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Erikson

Erik Erikson (15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the

phrase identity crisis.认同危机His son, Kai T. Erikson, is a noted

American sociologist. Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor's degree学士学位, he served as a professor of prominent突出的institutions such as Harvard and Yale.

The development of identity seems to have been one of Erikson's greatest concerns in his own life as well as in his theory. During his childhood and early adulthood he was known as Erik Homberger, and his parents kept the details of his birth a secret. He was a tall, blond, blue-eyed boy who was raised in the Jewish religion. At temple school, the kids teased him for being a Nordic; at grammar school, they teased him for being Jewish.

Erikson was a student and teacher of arts. While teaching at a private school in Vienna, he became acquainted with Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud. Erikson underwent psychoanalysis, and the experience made him decide to become an analyst himself. He was trained in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and also studied the Montessori method of education, which focused on child development.[7]

Main article: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

Erikson was a Neo-Freudian. He has been described as an "ego psychologist" studying the stages of development, spanning the entire lifespan. Each of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development are marked by a conflict, for which successful resolution will result in a favourable outcome, for example, trust vs. mistrust, and by an important event that this conflict resolves itself around, for example, the meaning of one's life.

Favorable outcomes of each stage are sometimes known as "virtues", a term used, in the context of Eriksonian work, as it is applied to medicines, meaning "potencies." Erikson's research suggests that each individual must learn how to hold both extremes of each specific life-stage challenge in tension with one another, not rejecting one end of the tension or the other. Only when both extremes in a life-stage challenge are understood and accepted as both required and useful, can the optimal virtue for that stage surface. Thus, 'trust' and

'mis-trust' must both be understood and accepted, in order for realistic 'hope' to emerge as a viable solution at the first stage. Similarly, 'integrity' and

'despair' must both be understood and embraced, in order for actionable

'wisdom' to emerge as a viable solution at the last stage.

The Erikson life-stage virtues, in the order of the stages in which they may be acquired, are:

1.Hope - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust - Infant stage / 0-1 year. Does the child

believe its caregivers to be reliable?

2.Will - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Toddler stage / 1–3 years. Child

needs to learn to explore the world. Bad if the parent is too smothering or completely neglectful.

3.Purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt - Preschool / 3–6 years - Does the child have

the ability to or do things on their own, such as dress him or herself? If

"guilty" about making his or her own choices, the child will not function

well. Erikson has a positive outlook on this stage, saying that most guilt is quickly compensated by a sense of accomplishment.

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/cc063a6958fafab069dc021a.htmlpetence - Industry vs. Inferiority - School-age / 6-11. Child comparing

self worth to others (such as in a classroom environment). Child can

recognize major disparities in personal abilities relative to other children.

Erikson places some emphasis on the teacher, who should ensure that

children do not feel inferior.

5.Fidelity - Identity vs. Role Confusion - Adolescent / 12 years till 20.

Questioning of self. Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life?

Erikson believes that if the parents allow the child to explore, they will

conclude their own identity. However, if the parents continually push

him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion.

6.Intimacy vs. isolation - This is the first stage of adult development. This

development usually happens during young adulthood, which is between the ages of 20 to 24. Dating, marriage, family and friendships are important

during the stage in their life. By successfully forming loving relationships with other people, individuals are able to experience love and intimacy.

Those who fail to form lasting relationships may feel isolated and alone.

7.Generativity vs. stagnation is the second stage of adulthood and happens

between the ages of 25-64. During this time, people are normally settled in their life and know what is important to them. A person is either making progress in their career or treading lightly in their career and unsure

about if this is what they want to do for the rest of their working lives.

Also during this time, a person is enjoying raising their children and

participating in activities that gives them a sense on purpose. If a person is not comfortable with the way their life is progressing, they're usually

regretful about the decisions and feel a sense of uselessness.

8.Ego integrity vs. despair. This stage affects the age group of 65 and on.

During this time you have reached the last chapter in your life and

retirement is approaching or has already taken place. Many people who

have achieved what was important to them look back on their lives and

feel great accomplishment and a sense of integrity. Conversely, those who had a difficult time during middle adulthood may look back and feel a

sense of despair.

On ego identity versus Role Confusion, ego identity enables each person to have a sense of individuality, or as Erikson would say, "Ego identity, then, in its subjective aspect, is the awareness of the fact that there is a self-sameness and continuity to the ego's synthesizing methods and a continuity of one's meaning for others" (1963). Role Confusion, however, is, according to Barbara Engler in her book Personality Theories(2006), "The inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member of one's own society" (158)[citation needed]. This inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member is a great danger; can occur during adolescence when looking for an occupation.

Major works

?Childhood and Society (1950)

?Young Man Luther. A Study in Psychoanalysis and History (1958)

?Identity: Youth and Crisis (1968)

?Gandhi's Truth: On the Origin of Militant Nonviolence (1969)

?Adulthood (edited book, 1978)

?Vital Involvement in Old Age (with J.M. Erikson and H. Kivnick, 1986)

?The Life Cycle Completed (with J.M. Erikson, 1987)