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微观经济学曼昆第七版答案

微观经济学曼昆第七版答案

【篇一:曼昆微观经济学英文版本答案】

a family deciding whether to buy a new car faces a tradeoff between the cost of the car and other things they might want

to buy. for example, buying the car might mean they must give up going on vacation for the next two years. so the real cost of the car is the familys opportunity cost in terms of what they must give up.

b. for a member of congress deciding whether to increase spending on national parks, the tradeoff is between parks and other spending items or tax cuts. if more money goes into the park system, that may mean less spending on national defense or on the police force. or, instead of spending more money on the park system, taxes could be reduced.

c. when a company president decides whether to open a new factory, the decision is based on whether the new factory will increase the firms profits compared to other alternatives. for example, the company could upgrade existing equipment or expand existing factories. the bottom line is: which method of expanding production will increase profit the most?

d. in deciding how much to prepare for class, a professor faces a tradeoff between the value of improving the quality of the lecture compared to other things she could do with her time, such as working on additional research.

2. when the benefits of something are psychological, such as going on a vacation, it isnt easy to compare benefits to costs to determine if its worth doing. but there are two ways to think about the benefits. one is to compare the vacation with what you would do in its place. if you didnt go on vacation, would you buy something like a new set of golf clubs? then you can decide if youd rather have the new clubs or the vacation. a second way is to think about how much work you had to do to earn the money to pay for the vacation; then you can decide if the psychological benefits of the vacation were worth the psychological cost of working.

3. if you are thinking of going skiing instead of working at your part-time job, the cost of skiing includes its monetary and time costs, which includes the opportunity cost of the wages

you are giving up by not working. if the choice is between skiing and going to the library to study, then the cost of skiing is its monetary and time costs including the cost to you of getting a lower grade in your course.

4. if you spend $100 now instead of saving it for a year and earning 5 percent interest, you are giving up the opportunity to spend $105 a year from now. the idea that money has a time value is the basis for the field of finance, the subfield of economics that has to do with prices of financial instruments like stocks and bonds.

5. the fact that youve already sunk $5 million isnt relevant to your decision anymore, since that money is gone. what matters now is the chance to earn profits at the margin. if you spend another $1 million and can generate sales of $3 million, youll earn $2 million in marginal profit, so you should do so. you are right to think that the project has lost a total of $3 million ($6 million in costs and only $3 million in revenue) and you shouldnt have started it. thats true, but if you dont spend the additional $1 million, you wont have any sales and your losses will be $5 million. so what matters is not the total profit, but the profit you can earn at the margin. in fact, youd pay up to $3 million to complete development; any more than that, and you wont be increasing profit at the margin.

6. harry suggests looking at whether productivity would rise

or fall. productivity is certainly important, since the more productive workers are, the lower the cost per gallon of potion. ron wants to look at average cost. but both harry and ron are missing the other side of the equation?revenue. a firm wants to maximize its profits, so it needs to examine both costs and revenues. thus, hermione is right?it’s best to examine whether the extra revenue would exceed the extra costs. hermione is the only one who is thinking at the margin.

7. a. the provision of social security benefits lowers an individual’s incentive t o save for retirement. the benefits provide some level of income to the individual when he or she retires. this means that the individual is not entirely dependent on savings to support consumption through the years in retirement.

b. since a person gets fewer after-tax social security benefits the greater is his or her earnings, there is an incentive not to

work (or not work as much) after age 65. the more you work, the lower your after-tax social security benefits will be. thus the taxation of social security benefits discourages work effort after age 65.

1

8. a. when welfare recipients who are able to work have their benefits cut off after two years, they have greater incentive to find jobs than if their benefits were to last forever.

b. the loss of benefits means that someone who cant find a

job will get no income at all, so the distribution of income will become less equal. but the economy will be more efficient, since welfare recipients have a greater incentive to find jobs. thus the change in the law is one that increases efficiency but reduces equity.

9. by specializing in each task, you and your roommate can finish the chores more quickly. if you divided each task equally, it would take you more time to cook than it would take your roommate, and it would take him more time to clean than it would take you. by specializing, you reduce the total time spent on chores.

10. a. being a central planner is tough! to produce the right number of cds by the right artists and deliver them to the right people requires an enormous amount of information. you

need to know about production techniques and costs in the cd industry. you need to know each persons musical tastes and which artists they want to hear. if you make the wrong decisions, youll be producing too many cds by artists that people dont want to hear, and not enough by others.

b. your decisions about how many cds to produce carry over

to other decisions. you have to make the right number of cd players for people to use. if you make too many cds and not enough cassette tapes, people with cassette players will be stuck with cds they cant play. the probability of making mistakes is very high. you will also be faced with tough choices about the music

industry compared to other parts of the economy. if you produce more sports equipment, youll have fewer resources

for making cds. so all decisions about the economy influence your decisions about cd production.

11. a. efficiency: the market failure comes from the monopoly by the cable tv firm.

b. equity

c. efficiency: an externality arises because secondhand smoke harms nonsmokers.

d. efficiency: the market failure occurs because of standard oils monopoly power.

e. equity

f. efficiency: there is an externality because of accidents caused by drunk drivers.

12. a. if everyone were guaranteed the best health care possible, much more of our nations output would be devoted to medical care than is now the case. would that be efficient? if you think that currently doctors form a monopoly and restrict health care to keep their incomes high, you might think efficiency would increase by providing more health care. but more likely, if the government mandated increased spending on health care, the economy would be less efficient because it would give people more health care than they would choose to pay for. from the point of view of equity, if poor people are less likely to have adequate health care, providing more health care would represent an improvement. each person would have a more even slice of the economic pie, though the pie would consist of more health care and less of other goods.

b. when workers are laid off, equity considerations argue for the unemployment benefits system to provide them with some income until they can find new jobs. after all, no one plans to be laid off, so unemployment benefits are a form of insurance. but there’s an efficiency problem?why work if you can get income for doing nothing? the economy isn’t operating efficiently if people remain unemployed for a long time, and unemployment benefits encourage unemployment. thus, there’s a tradeoff between equity and efficiency. the more generous are unemployment benefits, the less income is lost by an unemployed person, but the more that person is encouraged to remain unemployed. so greater equity reduces efficiency.

13. since average income in the united states has roughly doubled every 35 years, we are likely to have a better standard of living than our parents, and a much better standard of living than our grandparents. this is mainly the result of increased productivity, so that an hour of work produces more goods

and services than it used to. thus incomes have continuously risen over time, as has

the standard of living.

14. if americans save more and it leads to more spending on factories, there will be an increase in production and productivity, since the same number of workers will have more equipment to work with. the benefits from higher productivity will go to both the workers, who will get paid more since theyre producing more, and the factory owners, who will get a return on their investments. there is no such thing as a free lunch, however, because when people save more, they are giving up spending. they get higher incomes at the cost of buying fewer goods.

15. a. if people have more money, they are probably going to spend more on goods and services.

b. if prices are sticky, and people spend more on goods and services, then output may increase, as producers increase output to meet the higher demand rather than raising prices.

c. if prices can adjust, then the higher spending of consumers will be matched with increased prices and output wont rise.

16. to make an intelligent decision about whether to reduce inflation, a policymaker would need to know what causes inflation and unemployment, as well as what determines the tradeoff between them. any attempt to reduce inflation will likely lead to higher unemployment in the short run. a policymaker thus faces a tradeoff between the benefits of lower inflation compared to the cost of higher unemployment. ch2

1. economics is like a science because economists use the scientific method. they devise theories, collect data, and then analyze these data in an attempt to verify or refute their theories about how the world works. economists use theory and observation like other scientists, but they are limited in their ability to run controlled experiments. instead, they must rely on natural experiments.

2. economists make assumptions to simplify problems without substantially affecting the answer. assumptions can make the world easier to understand.

3. an economic model cannot describe reality exactly because it would be too complicated to understand. a model

is a simplification that allows the economist to see what is truly important.

4. figure 3 shows a production possibilities frontier between milk and cookies (ppf1). if a disease kills half of the economys cow population, less milk production is possible, so the ppf shifts inward (ppf2). note that if the economy produces all cookies, so it doesnt need any cows, then production is unaffected. but if the economy produces any milk at all, then there will be less production possible after the disease hits. figure 3

5. the idea of efficiency is that an outcome is efficient if the economy is getting all it can from the scarce resources it has available.

in terms of the production possibilities frontier, an efficient point is a point on the frontier, such as point a in figure 4. a point inside the frontier, such as point b, is inefficient since more of one good could be produced without reducing the production of another good.

6. the two subfields in economics are microeconomics and macroeconomics. microeconomics is the study of how households and firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets. macroeconomics is the study of economy-wide phenomena.

7. positive statements are descriptive and make a claim about how the world is, while normative statements are prescriptive and make a claim about how the world ought to be. here is an example. positive: a rapid growth rate of money is the cause of inflation. normative: the government should keep the growth rate of money low.

8. the council of economic advisers is a group of economists who consult with the president of the united states about economic matters. the council consists of three members and a staff of several dozen economists. it writes the annual economic report of the president.

9. economists sometimes offer conflicting advice to policymakers for two reasons: (1) economists may disagree about the validity of alternative positive theories about how the world works; and (2) economists may have different values and, therefore, different normative views about what public policy should try to accomplish.

ch3

1. in the text example of the farmer and the rancher, the farmers opportunity cost of producing one ounce of meat is 4 ounces of potatoes because for every 8 hours of work, he can produce 8 ounces of meat or 32 ounces of potatoes. with limited time at his disposal, producing an ounce of meat means he gives up the opportunity to produce 4 ounces of potatoes. similarly, the ranchers opportunity cost of producing one ounce of meat is 2 ounces of potatoes because for every 8 hours of work, she can produce 24 ounces of meat or 48 ounces of potatoes. with limited time at her disposal, producing an ounce of meat means she gives up the opportunity to produce 2 ounces of potatoes.

2. a. see figure 2. if maria spends all five hours studying economics, she can read 100 pages, so that is the vertical intercept of the production possibilities frontier. if she spends all five hours studying sociology, she can read 250 pages, so figure 4

that is the horizontal intercept. the time costs are constant, so the production possibilities frontier is a straight line.

figure 2

b. it takes maria two hours to read 100 pages of sociology. in that time, she could read 40 pages of economics. so the opportunity cost of 100 pages of sociology is 40 pages of economics.

3. a.

b. see figure 3. with 100 million workers and four cars per worker, if either economy were devoted completely to cars, it could make 400 million cars. since a u.s. worker can produce 10 tons of grain, if the united states produced only grain it would produce 1,000 million tons. since a japanese worker can produce 5 tons of grain, if japan produced only grain it would produce 500 million tons. these are the intercepts of the production possibilities frontiers shown in the figure. note that since the tradeoff between cars and grain is constant, the production possibilities frontier is a straight line.

【篇二:微观经济学原理(第七版) 曼昆名词解释(带英

文)】

=txt>稀缺性(scarcity):社会资源的有限性。

经济学(economics):研究社会如何管理自己的稀缺资源。

效率(efficiency):社会能从其稀缺资源中得到最多东西的特性。平等(equality):经济成果在社会成员中公平分配的特性。

机会成本(opportunity cost):为了得到某种东西所必须放弃的东西。

理性人(rational people):系统而有目的地尽最大努力实现起目标的人。

边际变动(marginal change):对行动计划微小的增量调整。

激励(incentive):引起一个人做出某种行为的某种东西。

市场经济(market economy):当许多企业和家庭在物品与劳务市场上相互交易时,通过他们的分散决策配置资源的经济。

产权(property rights):个人拥有并控制稀缺资源的能力。

市场失灵(market failure):市场本身不能有效配置资源的情况。外部性(externality):一个人的行为对旁观者福利的影响。

市场势力(market power):一个经济活动者(或经济活动者的一个小集团)对市场价格有显著影响的能力。

生产率(productivity):一个工人一小时所生产的物品与劳务量。

通货膨胀(inflation):经济中物价总水平的上升。

经济周期(business cycle):就业和生产等经济活动的波动(就是生产这类经济活动的波动。)

循环流向图(circular-flow diagram):一个说明货币如何通过市场在家庭与企业之间流动的直观经济模型。

生产可能性边界(production possibilities frontier):表示一个经济在可得到的生产要素与生产技术既定时所能生产的产量的各种组合的图形。

微观经济学(microeconomics):研究家庭和企业如何做出决策,以及它们在市场上的相互交易。

宏观经济学(macroeconomics):研究整体经济现象,包括通货膨胀、失业和经济增长。

实证表述(positive statements):企图描述世界是什么的观点。

规范描述(normative statements):企图描述世界应该如何运行的观点。

绝对优势(absolute advantage):根据生产率比较一种物品的生产者。

比较优势(comparative advantage ):根据机会成本比较一种物品

的生产者。

进口品(imports):国外生产而在国内销售的物品。

出口品(exports):国内生产而在国外销售的物品。

市场(market):由某种物品或劳务的买者与卖者组成的一个群体。

竞争市场(competitive market ):有许多买者与卖者,以致于每个

人对市场价格的影响都微乎其微的市场。

需求量(quantity demanded):买者愿意而且能够购买的一种物品量。

需求定理(law of demand):认为在其他条件相同时,一种物品价

格上升,该物品需求量减少的观点。

需求表(demand schedule):表示一种物品价格与需求量之间关系

的表格。

需求曲线(demand curve):一种物品价格与需求量之间关系的图形。

正常物品(normal good):在其他条件相同时,收入增加引起需求

量增加的物品。

低档物品(inferior good):在其他条件相同时,收入增加引起需求

量减少的物品。

替代品(substitutes):一种物品价格上升引起另一种物品需求增加

的两种物品。

互补品(complements):一种物品价格上升引起另一种物品需求减

少的两种物品。

供给量(quantity supplied):卖者愿意而且能够出售的一种物品量。供给定理(law of supply):认为在其他条件相同时,一种物品价格

上升,该物品供给量增加的观点。

供给表(supply schedule):表示一种物品价格与供给量之间关系

的表格。

供给曲线(supply curve):一种物品价格与供给量之间关系的图形。均衡(equilibrium):供给与需求达到了平衡的状态。

均衡价格(equilibrium price):使供给与需求平衡的价格。

均衡数量(equilibrium quantity):当价格调整到使供给与需求平衡

时的供给量与需求量。

过剩(surplus):供给量大于需求量时的状态。

短缺(shortage):需求量大于供给量时的状态。

供求定理(law of supply and demand):认为任何一种物品的调整

都会使该物品供求平衡的观点。

弹性(elasticity):需求量或供给量对其决定因素中某一种的反应程

度的衡量。

需求价格弹性(price elasticity of demand):一种物品需求量对其

价格变动反应程度的衡量,用需求量变动的百分比

除以价格变动的百分比来计算。

总收益(total revenue):一种物品买者支付的量和卖者得到的量,

用该物品的价格乘以销售量来计算。

需求收入弹性(income elasticity of demand):一种物品需求量对

消费者收入变动反应程度的衡量,用需求量变动百分比除以收入变

动百分比来计算。

需求的交叉价格弹性(cross-price elasticity of demand):衡量一

种物品需求量对另一种物品价格变动的反应程度,用第一种物品需

求量变动百分比除以第二种物品价格变动百分比来计算。

供给价格弹性(price elasticity of supply):一种物品供给量对其价格变动反应程度的衡量,用供给量变动百分比除以价格变动百分比

来计算。

价格上限(price ceiling):可以出售一种物品的法定最高价格。

价格下限(price floor):可以出售一种物品的法定最低价格。

税收归宿(tax incidence):关于由谁来承担税收负担的研究。

福利经济学(welfare economists):研究资源配置如何影响经济福利。

支付意愿(willingness to pay):买者愿意为某种物品支付的最高量。消费者剩余(consumer surplus):买者的支付意愿减买者的实际支付量。

成本(cost):卖者为了生产一种物品必须放弃的每种东西的价值。

生产者剩余(producer surplus):卖者出售一种物品得到的量减卖

者的成本。

效率(efficiency):资源配置使社会所有成员得到的总剩余最大化的

性质。

平等(equality):福利在社会成员中分配的公平性。

无谓损失(deadweight loss):税收引起的总剩余减少。

世界价格(world price):一种物品在世界市场上所流行的价格。

关税(tariff):对在国外生产而在国内销售的物品征收的税。

外部性(externality):一个人的行为对旁观者福利的影响。

外部性的内在化(internalizing the externality ):改变激励,以使人们考虑到自己行为的外部效应。

科斯定理(coase theorem):一种观点,认为如果私人各方可以无成本地就资源配置进行协商,那么,他们就可以解决外部性问题。交易成本(transaction cost):各方在协议与遵守协议过程中所发生的成本。

庇古税(pigovian taxes):用于纠正负外部性影响的税收。

排他性(excludability):可以阻止一个人使用一种物品时该物品的特性。

竞争性(rivalry):一个人使用一种物品减少其他人使用时该物品的特性。

私人物品(private goods):既有排他性又有竞争性的物品。

公共物品(public goods):既无排他性又无竞争性的物品。

公有资源(common resources):有竞争性但无排他性的物品。

搭便车者(free rider):得到一种物品的利益但避开为此支付的人。成本—收益分析(coast-benefits analysis):比较提供一种公共物品的社会成本与利益的研究。

公地悲剧(tragedy of the commons):一个寓言,说明从整个社会的角度看为什么公有资源的使用大于合意的水平。

预算盈余(budget surplus):政府收入大于政府支出。

预算赤字(budget deficit):政府支出大于政府收入。

平均税率(average tax rate):总收入除以支付的总税收。

边际税率(marginal tax rate):增加1美元收入支出的额外税收。定额税(lump-sum tax):每个人等量的税收。

受益原则(benefits principle):认为应该根据人们从政府服务中得到的利益来纳税的思想。

支付能力原则原则(ability-to-pay principle):认为应该根据一个人可以承受的负担来对这个人征税的思想。

纵向平等(vertical equity):主张支付能力高的纳税人应该交纳更多税的思想。

横向平等(horizontal equality):主张有相似支付能力的纳税人应该交纳等量税收的思想。

比例税(proportional tax):高收入纳税人和低收入纳税人交纳收入中相同比例的税收。

累退税(regressive tax):高收入纳税人交纳的税收在收入中的比例低于低收入纳税人的税收。

累进税(progressive tax):高收入纳税人交纳的税收在收入中的比

例高于低收入纳税人的税收。

总收益(total revenue):企业出售其产量所得到的量。

总成本(total cost):企业购买生产投入所支付的量。

利润(profit):总收益减总成本。

显性成本(explicit costs):要求企业支出货币的投入成本。

隐性成本(implicit costs):不要求企业支出货币的投入成本。

经济利润(economic profit):总收益减总成本,包括与隐性成本。

会计利润(accounting profit):总收入减显性成本。

生产函数(production function):用于生产一种物品的投入量与该

物品产量之间的关系。

边际产量(marginal product):增加的一单位投入所引起的产量增加。

边际产量递减(diminishing marginal product):一种投入的边际

产量随着投入量增加而减少的特征。

固定成本(fixed costs):不随着产量变动而变动的成本。

可变成本(variable costs):随着产量变动而变动的成本。

平均总成本(average total cost):总成本除以产量。

平均固定成本(average fixed costs):固定成本除以产量。

平均可变成本(average variable costs):可变成本除以产量。

边际成本(efficient scale):额外一单位产量所引起的总成本的增加。有效规模(efficient scale):使平均总成本最小的产量。

规模经济(economics of scale):长期平均总成本随产量增加而减

少的特性。

规模不经济(diseconomies of scale):长期平均总成本随产量增加而增加的特性。

规模收益不变(constant returns to scale):长期平均总成本随产

量增加而保持不变的特性。

竞争市场(competitive market):有许多交易相同产品的买者与卖者,以至于每一个买者和卖者都是价格接受者的市场。

平均收益(average revenue):总收益除以销售量。

边际收益(marginal revenue):增加一单位销售量引起的总收益变动。

沉没成本(sunk cost):已经发生而且无法收回的成本。

垄断企业(monopoly):一种没有相近替代品的产品的惟一卖者的

企业。

自然垄断(natural monopoly):由于一个企业能以低于两个或更多

企业的成本向整个市场供给一种物品或劳务而产生的垄断。

价格歧视(price discrimination):以不同价格向不同顾客出售同一

种物品的经营做法。

寡头(oligopoly):只有少数几个卖者提供相似或相同产品的的市场

结构。

【篇三:微观经济学练习题答案(曼昆)】

txt>第一单元:经济学概述、供求与局部均衡练习题

一、单选题

1.说“资源是稀缺的”是指b

a世界上大多数人生活在贫困中 b.相对于资源的需求而言,资源总

是不足的

c.资源必须保留给下一代

d.世界上资源最终将由于生产更多的物品

和劳务而消耗光

2.经济物品是指d

a.有用的物品

b.稀缺的物品

c.要用钱购买的物品

d.有用且稀缺的

物品

3.经济学可定义为c

a.政府对市场制度的干预

b.企业取得利润的活动

c.研究如何最合理地配置稀缺资源于诸多用途

d.人们靠收入生活

4.从经济学的观点看,资源配置问题说明的是c

a.人们的需要是多方面的且是无止境的

b.资源的供给是有限的

c.一种资源有许多可供选择的用途,但有一种利用效果最佳

d.以上

说法都对

5.下列命题中那一个不是实证经济学命题 c

a.昨日中国人民银行宣布把存款基准利率降低0.25%

b.2011年失业

率超过8%

c.个人所得税对中等收入家庭是不公平的

d.个人所得税的起征点提

高了

6.某人有10万元资金,可供选择的用途及各种用途能获得的收入是:开饭店获利3万元,

炒股票获利3.5万元,进行期货投机获利4万元。该人选择期货投机的机会成本为a

a.13.5万元

b.20.5万元

c.14万元

d.13万元

7.保持所有其他因素不变,某种商品的价格下降,将导致c

a.需求增加

b.需求减少

c.需求量增加

d.需求量减少

8.在某种物品价格上升的百分比既定时,引起需求量减少最大的情况是c

a.价格上升后时间长

b.这种物品的支出在收入中占的比例大

c.很容易得到替代品

d.以上全对

9.如果某种物品小幅度降价会引起需求量大幅度变动,那么,该物品b

a.需求缺乏弹性

b.需求富有弹性

c.需求单位弹性

d.需求价格弹性接近于零

10.一条垂直的需求曲线所表示的是d

a.单位弹性

b.无限弹性

c.富有弹性

d.需求的价格弹性为零

11.下面哪一种物品的需求价格弹性最大b

a.大米

b.点心

c.蔬菜

d.三种物品相同

12.假定某商品的价格从9元下降到8元,需求量从50增加到60,需求为b

a.缺乏弹性

b.富有弹性

c.单位弹性

d.不能确定

13.某商品的价格从5元下降到4元,需求量增加了100,需求为d

a.缺乏弹性

b.富有弹性

c.单位弹性

d.不能确定

14.下列哪种情况使总收益下降b

a.价格上升,需求缺乏弹性

b.价格上升,需求富有弹性

c.价格下降,需求富有弹性

d.价格上升,供给富有弹性

15.已知某两种商品的交叉弹性等于1.8,则这两种商品是b

a.无关品

b.替代品

c.互补品

d.完全补充品

16.在现行价格不变时,如果收入增加的百分比较大而需求量减少的百分比较小,那么d

a.需求必定富有价格弹性

b.需求必定缺乏价格弹性

c.所涉及的是正常物品

d.所涉及的是低档物品

17.收入增加10%引起现行价格下需求量减少5%,收入弹性是b

a.0.5

b.-0.5

c.2.0

d.-2.0

18.小李的月收入从950元增加到1050元,结果他决定每月看电影的次数增加一倍,小李对电影的需求c

a.富有价格弹性

b.缺乏价格弹性

c.富有收入弹性

d.缺乏收入弹性

19.如果沙特王国认为石油输出国组织石油供给量增加会增加石油销售总收益,那么,沙特人就一定相信石油的需求c

a.收入缺乏弹性

b.收入富有弹性

c.价格富有弹性

d.价格缺乏弹性

20.如果a物品与b物品是替代品,那么c

a.a与b之间需求的交叉弹性是零

b. a与b之间需求的交叉弹性是负值

c.a与b之间需求的交叉弹性是正值

d.它们的需求收入弹性都是负值

21.假定汉堡包与炸薯条之间的需求交叉弹性为负值,那么b

a.汉堡包价格上升将引起炸薯条的均衡价格上升

b.汉堡包价格上升将引起炸薯条的均衡价格下降

c.汉堡包价格上升对炸薯条的均衡价格没有影响

d.它们是替代品

22.长期供给弹性d

a.比即时供给富有弹性,但比短期供给缺乏弹性

b.比即时供给与短期供给都缺乏弹性

c.比即时供给缺乏弹性,但比短期供给富有弹性

d.比即时供给与短期供给都富有弹性

23.某消费者的收入下降,而他对某商品的需求却增加,该商品为a

a.低档商品

b.替代商品

c.互补商品

d.一般商品

24.若某产品的供给弹性无穷大,当该产品的需求增加时,则c

a均衡价格和均衡产量同时增加 b.均衡价格和均衡产量同时减少

c.均衡产量增加但价格不变

d.均衡价格上升但产量不变

25.垂直的供给曲线表示b

a.在一固定的价格无限制地提供某种产品

b.价格的变化对供给量没有影响

c.价格与供给量成反方向变化

d.该行业被垄断

26.斜直线型需求曲线的弹性为c

a.曲线上各点的弹性都相同

b.在高的价格段缺乏弹性,在低的价格段富有弹性

c.在高的价格段富有弹性,在低的价格段缺乏弹性

d.在某些点上为单位弹性

27.某商品价格下降导致其互补品的b

a.需求曲线向左移动

b.需求曲线向右移动

c.供给曲线向右移动

d.价格上升

28.某商品的需求曲线向下倾斜,如果该商品的价格从3元下降到

2.75元,则d

a.该商品需求下降

b.该商品需求上升

c.该商品需求量下降

d.该商品需求量上升

29.下列不会引起牛排需求发生变化的情况为a

a.牛排价格从每斤20元上升到每斤22元

b.牛的饲养者宣传牛排中富含维生素

c.医生说多吃牛肉有损健康

d.汉堡包价格从每个12元下降到10元

30.如果甲产品价格下降引起乙产品需求曲线向右移动,那么b

a.甲和乙是互替商品

b.甲和乙是互补商品

c.甲为低档商品,乙为高档商品

d.甲为高档商品,乙为低档商品

31.商品需求量随着价格的下降而上升,这是因为c

a.价格下降导致供给下降

b.价格下降使需求曲线右移

c.人们实际收入的提高增加了对商品的消费

d.为获得均衡,价格下降后需求必须增加

32.收入和偏好是b

a.影响供给的因素

b.影响需求的因素

c.在经济分析中可以忽略

d.上述都不正确

33.随着奶油均衡价格的下降a

a.人造奶油的需求曲线向左下移动

b.人造奶油的需求曲线向右上移动

c.人造奶油的供给曲线向左下移动

d.人造奶油的供给曲线向右上移动

34.若小麦的需求曲线向右上移动,那将d

a.导致小麦价格的下降

b.不会改变小麦的产量

c.导致小麦供给的增加而减少其它商品的供给

d.导致玉米的供给量增加

35.斜直线型需求曲线的斜率不变,因此其价格弹性也不变。该说法a

a.不正确

b.正确

c.有时正确有时不正确

d.无法断定

36.需求量大于供给量时的价格b

a.在均衡价格之上

b.在均衡价格之下

c.将导致需求曲线移动

d.是不可能出现的

37.下面哪种情况不正确d

a.如果供给下降,需求不变,均衡价格将上升

b.如果供给增加,需求下降,均衡价格将下降

c.如果需求增加,供给下降,均衡价格将上升

d.如果需求下降,供给增加,均衡价格将上升

38.假定羊肉供给不变,猪肉供给减少,这将导致a

a.羊肉的需求曲线右移

b.猪肉的需求曲线右移

c.猪肉的需求曲线左移

d.羊肉降价

39.假定某商品的逆需求函数为p=100-4q,逆供给函数为p=40+2q,则均衡价格和均衡产量为a

a.p=60,q=10

b.p=10,q=6

c.p=40,q=6

d.p=20,q=20

40.非均衡价格是指b

a.在此价格上需求量和供给量相一致

b.在此价格上需求量和供给量

不一致

c.实际中不存在,除非供给商可控制价格

d.上述都不正确

41.下列哪种情况不可能引起玉米的需求曲线移动b

a.消费者收入增加

b.玉米价格上升

c.大豆供给量锐减

d.大豆价格

上升

42.市场需求曲线通常是指d

a.市场上所有最大购买者需求曲线之和

b.政府对某种商品的需求

c.与横轴平行的曲线

d.市场上所有个人需求曲线之和

43.良好的生长环境会 d

a.降低小麦互补品的价格

b.使小麦的供给曲线移到一个较高点

c.使对小麦的需求增加,从而提高小麦的价格

d.使小麦的供给曲线

向右下移动

44.如果某商品的市场供给曲线为一通过原点的直线,那么该商品供

给的价格弹性d

a.不可确定

b.随价格变化而变化

c.等于斜率值

d.总是为1

45.若供给曲线弹性大于需求曲线弹性,政府向厂商征收消费税,则

c

a.厂商承担全部税收

b.消费者承担全部税收

c.厂商承担的税收份额小

d.消费者承担的税收份额小

二、判断题

t1.如果某种商品替代品的价格上涨,将导致该商品的需求曲线向右

移动。

f2.如果某一时期消费者对空调的需求量沿需求曲线突然增加,其原

因可能是预期空调价格上涨。

t3.某商品的逆需求函数为p=10-3q,则p=1时的需求弹性为1/9。

f4.已知某商品的收入弹性小于零,则这种商品是一般的正常商品。

t5.一般来说,需求弹性小于供给弹性的商品,销售税主要由消费者

承担。

f6.所有的劣等品都是吉芬品。

t7.经济学中的均衡是指参与经济活动的主体势均力敌,使经济处于一

种相对稳定的状态,任何经济主体都没有积极性去企图改变这种状态.。 f8.假定有一位消费者只消费两种商品x和y,如果z的价格上涨,

其它商品价格不变,商品z的需求弹性为0.7,他消费y的数量将增加。

f9.政府颁布最低工资法有助于改善低收入者整体的境况。

t10.需求的价格弹性说明了需求量对价格变动反应的灵敏程度。

f11.水平的需求曲线是完全无弹性的。

t12.如果需求富有弹性,则供给增加,收益(支出)增加。

t13.盐的需求弹性小于电视机。

f14.在汽油价格上升之后,随着时间流逝,汽油的需求会越来越缺

乏弹性。

t15.如果某种物品价格从7元上升为9元,需求量从8500单位减少

为7500单位,则需求弹性为0.5,属于需求缺乏弹性。

t16.如果汽车价格下降10%,汽车的需求量增加了10%,则需求为

单位弹性。

f17.某种物品越是易于被替代,其需求也就越缺乏弹性。

t18.如果某种物品降价之后总收益减少,则这种物品的需求是缺乏

弹性的。

t19.如果一个人对百事可乐和可口可乐的偏爱程度相同,那么这两

种物品的需求就是富有弹性的。

t20.如果人们对牙膏的支出在总收入中只占一个微不足道的比例,

那么牙膏的需求就是缺乏弹性的。

t21.需求的收入弹性是需求量变动百分比除以收入变动百分比。

f22.如果卷心菜需求的收入弹性为正值,那么,卷心菜就是低档物品。

t23.一种物品价格变动对另一种物品需求量的影响要用需求的交叉

弹性来衡量。

f24.馒头与米饭之间的需求交叉弹性为负值。

f25.如果a物品价格上升10%引起b物品需求量增加6%,那么a

物品与b物品必定是互补的。 t26.如果a物品与b物品是替代的,

那么,a物品需求增加将引起b物品均衡价格上升。 f27.供给弹性衡量物品供给量变动对收入变动的反应。

f28.如果某种物品价格下降3%引起供给量减少9%,那么,供给曲

线就是富有弹性的。 t29.如果供给弹性较大,那么需求增加对交易

量的影响也会较大。

f30.长期供给一般比短期供给更缺乏弹性。

t31.土豆的即时供给曲线是完全无弹性的。

t32.垂直的供给曲线表明供给弹性为零。

t33.如果某物品价格从9元上升为11元,使供给量从19500单位增加到20500单位,那么供给弹性为0.25。

f34.如果供给减少引起收益减少,那么,需求就一定是缺乏弹性的。 f35.假定a物品的需求曲线是一条直线,那么,价格越高,需求也

就越富有弹性。

t36.如果a物品价格上升10 %引起b物品需求量增加6%,那么a

与b之间的交叉弹性为0.6。 f37.如果收入增加12%使某种物品需

求量增加9%,那么,该物品需求的收入弹性为1.33。 t38.如果某种物品降价而总收益不变,那么,这种物品的需求为单位弹性。

f39.如果某种物品价格上升9%引起需求量减少5%,那么,总收益

就会减少。

t40.如果对小麦的需求缺乏弹性,粮食丰收将减少农民的收入。

t41.一般来说生活必需品的需求弹性比奢侈品的需求弹性要小。

f42.如果价格和总收益呈同方向变化,则需求是富有弹性的。

t43.某商品价格下降没有引起销售量的增加,这是因为在这个价格

段需求完全无弹性。 f44.完全有弹性是指价格的变化对总收益没有

影响。

f45.当需求富有弹性时,降低价格可以增加利润。

f46.需求的收入弹性是表示收入的变化对某种商品需求产生的影响。 f47.随着需求曲线的移动,均衡价格上升10%,均衡产量上升10%,此时需求为单位弹性。 t48.需求曲线为直线时,在单位弹性点上总

收益为最大。

t49.即使需求曲线上每点的斜率不同,每点的弹性也可能是一样的。 t50.供给曲线右移表示生产者在每一种价格上提供更多的产品。