到他的书桌那儿去。

Mother is calling me.母亲在喊我。

The teacher called the naughty boy out to the front of the class.老师把那调皮的男生叫出来,站在全班面前。

The mayor called the union leaders of the factories to a meeting.市长召集工厂的工会领导人开会。

Some people on the bank called out to the man in the boat, but he did not hear them.岸上的一些人对着船上的人大声叫喊,但是他没有听见。

The relatives and friends who came to say good-bye called after the departing coach.来送行的亲友跟在开动的大客车后面叫喊。

She stood at the door calling my name several times.她站在门口叫了几声我的名字。 打电话

e.g. He seems to call me this morning but I was out.早上他好象给我打过电话,但我出去了。

Call me (up) this evening, if it's convenient to you.如果方便的话,今天晚上打个电话


Please call me up this evening.请今晚给我打电话。

The office called to find out where you were this afternoon.办公室的人下午打电话来找过你。

I'll call you back soon.我会很快给你回电话的。

Call me (up) this afternoon.今天下午给我打个电话。

(常与at, in, on连用)拜访,作短暂访问(或停留)


Call in, or ring us up. It's up to you.你可以亲自来访,也可以打电话来,由你定。

Let's call in on the old granny for some minutes.我们花几分钟去看看老奶奶吧。Do you think we should call at Frank's when we go to New York?我们去纽约的时候,你看要不要去看看弗兰克?

The teacher has called to know if the students who were absent for the week have any difficulties.教师来过,问起上周缺课的同学有没有困难。

This long-distance coach calls at every stop along its journey.这趟长途汽车沿线每站都要停靠。

An old friend called on me the day before yesterday.前天一位老朋友来找过我。The retired director called on at your office yesterday.已经退休了的董事昨天到你办公室来看过你。

We can call on our former teacher tomorrow.我们明天可以去拜访过去的老师。

I was out when he called.他来访时,我正好不在。



The police were called in.警察被召来了。

Let's go to the night school together, and I'll call for you.咱们一起去夜校吧,到时候我来叫你。

In the letter he was asked to call at the station.信中说要他到警察局去一下。

He asked me to call for him at four o'clock in the afternoon.他要我下午四点钟来接他。

Many experts have been called in for advice.许多专家被请来商量对策。

The president called on the citizens to work hard for national unity.总统号召公民们为了国家的统一而努力工作。

He will call for his book tomorrow.他明天来取他的书。



His youngest son was called up in 1914.他最小的儿子在一九一四年应召入伍。You don't have to call a doctor.你不必去叫医生来。

A celebration assembly is to be called for May 4.定于五月四日召开庆祝大会。

to call a doctor请医生

The autocratic government call out the army to suppress the workers' strike.独裁政府出动了军队镇压工人罢工。

You'd better call the doctor in.你们最好请医生来。



They called the baby Helen after their beloved teacher.他们以他们敬爱的老师的名字海伦为他们的婴孩命名。

We'll call the baby David.我们给这婴儿取名大卫。

We'll call the baby James.我们将给这婴儿取名詹姆斯。



Call him if the manager doesn't wake up in time.你们经理到时醒不来,就叫醒他。Call me (up) at six tomorrow morning.明早六点叫我起床。



I don't call that a good song.我说那算不上是首好歌。

They call that an honor to their collective.他们认为那是他们集体的光荣。



It is called a clavichord [n.翼琴(钢琴的前身)].它叫击弦古钢琴。

The 'taxi' is a small Swiss aeroplane called a 'Pilatus Porter'.这辆`出租汽车'是一架小型瑞士飞机,叫`皮勒特斯.波特'。

Everyone called him a coward.大家都称他是胆小鬼。

Mark Twin was called a writer who understood boys.马克.吐温被称为了解男孩子们的作家。

Nothing can be called unknowable.没有什么事物可以认为是不可知的。

'Do you call that a hat?' I said to my wife.`你把那个叫做帽子吗?'我对妻子说。

He called himself an architect.他把他自己叫做建筑师。

Let's call it a day.今天就做到这里,收工吧。

We call it an honour to our collective that Mather got the first prize in the composition contest.我们认为玛莎在作文比赛中荣获一等奖是我们集体的光荣。

Frank Lloyd Wright did not call himself an artist.弗朗克.洛德.莱特不把他自己看成是一个艺术家。

She called me fat.她以为我很胖。


(2) call n.



a call for help呼救

The call of that bird is not very loud.那只鸟的叫声不很响亮。



He answered the call to arms.他应征入伍。

All the neighbours heard a call for help.邻居们都听到呼救声。



to make a long-distance call打长途电话

There's a call for you, Mr. Kevin.凯文先生,有你的电话。



The ministers waited for a call to the palace.部长们等候着进宫召见。

a call from the doctor医生的来访

a call on a person拜访某人



Sorry, there's no call for office workers now.


There is no call to be anxious.没有焦急的必要。

no call to be afraid没理由害怕


e.g. For this steamer, Liverpool is not a port of call.利物浦不是这条船的中途停靠口岸。

There is no call for us to adjust the price.我们无需调整价格。



give (someone) a call给某人打电话

e.g. I gave the headmaster a call but he was out.我给校长打了个电话,但他出去了。on call随时待命的;待用的;准备妥当的

The nurse is on call tonight.今夜护士随时待命

call for需要;要求;值得:

e.g. to call for bid招标

The occasion calls for a cool head.这种场合需要冷静的头脑。

call forth唤起,引起;振作起

call off取消

e.g. The meeting has been called of


call on/upon拜访, 号召;呼吁;邀请

e.g. I'll call on him tomorrow.明天我去拜访他。

call up召集,动员;使人想起(= call upon)

9) name after –以……的名字(为……)取名

e.g. There are streets named after Sun Yat-sen in many Chinese cities.中国许多城市的一些街道以孙逸仙(即孙中山先生)命名。

It is a Western custom to name a newborn baby after a family member.

10) resisit-

(1) vt.vi. keep oneself from having, doing, taking (sth.)抵抗, 反抗, 敌对, 抵御, 阻止; 忍住, 顶住

e.g. the power to resist disease抗拒疾病的能力

She could hardly resist laughing。她真忍不住要笑。

I can't resist baked apples.我顶不住烤苹果的诱惑。

(2) n.保护层,抗蚀剂,抗蚀涂层;防染剂

11)have a good/high or bad/low opinion of –think well/badly of 对……评价高/低/好/不好


The critics have a low opinion of that book, even though it‘s a best-seller.尽管那书畅销,但评论家对它评价很低。

The boss seems to have very good opinion of the new secretary.老板似乎对新来的秘书评价很好。

12) snobbish---like a snob势利的

snob n. 假绅士, 势利眼, 假内行;[学俚]街坊; [英方]不参加罢工的工人, 工贼;[古]身分低贱[无教养]的人; 鞋匠

e.g. snob appeal商品对势利顾客的吸引力(如高档, 罕见, 外国产)

a musical snob自以为懂得音乐的人

He is a frightful snob 他是个令人讨厌的势利眼--- if you haven‘t been to the right school he probably won‘t even speak to you.

I‘m afraid I‘m a bit of a snob where wine is concerned.关于葡萄酒我恐怕有点外行。

13) I‘ve always liked the names Johann Sebastian.

Johann Sebastian is the given name of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), one of thegreatest composers in the history of Western classical music.约翰.塞巴斯蒂安是约翰.塞巴斯蒂安.巴赫的名,他是西方古典音乐史上最伟大的作曲家之一.


14)There are such lovely names for girls --- Heather, Rosemary, Lily, Fern, Daisy. Heather, rosemary, lily, fern and daisy are plant or flower names commonly used as female names.

15)sort out –(1)organize or tidy整理好,分类


(3)解决,整顿;惩罚, 打败;[和反身代词连用]解决...之间的问题, (使)恢复正常

e.g. sort out from把...从...挑出来

sort well with sth.同某物相称, 同某物协调

I takes at least a half hour to sort out these papers.整理好这些文件至少要化半小时。

I must sort things out first and then make a decision.我必须理清头绪然后作出决定。The mother is helping the baby sort out colors.母亲在帮小宝宝将颜色归类。

My job is to sort out the eggs according to size.我的工作是按大小将蛋分类。

16)And so it was that my nephew was named Robert…---For this reason or in this way, my nephew was named Robert.结果我的侄子被命名为罗伯特.威廉.劳伦斯。

2. Let the students go through the whole text quickly again to try to understand the

main idea of the text and grasp the structure of the text and do the reading analysis and structured writing.

1) ask one student (or more, if necessary) to tell what the text is mainly about. (do exercises II , III & IV);

2)draw the students‘ attention to the structure of the text;

3)ask the students to write a paragraph in which Ted and Mary make a compromise.

Ask the students to do EXX XV & XVI (Pages 108-109).

3. After finishing explaining the whole text, the teacher may go on to deal with the following aspect the students need to master:

Sentence structures

Learn to use such structures as ―What a pity…‖,―while(而)‖and ―that‘s where/when/how/why/what‖.

iv) Post-reading activities:

1) Ask the students to try to learn the text by heart for as much English input as possible.

2) Watch an act of ―Family Album, USA‖ or some other short English show or flash if times permits after the designated classwork has been finished and carry out listening and speaking activities.

ii. Study of Text B and Text C

On the basis of the reading before class, use:

i) Text B for extensive reading

The teacher guide the students to go through the text quickly with the a/m steps covered.

Text-related information


The Internal Revenue([?revinju:]n.收入, 国家的收入, 税收) Service (IRS) is the bureau(n.办公桌, 衣柜; 此:<美>局, 办公署) of the U.S. government which is responsible for collecting individual and corporate income taxes. The IRS has a reputation for insensitivity and harsh punishments, and most Americans fear being called in for an audit (a thorough examination of the accuracy of their financial

records and tax payments).


harsh a. 刺耳的,刺眼的,涩口的, 粗糙的; 严厉的,残酷的,无情的

e.g. a harsh voice刺耳的声音

harsh weather令人难受的天气

a harsh punishment严厉的惩罚

audit n.审计, 稽核, 查帐vt.稽核, 旁听vi.查账

call in 召集, 召来, 来访

●The language points are to be explained as follows:

(1) She seemed to be falling further and further behind—It seemed that there was an increasing amount of work waiting to be done (in spite of her effort).她似乎愈来愈滞后了。

fall behind 落后; 跟不上; 拖欠

(2)I was tempted to let loose with … -- I was about to express my displeasure by saying…我真忍不住想回敬她…

tempt vt.引诱, 诱惑, 引起(食欲等);吸引, 使发生兴趣;冒...的风险;[古]尝试, 考验; [古]蔑视; 激怒

e.g. tempt providence冒大险;作不必要的冒险

never to be tempted off the straight path决不被引入歧途

tempt sb. to steal诱人偷窃

tempt the storm冒着暴风雨的危险

tempt fate [fortune]蔑视命运; 冒险

tempt providence冒大险

I am tempted to question this.我很想问问这件事。

Can't I tempt you to have another helping?再吃一点好吗?


temptability n.可诱惑性

temptable a.易被引诱的, 可诱惑的

tempter n.诱惑者, 诱惑物

[the Tempt ]魔鬼

let loose: speak or act freely释放,放出,放任


She let loose her indignation.她将愤慨之情发泄了出来。

Suddenly he let loose a torrent (n.急流, 奔流, 洪流;连续不断; 滔滔不绝)of abuse (n.滥用, 虐待, 辱骂, 陋习, 弊端v.滥用, 虐待, 辱骂。此作名词。).突然他发出了连珠炮般的谩骂。

(3)Instead I held my tongue and asked myself a question I often raise when I‘m on the brink of an argument:…--- Instead of expressing my displeasure, I remained silent and asked myself a question I often ask when I am about to argue with someone else.不过我还是忍住了,问了自己一个问题—是我眼看要与人发生口角的当口常常自问的一个问题:……

hold one‘s tongue – (old-fashioned)stop talking, be silent停止谈话,保持沉默e.g.

George had learned to accept these little insults. He held his tongue.乔治已经学会忍受这些小小的侮辱。他保持沉默。

The secret is out now, and all because someone could not hold his tongue.这个秘密现已传出去了,都是因为有人不能保持沉默。

Other expressions of ―tongue‖其他有关“tongue”的表达语:

a slip of the tongue口误

on the brink of – in a situation where something bad is going to happen very soon 濒于

e.g. The two countries are on the brink of war.这两个国家濒临战争。

His business is on the brink of ruin.他的生意处于破产边缘。

(4)Realizing then how overwhelmed she must have felt, I asked, ―Has it been one of those days?‖–When I realized how helpless and discontented she must have felt when she blurted out her complaint, I asked if anything went wrong.我意识到她一定时筋疲力尽了,我问道:“是不是今天很不顺利?”

overwhelm ---overcome completely, greatly affect the emotions of (sb.)完全压倒,倾覆, 覆盖, 淹没;制服; 使不安, 使窘, 不知所措

e.g. be overwhelmed by grief伤心已极

The boat was overwhelmed by the waves.船被浪打翻了。

Your kindness quite overwhelms me.你的好意使我感激难言。

one of those days倒霉的一天

It‘s just been one of those days.这真是倒霉的一天。

I lost my purse in town, missed the bus, and got soaked walking home; it‘s been one of those days.我在城里丢了钱包,错过了公共汽车,回家时淋湿了;这是倒霉的一天。

(5)Her hostility melted.她的敌意/不悦之色消失了。

hostility n.敌意, 敌视; 敌对;反对[抗]; 抵抗;[pl.]战争(状态), 战斗

e.g. feelings of hostility敌意

open [suspend] hostilities开[停]战


hostile a. (to) 敌方的,有敌意的,不友好的n.[美]【史】敌视白人的印第安人


e.g. Ever since I got better marks than Parker, he has been hostile to me.自从我比派克得分高以后,他就对我不友好了。


hostile feeling敌意

a hostile look显出敌意的面色

hostile to reform反对改革

melt vt., vi.(melted, molten, melting)融化,熔化;软化(人的心肠或态度)消失;使消失

e.g. Iron will melt when it is made very hot.当铁烧得很热时就会熔化的。

The snow on top of the mountains melted away under the sun.山顶上的雪在阳光下融化了。

The crowd melted away.人群散去了。

The fog soon melted in the morning sun."在早晨阳光下,雾很快消散了。"


melt in the mouth入口即化

melt down熔化;彻底垮台

(6)She continued to unburden herself as she packed our ice-cream.她一边给我们装冰激凌,一边把满肚子的委屈倾吐了出来。

unburden vt.(常与to连用)解除(负担);卸下;解脱;释负

unburdened a.不受累的, 无牵累的

e.g. unburden oneself to sb.对别人倾诉自己的心事

unburden one's resentment against sb.


He‘ll unburden himself to anyone who‘ll listen.他会对任何愿意听的人倾诉他的心事。

(7)It‘s natural to take offence…――It‘s natural to get angry…自然会生气

take offence 生气


She takes offence too easily.她太容易生气了。

He took great offence at your refusal to help…你拒绝帮助使他很生气。

(8) But blurting out how you feel will only make matters worse.但脱口而出你的感受只会使事情变得更糟。

blurt out 脱口而出,突然说出

e.g. John blurted out the bad news before I could stop him.我还没来得及阻止,约翰已将坏消息脱口说出了。

Just before he left to board his plane she suddenly blurted out, ―I love you!‖就在他要起身去登机时,她突然脱口而出:“我爱你!”

to make matters worse使事情更糟

e.g. Three of our players were ill, and to make matters worse, our main scorer had

broken his ankles.我们三个队员病了,更糟糕的是,我们的主要得分手踝关节骨折。

This rain has made driving dangerous and to make matters worse there is now thick fog in the area.这场雨使得行车很危险,更糟糕的是现在这个地区有浓雾。

(9)… there are ways you can stand up for yourself without starting an argument. -- …there are ways you can defend yourself when being criticized without starting an argument.有些方法可以让你维护了自己的利益,又不致引发争吵。

stand up for– defend (sth.) that you believe is importand (e.g. principle, right); defend (a person) who is being criticized支持,维护,保卫

e.g. She always stands up for what she believes in.她总是维护她所信奉的东西。The Prime Minister has promised to stand up for British interests abroad.首相答应维护英国在国外的利益。

(10)Tongue Fu– The title of a book written by Sam Horn. Tongue Fu, derived from Chinese ―Gong Fu‖ or martial art, means the martial arts for the mind and mouth. It‘s a constructive alternative to giving a tongue-lashing (n.斥责, 谴责)or being tongue-tied (a.[医]舌头短的,张口结舌的;讲不出话的). Tongue Fu techniques will help us to be more effective at delivering (deliver v. 讲述, 诉说, 吐露)results (n.结果, 成效, 计算结果vi.起因, 由于, 以...为结果, 导致。此指讲话的效果。)and positive and constructive in our communication. They will help us build rapport (n.和谐, 亲善)instead of resentment and better our relationships with others.口舌功夫-是Sam Horn写的一本书的书名,该名取自于中国的“功夫”或武术,意思是指用于脑和嘴巴的武术。它是斥责、谴责和张口结舌的具有建设性的代名词。口舌功夫技巧会有助于我们使讲话的效果更好和在交流上更加积极和富有建设性。他们会帮助我们与他人和谐相处而不是彼此怨恨,并有利于改善我们与他人的关系。

Critical success factors for using Tongue Fu include:成功运用口舌功夫的关键因素包括:

Choose a positive attitude!采取一种积极的态度!

We can‘t change people. We can change our response to them.我们不可能改变别人。我们可以改变我们对他们的回答。

Learning to respond, rather than react or ignore, takes practice! Start today!学会回答,而不是作出反应或忽略他人感受,这需要练习!从今天开始!

Goal: To create light, not heat.目标:发光,但不发热(此heat指感情激动) Always keep your sense of humor.永远保持你的幽默感。

(11)lose one‘s temper – get angry, lose control over one‘s anger 发怒,发脾气,发火,生气

e.g. John lost his temper when Mary began crying.玛丽开始哭时约翰发脾气了。“Stop it,‖ Ann shouted at the children, trying not to lose her temper.


temper n.(钢等)韧度, 回火, 性情, 脾气, 情绪, 心情, 调剂, 趋向

v.(冶金)回火、锻炼, 调和, 调节


keep one‘s temper – succeed in staying calm and not becoming angry忍耐,忍住气,不发火

e.g. I found it hard to keep my temper with so many things going wrong.有这么多事出错了我发现很难忍住不发火。

be in a bad/foul temper – be feeling angry在发火/生气/闹情绪,心情不好/糟糕 fly into a temper勃然大怒(= get into a temper)

out of temper发火;动怒

(12)comic strips that poke fun at the IRS --- comic strips make fun of the IRS取笑国内收入署/国税局的漫画

poke fun at – make fun of, mock or ridicule取笑,嘲笑

e.g. Jack enjoys poking fun at others.杰克喜欢嘲笑他人。

Some of the kids were poking fun at Judy because of the way she dressed.一些孩子因朱蒂穿的那个样子而在取笑她。

Bill‘s always poking fun at people but he gets very angry when someone makes fun of


(13)change for the better – improve, get better, esp. in health, the weather, etc.好转,向好的方面发展

e.g. Her attitude has definitely changed for the better since she started his new job.自从她开始干新的工作以来,她的态度的确好转了。

Dr. Smith doesn‘t think that things have changed for the better since the new government came to power.史密斯博士认为自从新政府上台以来情况并没好转。

(14)launch into – start doing or saying (sth.) in a very enthusiastic way开始满怀热情地做或说某事,投入, 进入

e.g. He launched into his usual long speech about industry and the environment.他开始发表他惯常的关于工业和环境的长篇大论。

He launched into a long series of excuses for his behavior.他开始说出一长串的理由为他的行为辩解。

(15)they come across as excuses – they sound like (appear to be ) excuses听起来更像借口

come across as – appear to be 看上去似乎是

e.g. Mary came across as being an extremely intelligent woman.玛丽看上去似乎是极其聪明的妇女。

He comes across as being rather nervous.他看上去似乎相当紧张。

On television she comes across as a kind woman but in reality she‘s not friendly.在电视上她看上去似乎是个和蔼的妇女,但实际上她不友好。

(16)Agree to disagree – agree to differ; accept differences of opinion, esp. in order to avoid further argument同意各自保留意见,求同存异

If two people agree to disagress/differ, they accept that they have different opinions about something and stop trying to persuade each other that they are right. Its Chinese equivalent is ―求同存异‖.

e.g. Very well then, we must agree to differ/disagree.那么很好,我们必须求同存异


We must agree to differ on this.就此我们必须求同存异了。

(17)the highway construction was stalled again – the highway construction was put off again公路建设又延期/推迟了

stall n.货摊, 畜栏, 厩, 出售摊;小隔间;教堂里的座位;牧师席位; (pl) 正厅前排座位v.(使)停转, (使)停止, 迟延;把(牲畜)关入畜舍中; 在畜舍中饲肥

e.g. a fruit stall水果摊

a shower stall淋浴分隔间

stall a horse叫马入厩

The engine stalled.这引擎不动了。

(18) commuting to work – traveling every day between home and one‘s place of work 每天在家和工作地点之间往返上下班

commute vt., vi. (-muted, -muting) 减刑; 交换;折算;每天(乘火车)往返上班;定期往返于两地间, 往返的路程, 购买或使用长期车票;补偿

e.g. commute between home and office上下班来往通勤

commute between London and New York定期往返于伦敦纽约间

about an hour's commute from the university离大学一小时左右的汽车路程

The governor commuted the prisoner's sentence of death to one of life imprisonment.州长将这囚犯的死刑减为无期徒刑。

Miners commute between the mines and their housing estates on weekdays.矿工们在工作日每天乘火车上下班来往于矿区和住宅区之间。

She, as a consultant, commutes from Cambridge to London every day.她作为顾问每天乘火车上下班来往于剑桥和伦敦之间。

commute foreign money to domestic把外币兑成本国货币

commute comfort for hardship以逸代劳

commute imprisonment into a fine以罚款代监禁

(19) a necessary evil – sth. you do not like doing but which you know must be done,